Sidney Rigdon

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Sidney Rigdon
Rigdon.gif
President of the Church
Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion
April 6, 1845 (1845-04-06) – 1847
PredecessorJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorWilliam Bickerton
(Reorganized church in 1862)
ReasonInitial organization of First Presidency
First Counselor in the First Presidency
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27)
Called byJoseph Smith, Jr.
PredecessorJesse Gause
End reasonDissolution of First Presidency upon the death of Joseph Smith, Jr.
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
Church of Christ
March 8, 1832 (1832-03-08) – March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18)
Called byJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorFrederick G. Williams
End reasonCalled as First Counselor in First Presidency
Personal details
Born(1793-02-19)February 19, 1793
St. Clair Township, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedJuly 14, 1876(1876-07-14) (aged 83)
Friendship, New York, United States
Resting placeMaple Grove Cemetery
42°13′03″N 78°07′07″W / 42.2175°N 78.1186°W / 42.2175; -78.1186 (Maple Grove Cemetery)
SpousePhoebe Brooks
Children11
 
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Sidney Rigdon
Rigdon.gif
President of the Church
Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion
April 6, 1845 (1845-04-06) – 1847
PredecessorJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorWilliam Bickerton
(Reorganized church in 1862)
ReasonInitial organization of First Presidency
First Counselor in the First Presidency
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints
March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27)
Called byJoseph Smith, Jr.
PredecessorJesse Gause
End reasonDissolution of First Presidency upon the death of Joseph Smith, Jr.
Second Counselor in the First Presidency
Church of Christ
March 8, 1832 (1832-03-08) – March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18)
Called byJoseph Smith, Jr.
SuccessorFrederick G. Williams
End reasonCalled as First Counselor in First Presidency
Personal details
Born(1793-02-19)February 19, 1793
St. Clair Township, Pennsylvania, United States
DiedJuly 14, 1876(1876-07-14) (aged 83)
Friendship, New York, United States
Resting placeMaple Grove Cemetery
42°13′03″N 78°07′07″W / 42.2175°N 78.1186°W / 42.2175; -78.1186 (Maple Grove Cemetery)
SpousePhoebe Brooks
Children11

Sidney Rigdon (February 19, 1793 – July 14, 1876) was a leader during the early history of the Latter Day Saint movement.

Biography[edit]

Rigdon was born in St. Clair Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, about 10 miles south of Pittsburgh. (The area today is known as Library.) He was the youngest of four children of William and Nancy Rigdon. Rigdon's father was a farmer and a native of Harford County, Maryland.

Early life[edit]

Sidney's father William Rigdon died in 1810.

According to a 1875 account attributed to Sidney's elder brother, as a child Sidney had suffered an accident that caused a "contusion of the brain". His brother reportedly claimed that he "always considered Sidney a little deranged in his mind by that accident. His mental powers did not seem to be impaired, but the equilibrium in his intellectual exertions seemed thereby to have been sadly affected. He still manifested great mental activity and power, but he was to an equal degree inclined to run into wild and visionary views on almost every question."[1][2] This account was not published until more than 60 years after the accident and may have been an attempt to distance the Rigdon family from Sidney.

According to an account by his son John M. Rigdon, young Sidney "borrowed all the histories he could get and began to read them. [...] In this way he became a great historian, the best I ever saw. He seemed to have the history of the world on his tongue's end and he got to be a great biblical scholar as well. He was as familiar with the Bible as a child was with his spelling book. He was never known to play with the boys; reading books was the greatest pleasure he could get. He studied English Grammar alone and became a very fine grammarian. He was very precise in his language."[3]

Sidney remained on the farm until his mother sold the farm in 1818.

Baptist ministry and tanner[edit]

On May 31, 1817, Rigdon was baptized by Rev. Phillips and he became a member of the Peter's Creek Baptist Church of Library, Pennsylvania.[4]

In 1818, Rigdon move to North Sewickley to became an apprentice to a Baptist minister named Rev. Andrew Clark. Rigdon received his license to preach for the Regular Baptists in March 1819.

