Siloam Springs, Arkansas

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Siloam Springs, Arkansas
City
Siloam Springs Arkansas Fountains.JPG
Location in Benton County and the state of Arkansas
Location in Benton County and the state of Arkansas
Coordinates: 36°11′0″N 94°32′22″W / 36.18333°N 94.53944°W / 36.18333; -94.53944Coordinates: 36°11′0″N 94°32′22″W / 36.18333°N 94.53944°W / 36.18333; -94.53944
CountryUnited States
StateArkansas
CountyBenton
IncorporatedDecember 22, 1881
Government
 • TypeCity Administrator
 • MayorJohn Turner
Area
 • Total11.2 sq mi (28.9 km2)
 • Land11.1 sq mi (28.7 km2)
 • Water0.08 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation1,132 ft (345 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total15,039
 • Density1,359/sq mi (524.7/km2)
Time zoneCentral (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code72761
Area code(s)479
FIPS code05-64370
GNIS feature ID0078364
Websitewww.siloamsprings.com
 
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Siloam Springs, Arkansas
City
Siloam Springs Arkansas Fountains.JPG
Location in Benton County and the state of Arkansas
Location in Benton County and the state of Arkansas
Coordinates: 36°11′0″N 94°32′22″W / 36.18333°N 94.53944°W / 36.18333; -94.53944Coordinates: 36°11′0″N 94°32′22″W / 36.18333°N 94.53944°W / 36.18333; -94.53944
CountryUnited States
StateArkansas
CountyBenton
IncorporatedDecember 22, 1881
Government
 • TypeCity Administrator
 • MayorJohn Turner
Area
 • Total11.2 sq mi (28.9 km2)
 • Land11.1 sq mi (28.7 km2)
 • Water0.08 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation1,132 ft (345 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total15,039
 • Density1,359/sq mi (524.7/km2)
Time zoneCentral (CST) (UTC-6)
 • Summer (DST)CDT (UTC-5)
ZIP code72761
Area code(s)479
FIPS code05-64370
GNIS feature ID0078364
Websitewww.siloamsprings.com

Siloam Springs is a city in Benton County, Arkansas, United States. The city shares a border on the Arkansas-Oklahoma state line with the city of West Siloam Springs, Oklahoma, which is within the Cherokee Nation territory. The town was founded in 1882 and was characterized by the purported healing powers of the spring water feeding Sager Creek and trading with nearby Native American tribes. John Brown University (JBU) was founded in 1919 as a private, interdenominational, Christian liberal arts college in the city. Today, Siloam Springs is known for its efforts to preserve and revitalize the city's historic downtown and as a promoter of the arts via Sager Creek Arts Center and the JBU art gallery. The community is located on the western edge of the growing Northwest Arkansas metropolitan area and has had a population increase of 47% to 15,039 between the 2000 and 2010 censuses.[1]

In 2012, the city was named one of the 20 best small towns in America by Smithsonian magazine[2]

Geography[edit]

The area is located in the region of the country where the southern plains meet the Ozark Mountains. The city sits atop a plateau with many dogwood trees growing across the landscape. Siloam Springs is made up of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, and West Siloam Springs, Oklahoma. The latter is in the territory of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma.

A perennial creek, named after the founder, Sager Creek, flows through the downtown area.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.2 square miles (28.9 km2), of which 11.1 square miles (28.7 km2) is land and 0.077 square miles (0.2 km2), or 0.71%, is water.[3]

History[edit]

Osage Indians were the known first inhabitants of the area. Siloam Springs' first white settlers were of German and Scots-Irish origin. Simon Sager is considered the founder of the town, then known as Hico.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
1890821
19001,748112.9%
19102,40537.6%
19202,5696.8%
19302,378−7.4%
19402,76416.2%
19503,27018.3%
19603,95320.9%
19706,00952.0%
19807,94032.1%
19908,1512.7%
200010,84333.0%
201015,03938.7%
Encyclopedia of Arkansas
History and Culture
[1]

As of the census[4] of 2010, there were 15,039 people in 5,138 households with 93.3% of the population in households. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 76% non-Hispanic white, 0.8% black, 4.6% Native American, 1.6% Asian, 0.2% non-Hispanic reporting some other race, 5.0% from two or more races and 20.8% Hispanic or Latino.[5]

At the 2000 census, there were 2,647 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,027.2 per square mile (396.4/km²). There were 4,223 housing units at an average density of 400.1 per square mile (154.4/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 85.22% White, 0.49% Black or African American, 4.29% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 5.67% from other races, and 3.42% from two or more races. 14.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 3,894 households out of which 34.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.8% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.0% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 16.8% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 17.1% from 45 to 64, and 12.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 95.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $34,513, and the median income for a family was $41,153. Males had a median income of $27,339 versus $21,451 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,047. About 9.5% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over.

