Albanian language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Albanian
shqip
Pronunciation[ʃcip]
Spoken natively inPrimarily in Southeastern Europe and by the Albanian diaspora worldwide.
Native speakersca. 7.3 million  (1989–2007)[1]
Language family
Dialects
Writing systemLatin (Albanian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in Albania
 Kosovo[a]
and recognised as a minority language in:
 Greece
 Italy
 Macedonia
 Montenegro
 Serbia
 Romania
Regulated byofficially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania
Language codes
ISO 639-1sq
ISO 639-2alb (B)
sqi (T)
ISO 639-3sqiinclusive code
Individual codes:
aln – Gheg
aae – Arbëreshë
aat – Arvanitika
als – Tosk
Linguasphere55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)
 
  (Redirected from Shqip)
Jump to: navigation, search
Albanian
shqip
Pronunciation[ʃcip]
Spoken natively inPrimarily in Southeastern Europe and by the Albanian diaspora worldwide.
Native speakersca. 7.3 million  (1989–2007)[1]
Language family
Dialects
Writing systemLatin (Albanian alphabet)
Official status
Official language in Albania
 Kosovo[a]
and recognised as a minority language in:
 Greece
 Italy
 Macedonia
 Montenegro
 Serbia
 Romania
Regulated byofficially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania
Language codes
ISO 639-1sq
ISO 639-2alb (B)
sqi (T)
ISO 639-3sqiinclusive code
Individual codes:
aln – Gheg
aae – Arbëreshë
aat – Arvanitika
als – Tosk
Linguasphere55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)

Albanian (gjuha shqipe, pronounced [ˈɟuha ˈʃcipɛ], or shqip Albanian pronunciation: [ʃcip]) is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 8 million people,[1] primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an autochthonous Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece. Albanian is also spoken in centuries-old Albanian colonies in southern Greece, southern Italy,[2] Sicily, and Ukraine.[3] Additionally, speakers of Albanian can be found elsewhere throughout the latter two countries resulting from a modern diaspora, originating from the Balkans, that also includes Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, Brazil, Canada, and the United States.

Contents

History

Part of a series on
Albanians
Albania
Nation
Albania
By region or country
Australia · Bulgaria
Croatia · Germany
Greece · Italy
Kosovo · Macedonia
Montenegro · Romania
Serbia · Sweden
Switzerland · Ukraine · United States
Subgroups
Arbëreshë · Arvanites · Souliotes · Cham · Arbanasi
Albanian culture
Art · Cinema · Dress · Literature · Music
Sport · Cuisine · Mythology · Epic Poetry
Varieties of Albanian
Gheg · Tosk · Arvanitika
Arbëresh · Cham
Religion
Islam
Orthodox
Roman Catholicism
Protestantism
Albanian Byzantine Catholic Church
Kosovo Protestant Evangelical Church
Italo-Albanian Catholic Church
Judaism in Albania
Orthodox Church in America Albanian Archdiocese
History
Origins · History

Linguistic affinities

The Albanian language is a distinct Indo-European language that does not belong to any other existing branch; the other extant Indo-European isolate is Armenian. Sharing lexical isoglosses with Greek, Balto-Slavic, and Germanic, the vocabulary of Albanian is quite distinct. Once hastily grouped with Germanic and Balto-Slavic by the merger of PIE *ǒ and *ǎ into *ǎ in a supposed "northern group",[4] Albanian has proven to be distinct from these two, as this vowel shift is only part of a larger push chain that affected all long vowels.[5] Albanian does share two features with Balto-Slavic languages: (1) a lengthening of syllabic consonants before voiced obstruents and (2) a distinct treatment of long syllables ending in a sonorant.[6] Conservative features of Albanian include the retention of the distinction between active and middle voice, present tense and aorist.

Albanian is considered to have evolved from an extinct Paleo-Balkan language, usually taken to be either Illyrian or Thracian. See also Thraco-Illyrian and Messapian language.

Linguistic influences

The earliest loanwords attested in Albanian are from Doric Greek while the heaviest influence was that of Latin. The period during which Proto-Albanian and Latin interacted was protracted and drawn out roughly from 2nd century BC to 5th century AD.[7] This is borne out into roughly three layers of borrowings, the largest number belonging to the second layer. The first, with the fewest borrowings, was a time of less important interaction. The final period, probably preceding the Slavic or Germanic invasions, also has a notably smaller number of borrowings. Each layer is characterized by a different treatment of most vowels, the first layer having several that follow the evolution of Early Proto-Albanian into Albanian; later layers reflect vowel changes endemic to Late Latin and presumably Proto-Romance. Other formative changes include the syncretism of several noun case endings, especially in the plural, as well as a large scale palatalization.