He moved in May to Trumbull County, Ohio, where he jointly preached with Adamson Bentley from July 1819. He married Bentley's sister Phoebe Brook in June 1820, and remained in Ohio until February 1822, when he returned to Pittsburgh to accept the pastorate of the First Baptist Church there under the recommendation of Alexander Campbell.[5]

Rigdon and Bentley had journeyed to meet Campbell in the summer of 1821, to learn more about the Baptist who was encountering opposition to his idea that the New Testament should hold priority over the Old Testament in the Christian church. They engaged in lengthy discussions, which resulted in both men joining the Disciples of Christ movement associated with Campbell.

On January 28, 1822, Rigdon arrive in Pittsburgh to become minister at the First Baptist Church.[4] Rigdon's ministry met with opposition from member Rev. John Winter, and on July 11, 1823, a schism split the congregation, with each side disfellowing the other. On October 11, Rigdon was "excluded from the [Redstone Association] Baptist Demonination", of which First Baptist Church was a member.[4]

From 1824 to 1826, Rigdon worked as a journeyman tanner in Pittsburgh, while preaching Campbell's Restorationism on Sundays in the courthouse.[6]

In 1826, Rigdon became the pastor of the more liberal Baptist church in Mentor, Ohio in the Western Reserve.

Latter Day Saint leader in Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois (1830–44)[edit]

Many prominent early Latter Day Saint leaders, including Parley P. Pratt, Isaac Morley and Edward Partridge, were members of Rigdon's congregations prior to their conversion to the Church of Christ founded by Joseph Smith.

Early involvement[edit]

In early September 1830, Rigdon associate Pratt was baptized into Joseph Smith's Church of Christ. In October, Pratt and Ziba Peterson began a mission to preach to the American Indians or "Lamanites".

They visited Rigdon in Ohio. Rigdon read the Book of Mormon, proclaimed its truthfulness. Rigdon was baptized into the church and proceeded to convert hundreds of members of his Ohio congregations. In December 1830, Rigdon traveled to New York, where he met Joseph Smith.

Rigdon was a fiery orator and he was immediately called by Smith to be the spokesman for the church. Rigdon also served as a scribe and helped with Smith's inspired re-translation of the Bible.

Rigdon as revelator

Rigdon reportedly received visions jointly with Smith. According to one account: "Joseph would, at intervals, say: 'What do I see?' as one might say while looking out the window and beholding what all in the room could not see. Then he would relate what he had seen or what he was looking at. Then Sidney replied, 'I see the same.' Presently Sidney would say 'what do I see?' and would repeat what he had seen or was seeing, and Joseph would reply, 'I see the same.' This manner of conversation was repeated at short intervals to the end of the vision" [7]

Kirtland, Ohio, 1830–37[edit]

In December 1830, Smith received a revelation counseling members of the church in New York to gather to Kirtland, Ohio. Many of the doctrines Rigdon's group had experimented with, including living with all things in common, afterwards found expression in the combined movement.

August/September 1831: Rigdon rebuked

In August 1831, Smith announced a revelation admonishing Rigdon for exalting himself: "And now behold, verily I say unto you, I, the Lord, am not pleased with my servant Sidney Rigdon; he exalted himself in his heart, and received not counsel, but grieved the Spirit; Wherefore his writing is not acceptable unto the Lord, and he shall make another; and if the Lord receive it not, behold he standeth no longer in the office to which I have appointed him. [...] Wherefore, let all men beware how they take my name in their lips-- For behold, verily I say, that many there be who are under this condemnation, who use the name of the Lord, and use it in vain, having not authority. Wherefore, let the church repent of their sins, and I, the Lord, will own them otherwise they shall be cut off."[8]