As of 2009, there were 52 churches that called Siloam Springs home by address. There are reports that Siloam Springs has a record for most number churches per capita, and while the ratio is higher than average, it has never been verified through reliable documentation. (Despite the large number of churches, the town does contain a small atheist/non-religious community.) Major employers in Siloam Springs include Gates Corporation, La-Z-Boy, DaySpring (a subsidiary of Hallmark Cards), Allen Canning, Cobb-Vantress, and John Brown University.

Tourism[edit]

EventTime of yearAttendance (approx.)
Dogwood FestivalApril (last weekend)30,000
Siloam Springs RodeoJune10,000
Christmas ParadeDecember (first Saturday)6,500
City Fireworks PresentationJuly 46,000
Northwest Arkansas Marching Band InvitationalOctober2,500
JBU Candlelight Christmas ConcertsDecember3,000
JBU HomecomingOctober1,000
Siloam Springs Music Games (Marching Band Competition)July98,000
Sager Creek Arts CenterAll year10,000 per year

Government[edit]

Siloam Springs has a City Administrator form of government. The government body consists of the Mayor, Board of Directors and District Judge. All positions are chosen by election. The other officials and commissioners are appointed with Board approval.

Education[edit]

John Brown University Sign.jpg

In addition to John Brown University, public education is supported by the Siloam Springs School District consisting of:

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Siloam Springs traffic is primarily served by US 412 (US 412) for east-west travel, connecting the city to Tulsa, Oklahoma, to the west via the Cherokee Turnpike and to Bentonville, Fayetteville, and Springdale, Arkansas, to the east. US 59 runs south from West Siloam Springs to Stillwell and Sallisaw, Oklahoma, while Arkansas 59 runs north to Gravette and south to Van Buren and Fort Smith, Arkansas. Within the city, major routes include Cheri Whitlock Drive, Lincoln Street, Main Street, Mount Olive Street, and University Street.

Smith Field, located east of town, serves small business jets as well as double- and single-engine aircraft. It serves exclusively general aviation operations.

Utilities[edit]

Primary clarifier (foreground) and aeration basins (background) at Siloam Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant

The city's primary water source is the Illinois River, although some water is purchased from Benton - Washington Regional Public Water Authority, whose source is Beaver Lake.[6] The water is treated with chlorine, and the by-products of this chlorination process are kept compliant with the Arkansas Department of Health standards. Fluoride is added to supplement the naturally occurring amount present prior to treatment.

Wastewater is treated at the Siloam Springs Wastewater Treatment Plant (SSWWTP). Since effluent is discharged into a tributary of the Illinois, the plant's effluent is required to meet the treatment standards of both Arkansas and Oklahoma. The phosphorus load of the Illinois has been subject of controversy in the area, even reaching the United States Supreme Court in 1992. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has classified the Illinois as Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, listing it as an "impaired and threatened water" due to the high phosphorus loads.[7] As a result of the applicable strict phosphorus effluent regulations, SSWWTP upgraded its system in 2011. The upgrades also increased capacity 25% to 5.5 million gallons per day (MGD) (14,474 liters per hour).[8] Although presently a traditional biological nutrient removal (BNR) plant capable of meeting the interim phosphorus limit, pilot tests have proven a chemical nutrient removal (CNR) and membrane biological reactor combination to be effective well below the possible future permit limit. However, due to the high cost, these phases have been delayed. Currently, a 3-year study is being conducted to determine the background phosphorus level in the Illinois. The future effluent limits will likely be written following the conclusion of the study. An EPA Total maximum daily load (TMDL) study in the watershed is also ongoing.[9]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Climate[edit]

The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and generally mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Siloam Springs has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Warden, Don (March 1, 2012). "Siloam Springs (Benton County)". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. Butler Center for Arkansas Studies at the Central Arkansas Library System. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.smithsonianmag.com/travel/The-20-Best-Small-Towns-in-America.html?c=y&page=15&navigation=next#IMAGES
  3. ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Siloam Springs city, Arkansas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved September 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  5. ^ 2010 general profile of population and housing characteristics for Siloam Springs from the US census
  6. ^ "Annual Drinking Water Quality Report". Siloam Springs Water Department. 2012. 
  7. ^ "Illinois River Watershed". Environmental Protection Agency. May 22, 2013. Retrieved July 21, 2013. 
  8. ^ Hetzel, Jon (February 2007). "Arkansas wastewater treatment plant pilots path to fledgling technology". APWA. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Oklahoma Attorney General’s Office, Arkansas AG Sign Illinois River Agreement". State of Oklahoma Attorney General's Office. February 20, 2013. Retrieved December 10, 2013. 
  10. ^ Climate Summary for Siloam Springs, Arkansas

External links[edit]