A brief period followed, between 7th c. AD and 9th c. AD, that was marked by heavy borrowings from Southern Slavic, some of which predate the "o-a" shift common to the modern forms of this language group. Starting in the latter 9th c. AD, there was a period characterized by protracted contact with the Proto-Romanians, or Vlachs, though lexical borrowing seems to have been mostly one sided—from Albanian into Romanian. Such borrowing indicates that the Romanians migrated from an area where the majority was Slavic (i.e. Middle Bulgarian) to an area with a majority of Albanian speakers, i.e. Dardania, where Vlachs are recorded in the 10th c. AD. Their movement is probably related to the expansion of the Bulgarian empire into Albania around that time. This fact places the Albanians in the western or central Balkans at a rather early date.

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. Albanian is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[8]

Latin element of the Albanian language

Jernej Kopitar (1829) was the first to note Latin's influence on Albanian and claimed "the Latin loanwords in the Albanian language had the pronunciation of the time of Emperor Augustus".[9] Kopitar gave examples such as Albanian "qiqer" from Latin cicer, "qytet" from civitas, "peshk" from piscis, and "shëngjetë" from sagitta. The hard pronunciations of Latin ⟨c⟩ and ⟨g⟩ are retained as palatal and velar stops in the Albanian loanwords. Gustav Meyer (1888)[10] and Wilhelm Meyer-Lübke (1914)[11] later corroborated this.

Eqrem Çabej also noticed, among other things, the archaic Latin elements in Albanian:[12]

  1. Latin /au/ becomes Albanian /a/ in the earliest borrowings: aurum → "ar", gaudium → "gas", laurus → "lar". But Latin /au/ is retained in later borrowings: causa → "kafshë", laud → "lavd".
  2. Latin /ō/ becomes Albanian /e/ in the oldest Latin borrowings: pōmum → "pemë", hōra → "herë". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian; PIE *nōs became Albanian "ne", PIE *ōkt- became Albanian "tetë" etc.
  3. Latin unstressed internal and initial syllables become lost in Albanian: cubitus → "kub", medicus → "mjek", paludem → V. Latin padule → "pyll". An analogous mutation occurred from Proto-Indo-European to Albanian. In contrast, in later Latin borrowings, the internal syllable is retained: paganus → "i pëganë"/"i pëgërë", plaga → "plagë" etc.
  4. Latin /tj/, /dj/, /kj/ palatalized to Albanian /s/, /z/, /c/: vitius → "ves", ratio → "(a)rësye", radius → "rreze", facies → "faqe", socius → "shoq" etc.

Haralambie Mihăescu demonstrated that

Other authors[16] have detected Latin loanwords in Albanian with an ancient sound pattern from the first century B.C., for example, Albanian qingëlë from Latin cingula and Albanian vjetër from Latin vetus/veteris. The Romance languages inherited these words from Vulgar Latin: Vulgar *cingla became N. Romanian chinga meaning 'belly band, saddle girth' and Vulgar veteran became N. Romanian bătrân meaning 'old'.

Illyrians, Dacians, Getae and Thracians at 200 BC

Historical presence and location

The place where the Albanian language was formed is uncertain, but analysis has suggested that it was in a mountainous region, rather than in a plain or seacoast:[17] while the words for plants and animals characteristic of mountainous regions are entirely original, the names for fish and for agricultural activities (such as ploughing) are borrowed from other languages.[18]

The center of Albanian settlement remained the Mat River. In AD 1079 they are recorded farther south in the valley of the Shkumbin river.[19] The Shkumbin, a seasonal stream that lay near the old Via Egnatia, is approximately the boundary of the primary dialect division for Albanian, Tosk-Gheg. The characteristics of Tosk and Gheg in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages are evidence that the dialectal split preceded the Slavic migration to the Balkans[20] [21] [7] which means that in that period (5th to 6th century AD) Albanians were occupying pretty much the same area around the Shkumbin river, which straddled the Jirecek line.[22] [17]

References to the existence of Albanian as a distinct language survive from the 14th century, but they failed to cite specific words. The oldest surviving documents written in Albanian are the "Formula e Pagëzimit" (Baptismal formula), "Un'te paghesont' pr'emenit t'Atit e t'Birit e t'Spertit Senit." (I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit) recorded by Pal Engjelli, Bishop of Durrës in 1462 in the Gheg dialect, and some New Testament verses from that period.