March 1832: Tarred and feathered

Smith and Rigdon were tarred and feathed in Hiram, Ohio. Smith recorded: "The next morning I went to see elder Rigdon, and found him crazy, and his head highly inflamed, for they had dragged him by his heels, and those too, so high from the earth he could not raise his head from the rough frozen surface, which lascerated it exceedingly; and when he saw me he called to his wife to bring him his razor. She asked him what he wanted of it? and he replied to kill me." [9]

July 1832: "Rigdon's depression"

Smith relocated to Hiram, Ohio. On July 5, 1832, Rigdon taught that "the keys of the kingdom were taken from us. On hearing this, many of his hearers wept, and when some one undertook to dismiss the meeting by prayer he said praying would do them no good, and the meeting broke up in confusion."[10]

In response, Hyrum Smith traveled to retrieve Joseph, who returned to Kirtland on July 7. Joseph Smith rebuked Rigdon, and publicly prophesied that "No power can pluck those keys from me, except the power that gave them to me; But for what Sidney [Rigdon] has done, the devil shall handle him as one man handles another."[10]

Reportedly, "About three weeks after this, Sidney [Rigdon] was lying on his bed alone. An unseen power lifted him from his bed, threw him across the room, and tossed him from one side of the room to the other. The noise being heard in the adjoining room, his family went in to see what was the matter, and found him going from one side of the room to the other, from the effects of which Sidney was laid up for five or six weeks. Thus was Joseph's prediction in regard to him verified. "[10]

On July 28, Smith re-ordained Rigdon to the high priesthood for "the Second time" after Rigdon had "repented like Peter of old."

First Presidency

When Smith organized the church's First Presidency, he set apart Jesse Gause and Rigdon as his first two counselors. Smith and Rigdon became close partners, and Rigdon tended to supplant Oliver Cowdery, the original "Second Elder" of the church. When vigilantes decided to tar and feather Smith at the John Johnson Farm in Hiram, Ohio, they also tarred and feathered Rigdon.

Rigdon became a strong advocate of the construction of the Kirtland Temple. When the church founded the Kirtland Safety Society, Rigdon became the bank's president and Smith served as its cashier. When the bank failed in 1837, Rigdon and Smith were both blamed by Mormon dissenters.

Far West, Missouri, 1838[edit]

Rigdon and Smith moved to Far West, Missouri and established a new church headquarters there.

According to one report, while the Mormons were encamped at Adam-ondi-Ahman, Sidney Rigdon criticized Smith and others who were engaged in recreational wrestling on the Sabbath. Rigdon reportedly "rushed into the ring, sword in hand, and said that he would not suffer a lot of men to break the Sabbath day in that manner." Smith "dragged him from the ring, bareheaded, and tore Rigdon's fine pulpit coat from the collar to the waist;" Reportedly, "after that Rigdon never countermanded the orders of the Prophet, to my knowledge - he knew who was boss."[11]

As spokesman for the First Presidency, Rigdon preached several controversial sermons in Missouri, including the Salt Sermon and the July 4th Oration.[12] These speeches have sometimes been seen as contributing to the conflict known as the 1838 Mormon War in Missouri.

As a result of the conflict, the Mormons were expelled from the state and Rigdon and Smith were arrested and imprisoned in Liberty Jail. Rigdon was released on a writ of habeas corpus and made his way to Illinois, where he joined the main body of Mormon refugees in 1839.

Nauvoo, Illinois, 1839–44[edit]

Smith escaped from his Missouri jail and went on to found the city of Nauvoo, Illinois. Rigdon continued to act as church spokesman and gave a speech at the ground-breaking of the Nauvoo Temple. On June 1, 1841, Sidney Rigdon was ordained as "Prophet, Seer and Revelator"[13]

However, Smith and Rigdon's relationship began to deteriorate in Nauvoo. Rigdon's participation in church administrative affairs became minimal. He did not reside in Nauvoo and served in a local church presidency in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. He was also in poor health.

