Mount Sinabung

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Mount Sinabung
Gunung Sinabung
Gunung berapi sinabung.jpg
Sinabung in 2013
Elevation2,460 m (8,071 ft)[1]
ListingRibu
Location
Mount Sinabung is located in Sumatra
Mount Sinabung
Sumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392Coordinates: 3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392
Geology
TypeStratovolcano
Age of rockPleistocene
Volcanic arc/beltSunda Arc
Last eruption2014 (ongoing)
 
  (Redirected from Sinabung)
Jump to: navigation, search
Mount Sinabung
Gunung Sinabung
Gunung berapi sinabung.jpg
Sinabung in 2013
Elevation2,460 m (8,071 ft)[1]
ListingRibu
Location
Mount Sinabung is located in Sumatra
Mount Sinabung
Sumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392Coordinates: 3°10′12″N 98°23′31″E / 3.17°N 98.392°E / 3.17; 98.392
Geology
TypeStratovolcano
Age of rockPleistocene
Volcanic arc/beltSunda Arc
Last eruption2014 (ongoing)

Mount Sinabung (Indonesian: Gunung Sinabung) is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano of andesite and dacite in the Karo plateau of Karo Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia, 25 miles from Lake Toba supervolcano. Many old lava flows are on its flanks and the last known eruption, before recent times, occurred in the year 1600.[citation needed] Solfataric activities (cracks where steam, gas, and lava are emitted) were last observed at the summit in 1912, other documented events include an eruption in the early hours of 29 August 2010 and eruptions in September and November 2013 and January 2014.[1][2]

Geology[edit]

Most of Indonesian volcanism stems from the Sunda Arc, created by the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate under the Eurasian Plate. This arc is bounded on the north-northwest by the Andaman Islands, a chain of basaltic volcanoes, and on the East by the Banda Arc, also created by subduction.[3]

Sinabung is an andesitic-dacitic stratovolcano with a total of four volcanic craters, only one being active.[1]

Eruptions[edit]

August 2010[edit]

On 29 August 2010 (local time), the volcano experienced a minor eruption after several days of rumbling.[4] Ash spewed into the atmosphere up to 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) high and lava was seen overflowing the crater.[4] The volcano had been inactive for over four centuries, with the most recent eruption occurring in 1600.[4] On August 31 6,000 of the 30,000 villagers who had been evacuated returned to their homes.[5][6] The volcano was assigned to category “B” In Indonesia, as it was inactive for more than 400 years (volcanoes in category “A”, must be monitored frequently).[7][8] The Indonesian Red Cross Society and the Health Ministry of Indonesia sent doctors and medicines to the region.[6] The National Disaster Management Agency provided face masks and food to assist the evacuees.[6]

September 2010[edit]

On Friday 3 September, two more eruptions were noted. The first happened at 04:45 am in the morning, forcing more villagers to leave their houses - some of them had just returned the day before. This eruption was the most intense so far, with ash spewed up into the atmosphere about 3.0 kilometres (1.9 mi) high. Some hours before the eruption a warning had been issued through the volcanology agency, and most villagers were prepared to leave quickly.[9] A second eruption occurred the same evening, around 6 pm. The eruption came with earthquakes which could be noticed in a 25.0 kilometres (15.5 mi) distance around the volcano[10]

Mount Sinabung, 13 September 2010

On Tuesday 7 September, Mount Sinabung erupted yet again, its biggest eruption since it became active on August 29, 2010 and experts warned of more blasts to come. Indonesia's chief vulcanologist, Surono, said "It was the biggest eruption yet and the sound was heard from 8 kilometres away. The smoke was 5,000 metres in the air". Heavy rain mixed with the ash to form muddy precipitation that is lying a centimetre thick on buildings and trees. Electricity in one village was cut off, but there were no casualties.[11]

Government response[edit]

Mount Sinabung, March 20, 2010.
Mount Sinabung, April 23, 2013.