The oldest known Albanian printed book, Meshari or missal, was written in 1555 by Gjon Buzuku, a Roman Catholic cleric. In 1635, Frang Bardhi wrote the first Latin-Albanian dictionary. The first Albanian school is believed to have been opened by Franciscans in 1638 in Pdhanë.

Script

The Albanian language has been written using many different alphabets since the earliest records from the 15th century. The history of Albanian language orthography is closely related to the cultural orientation and knowledge of certain foreign languages among Albanian writers.[23][24] The earliest written Albanian records come from the Gheg area in makeshift spellings based on Italian or Greek and sometimes in Turko-Arabic characters. Originally, the Tosk dialect was written in the Greek alphabet and the Gheg dialect was written in the Latin script. Both dialects had also been written in the Ottoman Turkish version of the Arabic script, Cyrillic, and some local alphabets. More specifically, the writers from Northern Albania and under the influence of the Catholic Church used Latin letters, those in southern Albania and under the influence of the Greek Orthodox church used Greek letters, while others throughout Albania and under the influence of Islam used Arabic letters. There were initial attempts to create an original Albanian alphabet during the 1750-1850 period. These attempts intensified after the League of Prizren and culminated with the Congress of Monastir held by Albanian intellectuals from 14 to 22 November 1908, in Monastir (present day Bitola), which decided the alphabet and standardized spelling for standard Albanian down to the present. The alphabet is the Latin alphabet with the addition of the letters ë, ç, and nine digraphs.

Literary tradition

It is commonly held that Albanian must have been written at least since the 12th century as many facts would indicate.[25] A 1332 document written in Latin by a monk, variously identified as either Guillaume Adam (Archbishop of Antivari in the Principality of Serbia from 1324 to 1341), or Brocardus Monacus (Frère Brochard), testifies to the existence of written Albanian prior to the earliest records so far discovered.[26]

Earliest undisputed texts

The earliest known texts in Albanian:

The first book in Albanian is the Meshari (The Missal), written by Gjon Buzuku between 20 March 1554 to 5 January 1555. The book was written in the Gheg dialect in the Latin script with some Slavic letters adapted for Albanian vowels. The book was discovered in 1740 by Gjon Nikollë Kazazi, the Albanian archbishop of Skopje. It contains the liturgies of the main holidays. There are also texts of prayers and rituals and catechetical texts. The grammar and the vocabulary are more archaic than those in the Gheg texts from the 17th century. The 188 pages of the book comprise about 154,000 words with a total vocabulary of ca. 1,500 different words. The text is archaic yet easily interpreted because it is mainly a translation of known texts, in particular portions of the Bible. The book also contains passages from the Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, the Book of Jeremiah, the Letters to the Corinthians, and many illustrations. The uniformity of spelling seems to indicate an earlier tradition of writing. The only known copy of the Meshari is held by the Apostolic Library.[31] In 1968 the book was published with transliterations and comments by linguists.

Disputed earlier text

Possibly the oldest surviving Albanian text, highlighted in red, from the Bellifortis manuscript, written by Konrad Kyeser around 1402-1405.

In 1967 two scholars claimed to have found a brief text in Albanian inserted into the Bellifortis text, a book written in Latin dating to 1402-1405.[32]

"A star has fallen in a place in the woods, distinguish the star, distinguish it.

Distinguish the star from the others, they are ours, they are.
Do you see where the great voice has resounded? Stand beside it
That thunder. It did not fall. It did not fall for you, the one which would do it.
...
Like the ears, you should not believe ... that the moon fell when ...
Try to encompass that which spurts far ...

Call the light when the moon falls and no longer exists ..."