October 1843: Smith attempts to replace Rigdon

In October, 1843, a Special Conference was called to consider "the case and standing of Elder Sidney Rigdon".[14]

Joseph Smith "stated his dissatisfaction" Ridgon. Charges were leveled that Rigdon was correspondence "of a treacherous nature" with John C. Bennett, Ex-Governor Carlin, and "the Missourians". Rigdon was also accused to "leaguing with dishonest persons in endeavoring to defraud the innocent". In "indirect testimony" from Orrin P. Rockwell's mother, Rigdon was accused of having had been responsible for informing others about Smith's visit to Dixon and instructing them to arrest him while there.[14]

Smith told the conference that, in light of the charges, Smith requested Rigdon be replaced as First Counselor.[14]

The "Times and Season" and the "History of the Church" both record that Rigdon addressed the conference, denied the charges and made a "moving appeal"; They record "the sympathies of the congregation were highly excited". A vote was called and the congregation held that Elder Sidney Rigdon would be permitted to retain his position.[14]

According to the Times and Season, Smith had "wholly removed suspicion from elder Sidney Rigdon" and "expressed entire willingness to have elder Sidney Rigdon retain his station", despite a "lack of confidence in his integrity and steadfastness, judging from their past intercourse". Alternately, The History of the Church records that Smith replied to the vote by saying "I have thrown him off my shoulders, and you have again put him on me. "You may carry him, but I will not."[15][16]

1844: Rigdon as Vice-Presidential candidate

When Smith began his campaign for the presidency of the United States in 1844, Rigdon was selected as his vice-presidential running mate. After Smith's death, Rigdon was the senior surviving member of the First Presidency. (The only other members were John Smith, who was an assistant counselor, and Amasa Lyman, who was a counselor.) During this time, Rigdon was strongly opposed to polygamy and other issues within the church.[17]

Aftermath of Smith's death[edit]

Joseph Smith was killed in 1844. Prior to the death of Joseph Smith, the First Presidency had made nearly all the major decisions for the Church. In 1841, Rigdon had been ordained by Joseph Smith as "Prophet, Seer and Revelator"[13]

Rigdon returned to Nauvoo on August 3, and the next day he announced at a public meeting that he had received a revelation appointing him "Guardian of the Church."[18] The President of the central stake, the presiding High Council, William Marks supported Rigdon.

August 8, 1844: Succession conference

At an August 8 conference, Rigdon argued that he should be made the "Protector" of the church."[19]

Brigham Young, president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles opposed this motion and asserted a claim for the primacy of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.[20]

The Quorum of Twelve Apostles were scattered throughout the United States and Europe at the time of Smith's death. The five members of the quorum available in Illinois voted to deny Rigdon his claim for church leadership. Rigdon felt this action was done without proper order.

One month later, on September 8, Rigdon was excommunicated from by a Common Council of the Church which had been convened by Presiding Bishop Newel K. Whitney.[21] Rigdon refused to attend this trial[22] after which he, in turn, likewise excommunicated the members of the Twelve.

Rigdon fled Nauvoo, claiming that he felt threatened by Young's supporters.[17]

Latter Day Saint leader in Pennsylvania and New York, 1845–76[edit]

After the succession schism, Rigdon solidified and led an independent faction of Latter Day Saints, originally called the "Church of Christ", but at one point was called as the Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion.[23][24] This sect is often referred to as the Rigdonites. The Latter Day Saints who followed Rigdon separated themselves and settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. On April 6, 1845, Rigdon presided over a conference of the Church of Christ, which he claimed was the rightful continuation of the church founded by Smith.[25][26] He then reorganized the First Presidency and called his own Quorum of Twelve Apostles.

Although Rigdon's church briefly flourished through the publication of his periodical, The Messenger and Advocate, quarrels among the Rigdonites led most members of the church to desert the senior leader by 1847. A few loyalists, notably William Bickerton, eventually reorganized the church in 1862 under the name The Church of Jesus Christ.