The Indonesian government was reported to have evacuated around 17,500 people from the region on and around the volcano.[12] The government issued the highest-level warning for the area, which was expected to remain in force for around a week, since scientists were unfamiliar with the characteristics of the volcano, due to it having been dormant for so long.[12] The government also set up kitchens for refugees to have access to food and handed out 7,000 masks.[13] Over 10,000 people have been internally evacuated after the eruption, Secretary of the provincial administration, Edy Sofyan told Xinhua by phone. Spokesman of National Disaster Management Agency Priyadi Kardono said the eruption had not been predicted earlier like other volcanoes and that authorities must conduct a quick preparation for emergency work because Mount Sinabung’s seismic activity has been monitored intensively only since Friday after it showed an increase in activity.[14]

Effects[edit]

The towns nearest to the volcano are Kabanjahe and Berastagi. There were no disruptions reported to air services at the regional airport, Medan's Polonia.[15] One person was reported dead due to the eruption; he had respiratory problems while fleeing his home.[16]

September 2013[edit]

On Sunday 15 September 2013, the volcano erupted at around 3 a.m local time. More than 3,700 people were evacuated from areas within a three-kilometre (two-mile) radius of the volcano, and five halls normally used for traditional cultural ceremonies were converted into shelters with at least 1500 being temporarily housed.[17]

November 2013[edit]

The volcano erupted again on November 5, 2013, for the third time in as many months on the western Indonesian island of Sumatra, forcing hundreds of villagers to evacuate, officials said.

This volcano spewed a 7-km (4.3-mile) column of ash into the air, prompting authorities to impose a 3-km evacuation radius.

The military helped evacuate 1,293 people from four villages around the volcano, which is 88 km from the provincial capital, Medan. The number of evacuees was expected to rise.

No casualties were reported.

About 14,000 people were forced the evacuate when the volcano showed signs of activity in September. Sinabung is one of nearly 130 active volcanoes in the world's fourth-most populated country, which straddles the "Pacific Ring of Fire".

On November 11, 2013, a pyroclastic flow, a fast-moving avalanche of ash, lava fragments and air, was seen racing down the peak. Since then, the volcano has blasted out one to two ash explosions every day.[18]

January 2014[edit]

By December 28, 2013, a lava dome formed on the summit.

On January 4th 2014 the volcano erupted again. "Mount Sinabung, which has erupted over a hundred times between Jan. 4 through the morning of Jan. 5 is spewing out a 4,000-meter high column of ash damaging property and crops and poisoning animals over a wide radius."[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Sinabung". Global Volcanism Program, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.volcano.si.edu/world/volcano.cfm?vnum=0601-08%3D. Retrieved 2006-12-18.
  2. ^ "Mount Sinabung in Sumatra erupts". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  3. ^ "Volcanoes of Indonesia: Highlights". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  4. ^ a b c "Volcano quiet for 400 years erupts in Indonesia". Associated Press. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  5. ^ Bakkara, Binsar (August 31, 2010). "Villagers return to slopes of Indonesian volcano". The Associated Press. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  6. ^ a b c "Indonesia Volcano Calmer After Sudden Eruptions". Voice of America. August 31, 2010. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  7. ^ "Thousands evacuated in unexpected volcano eruption in Indonesia". Xinhua News. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  8. ^ CNN Wire Staff (August 29, 2010). "Long-dormant volcano erupts in Indonesia". CNN. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  9. ^ "More flee following strongest eruption yet at Mt. Sinabung". The Jakarta Post. September 4, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  10. ^ [1]
  11. ^ "Indonesia’s Mt. Sinabung Volcano Erupts for Fifth Time in Eight Days". The Epoch Times. September 8, 2010. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  12. ^ a b Arshad, Arlina (August 29, 2010). "Thousands flee as Indonesian volcano erupts". Yahoo! News. AFP. Archived from the original on 2010-08-31. Retrieved 29 August 2010. 
  13. ^ "Mount Sinabung Volcano Erupts in North Sumatra, Indonesia". The News of Today. August 29, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  14. ^ Indonesia’s Sinabung volcano August 29, 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
  15. ^ "Volcano erupts on Indonesia's Sumatra after 400 years". Reuters. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  16. ^ "One dies in Mount Sinabung eruption". The Jakarta Post. August 29, 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 
  17. ^ "Thousands flee as Mt. Sinabung erupts". The Jakarta Post. September 15, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  18. ^ Oskin, Becky (November 15, 2013). "Dangerous New Eruption at Sumatra's Sinabung Volcano". TechMediaNetwork company. Retrieved 2013-11-15. 
  19. ^ "Cloud of Destruction: Mount Sinabung Erupts". Bloomberg News. January 7, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 

External links[edit]