Dr. Robert Elsie, a specialist in Albanian studies, considers that "The Todericiu/Polena Romanian translation of the non-Latin lines, although it may offer some clues if the text is indeed Albanian, is fanciful and based, among other things, on a false reading of the manuscript, including the exclusion of a whole line."[33]

Ottoman period

In 1635 Frang Bardhi (1606–1643) published in Rome his Dictionarum latinum-epiroticum, the first known Latin-Albanian dictionary. Other scholars who studied the language during the 17th century include Andrea Bogdani (1600–1685), author of the first Latin-Albanian grammar book, Nilo Katalanos (1637–1694) and others.[34]

Standard Albanian

Standard Albanian is based on the Tosk dialect. Prior to World War II, dictionaries consulted by developers of the standard have included Lexikon tis Alvanikis glossis (Albanian: Fjalori i Gjuhës Shqipe (Kostandin Kristoforidhi, 1904),[35] Fjalori i Bashkimit (1908),[35] Gazulli (1941).[23][24] After World War II standardization was directed by the Institute of Albanian Language and Literature of the Academy of Sciences of Albania.[36][37] Two dictionaries were published in 1954, an Albanian language dictionary and a Russian–Albanian dictionary. New orthography rules were eventually published in 1967[37] and 1973 (Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe (Orthography of the Albanian Language).[38] More recent dictionaries from the Albanian government are Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe (1976) (Orthographic Dictionary of the Albanian Language)[39] and Dictionary of Today's Albanian language (Fjalori i sotëm i gjuhës shqipe) (1980).[37][40]

Classification

Albanian was demonstrated to be an Indo-European language in 1854 by the philologist Franz Bopp. The Albanian language constitutes its own branch of the Indo-European language family.[41]

Albanian was formerly compared by some Indo-Europeanists with Balto-Slavic and Germanic,[42] both of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Moreover, Albanian has undergone a vowel shift in which stressed, long o has fallen to a, much like in the former and opposite the latter. Likewise, Albanian has taken the old relative jos and innovatively used it exclusively to qualify adjectives, much in the way Balto-Slavic has used this word to provide the definite ending of adjectives. Other linguists link Albanian with Greek and Armenian, while placing Germanic and Balto-Slavic in another branch of Indo-European.[43][44][45] Nakhleh, Ringe, and Warnow argued that Albanian can be placed at a variety of points within the Indo-European tree with equally good fit; determining its correct placement is hampered by the loss of much of its former diagnostic inflectional morphology and vocabulary.[46]

Origin

Albanian is often seen as the descendant of Illyrian,[47] although this hypothesis has been challenged by some linguists, who maintain that it derives from Dacian or Thracian.[48] (Illyrian, Dacian, and Thracian, however, may have formed a subgroup or a sprachbund; see Thraco-Illyrian).

(Old) Albanian

According to the central hypothesis of a project undertaken by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, Old Albanian had a significant influence on the development of many Balkan languages. Intensive research now aims to confirm this theory. This little-known language is being researched using all available texts before a comparison with other Balkan languages is carried out. The outcome of this work will include the compilation of a lexicon providing an overview of all Old Albanian verbs.[49]

Proto-IE features

The demonstrative pronoun *ko is ancestral to Albanian ky/kjo and English he.

Albanian and other Indo-European languages
Albanianmuajrinënëmotërnatëhundëtrezikuqgjelbërtverdhëujk
Other Indo-European languages
Englishmonthnewmothersisternightnosethreeblackredgreenyellowwolf
Lithuanianmėnesisnaujasmotinasesuonaktisnosistrysjuodasraudonasžaliasgeltonasvilkas
Old Church Slavonicмѣсѧць
měsęcь
новъ
novъ
мати
mati
сестра
sestra
ношть
noštь
носъ
nosъ
три, триѥ
tri, trije
чрънъ
črъnъ
чръвенъ
črъvenъ
зеленъ
zelenъ
жльтъ
žlьtъ
влькъ
vlьkъ
Czechměsícnovýmatkasestranocnostřičernýčervenýzelenýžlutývlk
Ancient Greekμήν
mḗn
νέος
néos
μήτηρ
mḗter
ἀδελφή
adelphḗ
νύξ
nýks
ῥίς
rhís
τρεῖς
treîs
μέλας
mélas
ἐρυθρός
erythrós
χλωρός
khlōrós
ξανθός
ksanthós
λύκος
lýkos
Armenianամիս
amis
նոր
nor
մայր
mayr
քույր
k'uyr
գիշեր
gišer
քիթ
k'it
երեք
yerek'
սեւ
sev
կարմիր
karmir
կանաչ
kanač
դեղին
deġin
գայլ
gayl
Latinmēnsisnovusmātersorornoxnāsustrēsāter, nigerruberviridisflāvuslupus
Irishnuadhmáthairsiúroidhchesróntrídubhruadhglasbuidhefaolchú
Sanskritmāsanavamātṛsvasṛnakta/nishnasatrikālarudhiraharipītavṛka