Rigdon lived on for many years in Pennsylvania and New York. He maintained his testimony of the Book of Mormon and clung to his claims that he was the rightful heir to Joseph Smith. He died in Friendship, New York.

Significance in the Latter-day Saint movement[edit]

Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, a succession crisis led to schisms within the movement. The Brigham Young branch traveled west to Utah, while Rigdon traveled to eastward to Pittsburgh.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, with about 15 million members, is the largest existing Mormon denomination. Its members consider Young to be the successor to Joseph Smith.[27]

Rigdon's branch faced less success, modernly accounting for only a small fraction of practicing Latter Day Saints.[24][28][29]

Churches tracing their leadership through Rigdon[edit]

NameOrganized byDateSplit off / Continuation ofCurrent statusNotes
Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion[23][24]Sidney Rigdon1844Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsDissolved by 1847Originally also used the name "Church of Christ". Also known as Rigdonites.
The Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)[24]William Bickerton1862Organized by former members of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion (Rigdonites), by then defunct12,136 as of 2007;[29] headquartered in Monongahela, PennsylvaniaAdherents commonly referred to as Bickertonites (church actively opposes use of this term).
Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)Half of the Bickertonite Quorum of Twelve Apostles1907Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)DefunctDispute over nature of life in the millennium split Bickertonite Quorum of the Twelve in two; later merged with the Primitive Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite).
Primitive Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)James Caldwell1914Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite)DefunctRejected the First Presidency as a valid leadership organization of the church; later merged with the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ (Bickertonite).

Rigdon as purported author of the Book of Mormon[edit]

Rigdon has been named as a potential author for the Book of Mormon. According to this theory, Rigdon obtained from a Pittsburgh publisher a manuscript for a historical novel written by Solomon Spalding, and by reworking it and adding a theological component, had created the Book of Mormon.

The theory that Sidney Rigdon was the true author of the Book of Mormon first appeared in print in an Aug 31, 1831 article by James Gordon Bennett, who had visited Palmyra/Manchester area and interviewed several residents.[30] Rigdon's use of a Spalding manuscript first appeared in print in the 1834 book Mormonism Unvailed.