Albanian-PIE phonological correspondences

Phonologically Albanian is not so conservative. Like many IE stocks it has merged the two series of voiced stops (e.g. both *d and *dʰ became d). In addition the voiced stops tend to disappear when between vowels. There is almost complete loss of final syllables and very widespread loss of other unstressed syllables (e.g. mik "friend" from Lat. amicus). PIE *a and *o appear as a (further e if a high front vowel *i follows) while and become o, and PIE appears as e. The palatals, velars and labiovelars all remain distinct before front vowels, a conservation found otherwise in Luvian and related Anatolian languages. Thus PIE *ḱ, *k and *kʷ become th, q and s respectively (before back vowels *ḱ becomes th while *k and *kʷ merge as k). Another remarkable retention is the preservation of initial *h4 as Alb. h (all other laryngeals disappear completely).[50]

Proto-Indo-European Labial Stops in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*pp*pékʷo—"cook"pjek "to cook, roast, bake"
*bb*sorbéi̯e/o—"drink, slurp"gjerb "to drink"
*bʰb*aḱeh₂—"bean"bathë "broad bean"
Proto-Indo-European Coronal Stops in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*tt*túh₂—"thou"ti "you (singular)"
*dd*diHtis—"light"ditë "day"
dh[* 1]*pérde/o—"fart"pjerdh "to fart"
g*dl̥h₁gʰós—"long"gjatë "long" (Tosk dial. glatë)
*dʰd*égʷʰe/o—"burn"djeg "to burn"
dh[* 1]*gʰóros—"enclosure"gardh "fence"
  1. ^ a b Between vowels or after r
Proto-Indo-European Palatal Stops in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*ḱth*éh₁mi—"I say"thom "I say"
s[* 1]*uk—"horn"sutë "doe"
k[* 2]*reh₂u—"limb"krah "arm"
ç/c[* 3]*entro—"to stick"çandër "prop"
dh*ǵómbʰos—"tooth, peg"dhëmb "tooth"
d[* 4]*ǵēusnō—"to enjoy"dua "to love, want"
*ǵʰdh*ǵʰedi̯e/o—"to defecate"dhjes "to defecate"
d[* 4]*ǵʰr̥sdʰi—"grain, barley"drithë "grain"
  1. ^ Before u̯/u or i̯/i
  2. ^ Before sonorant
  3. ^ Archaic relic
  4. ^ a b Syllable-initial and followed by sibilant
Proto-Indo-European Velar Stops in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*kk*kágʰmi—"I catch, grasp"kam "I have"
q*klau-ei̯e/o—"to weep"qaj "to weep, cry" (Gheg qanj, Salamis kla)
*gg*h₃lígos—"sick"ligë "bad"
gj*h₁reuge—"to retch"regj "to tan hides"
*gʰg*órdʰos—"enclosure"gardh "fence"
gj*édni̯e/o—"get"gjej "to find" (Gheg gjêj)
Proto-Indo-European Labialized Velar Stops in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*kʷk*eh₂sleh₂—"cough"kollë "cough"
s*éle/o—"turn"sjell "to fetch, bring"
q*ṓd—"that"që "that"
*gʷg*—"stone"gur "stone"
z*ērHu—"heaviness"zor "heaviness; trouble"
*gʷʰg*dʰégʷʰe/o—"to burn"djeg "to burn"
z*h1en-dʰogʷʰéi̯e/o—"to ignite"ndez "to kindle, turn on"
Proto-Indo-European *s in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*sgj[* 1]*séḱstis—"six"gjashtë "six"
h[* 2]*nosōm—"us" (gen.)nahe "us" (dat.)
sh[* 3]*bʰreusinos—"break"breshër "hail"
th[* 4]*gʷésdos—"leaf"gjeth "leaf"
h[* 5]*sḱi-eh₂—"shadow"hije "shadow"
f[* 6]*spélnom—"speech"fjalë "word"
sht[* 7]*h₂osti "bone"asht "bone"
th[* 8]*suh₁s—"swine"thi "boar"
h₁ésmi—"am"jam "to be"
  1. ^ Initial
  2. ^ Between vowels
  3. ^ Between vowels and after u̯/i̯/r/k (ruki law)
  4. ^ Cluster -sd-
  5. ^ Cluster -sḱ-
  6. ^ Cluster -sp-
  7. ^ Cluster -st-
  8. ^ Dissimilation with following vowel
Proto-Indo-European Sonorant Consonants in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*i̯gj[* 1]*ése/o—"to ferment"gjesh "to knead"
j[* 2]*uHs—"you" (nom.)ju "you (plural)"
[* 3]*bʰérō—"bear, carry"bie(r) "to bring"
h[* 4]*streh₂eh₂—"straw"strohë "kennel"
*u̯v*oséi̯e/o—"to dress"vesh "to wear, dress"
*mm*meh₂tr-eh₂—"maternal"motër "sister"
*nn*nōs—"we" (acc.)ne "we"
nj*eni-h₁ói-no—"that one"një "one" (Gheg njâ, njo)
∅/^*pénkʷe—"five"pe, Gheg pês "five"
r*ǵʰeimen—"winter"dimër "winter" (Gheg dimën)
*ll*h₃lígos—"sick"ligë "bad"
ll*kʷéle/o—"turn"sjell "to fetch, bring"
*rr*repe/o—"take"rjep "peel"
rr*u̯rh₁ḗn—"sheep"rrunjë "yearling lamb"
*n̥e*h₁men—"name"emër "name"
*m̥e*u̯iḱti—"twenty"(një)zet "twenty"
*l̥uj*u̯ĺ̥kʷos—"wolf"ujk "wolf" (Chamian ulk)
*r̥ri, ir*ǵʰsdom—"grain, barley"drithë "grain"
  1. ^ Before i, e, a
  2. ^ Before back vowels
  3. ^ After front vowels
  4. ^ After all other vowels
Proto-Indo-European Laryngeals in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*h1*h₁ésmi—"am"jam "to be"
*h2*h₂r̥tḱos—"bear"ari "bear"
*h3*h₃ónr̥—"dream"ëndërr "dream"
*h4h*h4órǵʰii̯eh₂—"testicle"herdhe "testicle"
Proto-Indo-European Vowels in Albanian
PIEAlbanianPIEAlbanian
*ii*sínos—"bosom"gji "bosom, breast"
e*du̯igʰeh₂—"twig"de "branch"
i*dīHtis—"light"di "day"
*ee*pénkʷe—"five"pe "five" (Gheg pês)
je*u̯étos—"year" (loc.)vjet "last year"
o*ǵʰēsreh₂—"hand"do "hand"
*aa*bʰaḱeh₂- "bean"bathë "bean"
e*h₂élbʰit—"barley"elb "barley"
*oa*gʰórdʰos—"enclosure"gardh "fence"
e*h₂oḱtōtis—"eight"te "eight"
*uu*supnos—"sleep"gju "sleep"
y*suHsos—"grandfather"gjysh "grandfather"
i*mūs—"mouse"mi "mouse"