A 2008 computer analysis of the Book of Mormon text supports this theory, although the study does not include Joseph Smith in the author sample on the ground that few pure examples of Smith's writings are extant.[31] Several other significant problems are apparent in the methodology of this computer analysis, specifically the use of closed set methodology instead of open set methodology. For example, the original methodology, when replicated, also assigns Rigdon as the probable author of the Federalist Papers.[32] Critics of the Spalding/Rigdon theory point out that there is no record of any meeting between Rigdon and Smith until December 1830, nearly a year after the Book of Mormon was published.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/dbroadhu/PA/penn1860.htm#030175
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=f3XzioqxpaMC&pg=PA3&lpg=PA3#v=onepage&q&f=false
  3. ^ http://www.sedgwickresearch.com/philo/even%20more%20philo%20stuff.htm
  4. ^ a b c http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/Rigdchrn.htm
  5. ^ Times and Seasons May 1, 1843. p. 177 in 1986 reprint by Independence Press, ISBN 0-8309-0467-0
  6. ^ http://www.sidneyrigdon.com/features/tannery1.htm
  7. ^ http://www.boap.org/LDS/Early-Saints/REC-JS.html
  8. ^ http://www.boap.org/LDS/History/History_of_the_Church/Vol_1
  9. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=-CxOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA243&lpg=PA243
  10. ^ a b c http://www.boap.org/LDS/Early-Saints/PDibble.html
  11. ^ http://antimormon.8m.com/leechp5.html
  12. ^ Oration Delivered by Mr. S. Rigdon on the 4th of July at Far West, Caldwell County, Missouri, 1838
  13. ^ a b McKiernan, F. Mark (1979) [1971]. The Voice of One Crying in the Wilderness: Sidney Rigdon, Religious Reformer. Independence, Missouri: Herald House. p. 56. ISBN 9780830902415. OCLC 5436337. 
  14. ^ a b c d http://restorationisten.fairmormon.org/Times_and_Seasons/4/21#330
  15. ^ http://restorationisten.fairmormon.org/Mormonism_and_history/Censorship_and_revision/Sidney_Rigdon_trial_in_Times_and_Seasons_versus_History_of_the_Church
  16. ^ Joseph Smith (B. H. Roberts (ed), 1902) History of the Church, vol. 6, p. 49
  17. ^ a b McKiernan 1979[page needed]
  18. ^ MHBY-1, 171
  19. ^ B. H. Roberts (ed, 1902) History of the Church, vol. 7, ch. XVIII
  20. ^ B. H. Roberts (ed, 1902) History of the Church, vol. 7, ch. XIX
  21. ^ J. M. Grant's RIGDON: Collection of Facts, Relative to the Course Taken by Elder Sidney Rigdon, in the States of Ohio, Missouri, Illinois and Pennsylvania. By Jedediah M. Grant, One of the Quorum of Seventies., pp. 20–37
  22. ^ Jedediah M. Grant, "A Collection of Facts, Relative to the Course Taken By Elder Sidney Rigdon: In the States of Ohio, Missouri, Illinois and Pennsylvania", Part IV, Brown, Bicking & Guilbert, Printers, 1844
  23. ^ a b Shields, Steven (1990), Divergent Paths of the Restoration (Fourth ed.), Independence, Missouri: Restoration Research, ISBN 0-942284-00-3 
  24. ^ a b c d Cadman, William H. (1945), A History of the Church of Jesus Christ, Monongahela, PA: The Church of Jesus Christ 
  25. ^ E. Pitzer (1997). America's Communal Utopias (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Richard Press) p. 484
  26. ^ Howard, "William E. McLellin: 'Mormonism's Stormy Petrel'" in Roger D. Launius and Linda Thatcher (eds) (1998). Dissenters in Mormon History (Urbana: University of Illinois Press) pp. 76–101.
  27. ^ Lloyd, R. Scott (October 26, 2013), "Church membership reaches 15 million", Church News 
  28. ^ 12,136 as of 2007;
  29. ^ a b "The Church of Jesus Christ: General Business and Organization Conference Minutes." Bridgewater, MI: The Church of Jesus Christ. 2007. pp. 4399.
  30. ^ Bennett, James Gordon (31 Aug 1831), "Mormonism—Religious Fanaticism—Church and State Party", New York Courier and Enquirer 7 (562)  in Arrington, Leonard J. (1970), "James Gordon Bennett's 1831 Report on 'The Mormonites'", BYU Studies 10 (3) .
  31. ^ Jockers, Matthew L.; Witten, Daniela M.; Criddle, Craig S. (December 2008), "Reassessing authorship of the Book of Mormon using delta and nearest shrunken centroid classification", Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford University Press) 23 (4): 465–491 
  32. ^ Schaalje, G. Bruce; Fields, Paul J.; Roper, Matthew; Snow, Gregory L. (December 2011), "Extended nearest shrunken centroid classification: A new method for open-set authorship attribution of texts of varying sizes", Literary and Linguistic Computing (Oxford University Press) 26 (1): 71–88 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Church of Jesus Christ of the Children of Zion titles
Reorganized in 1862 under the name The Church of Jesus Christ
Preceded by
Joseph Smith, Jr.
President of the Church
April 6, 1845–1847
Succeeded by
William Bickerton
Church of Christ titles
Later renamed: Church of the Latter Day Saints (1834) and
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (1838)
Preceded by
Jesse Gause
First Counselor in the First Presidency
March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18)–June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27)
Succeeded by
Disputed:
Possible successors include:
Heber C. Kimball (LDS Church)
William Marks (RLDS Church)
First Second Counselor in the First Presidency 
March 8, 1832 (1832-03-08)–March 18, 1833 (1833-03-18)
Succeeded by
Frederick G. Williams