Geographic distribution

Albanian is spoken by nearly 7.6 million people[1] mainly in Albania, Kosovo, Turkey, the Republic of Macedonia, Greece and Italy (Arbereshe); and by immigrant communities in many other countries, notably the United Kingdom, the USA, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland.

Standard

Standard Albanian, based on the Tosk dialect of southern Albania, is the official language of Albania and Kosovo; and is also official in municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia where ethnic Albanians form more than 20% of the municipal population. It is also an official language of Montenegro, where it is spoken in the municipalities with ethnic Albanian populations.

Dialects

Albanian is divided into three major dialects: Gheg, Tosk, and a transitional dialect zone between them.[51] The Shkumbin river is roughly the dividing line, with Gheg spoken north of the Shkumbin and Tosk south of it.[52]

Phonology

Standard Albanian has 7 vowels and 29 consonants. Gheg uses long and nasal vowels which are absent in Tosk, and the mid-central vowel ë is lost at the end of the word. The stress is fixed mainly on the penultimate syllable. Gheg n (femën: compare English feminine) changes to r by rhotacism in Tosk (femër).

Consonants

 BilabialLabio-
dental
DentalAlveolarPost-
alveolar
PalatalVelarGlottal
Nasalm  n ɲŋ 
Plosivep  b  t  d c  ɟk  ɡ 
Affricate   ts  dztʃ  dʒ   
Fricative f  vθ  ðs  zʃ  ʒ  h
Trill   r    
Flap   ɾ    
Approximant   l  ɫ j  
IPADescriptionWritten asPronounced as in
pVoiceless bilabial plosiveppen
bVoiced bilabial plosivebbat
tVoiceless alveolar plosivettan
dVoiced alveolar plosiveddebt
cVoiceless palatal plosiveq~ cute
ɟVoiced palatal plosivegj~ legume
kVoiceless velar plosivekcar
ɡVoiced velar plosiveggo
tsVoiceless alveolar affricatechats
dzVoiced alveolar affricatexgoods
Voiceless postalveolar affricateçchin
Voiced postalveolar affricatexhjet
θVoiceless dental fricativeththin
ðVoiced dental fricativedhthen
fVoiceless labiodental fricativeffar
vVoiced labiodental fricativevvan
sVoiceless alveolar fricativesson
zVoiced alveolar fricativezzip
ʃVoiceless postalveolar fricativeshshow
ʒVoiced postalveolar fricativezhvision
hVoiceless glottal fricativehhat
mBilabial nasalmman
nAlveolar nasalnnot
ɲPalatal nasalnj~onion
ŋVelar nasalngbang
jPalatal approximantjyes
lAlveolar lateral approximantllean
ɫVelarized alveolar lateral approximantllball
rAlveolar trillrrSpanish perro
ɾAlveolar taprSpanish pero

Notes:

Vowels

IPADescriptionWritten asPronounced as in
iClose front unrounded voweliseed
ɛOpen-mid front unrounded vowelebed
aOpen front unrounded vowelafather, Spanish casa
əSchwaëabout, Dutch de
ɔOpen-mid back rounded vowelolaw
yClose front rounded vowelyFrench tu, German über
uClose back rounded voweluboot

Schwa

Although the Indo-European schwa (*ə or *-h2-) was preserved in Albanian, in some cases it was lost possibly when a stressed syllable preceded it.[53] Until the standardization of the modern Albanian alphabet, in which the schwa is spelled as <ë> as in the work of Gjon Buzuku in the 16th century, various vowels and gliding vowels were employed including <ae> by Lekë Matrënga and <é> by Pjetër Bogdani in the late 16th and early 17th century.[54][55] The schwa in Albanian has a great degree of variability from extreme back to extreme front articulation.[56] Within the borders of Albania the phoneme is pronounced about the same in both the Tosk and the Gheg dialect due to the influence of standard Albanian. But in the Gheg dialects spoken in the neighbouring Albanian-speaking areas of Kosovo and Macedonia, the phoneme is still pronounced as back and rounded.[56]

Grammar

Albanian has a canonical word order of SVO (subject–verb–object) like English and many other Indo-European languages.[57] Albanian nouns are inflected by gender (masculine, feminine and neuter) and number (singular and plural). There are five declensions with six cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative and vocative), although the vocative only occurs with a limited number of words. Some dialects also retain a locative case which is not in standard Albanian. The cases apply to both definite and indefinite nouns and there are numerous cases of syncretism. The equivalent of a genitive is formed by using the prepositions i/e/të/së with the dative.

The following shows the declension of mal (mountain), a masculine noun which ends with "i":

Indefinite SingularIndefinite PluralDefinite SingularDefinite Plural
Nominativenjë mal (a mountain)male (mountains)mali (the mountain)malet (the mountains)
Accusativenjë malmalemalinmalet
Genitivei/e/të/së një malii/e/të/së malevei/e/të/së maliti/e/të/së maleve
Dativenjë malimalevemalitmaleve
Ablative(prej) një mali(prej) malesh(prej) malit(prej) maleve

The following shows the declension of the masculine noun zog (bird), a masculine noun which ends with "u":

Indefinite SingularIndefinite PluralDefinite SingularDefinite Plural
Nominativenjë zog (a bird)zogj (birds)zogu (the bird)zogjtë (the birds)
Accusativenjë zogzogjzogunzogjtë
Genitivenjë i/e/të/së zogui/e/të/së zogjvei/e/të/së zoguti/e/të/së zogjve
Dativenjë zoguzogjvezogutzogjve
Ablative(prej) një zogu(prej) zogjsh(prej) zogut(prej) zogjve

The following table shows the declension of the feminine noun vajzë (girl):

Indefinite SingularIndefinite PluralDefinite SingularDefinite Plural
Nominativenjë vajzë (a girl)vajza (girls)vajza (the girl)vajzat (the girls)
Accusativenjë vajzëvajzavajzënvajzat
Genitivei/e/të/së një vajzei/e/të/së vajzavei/e/të/së vajzësi/e/të/së vajzave
Dativenjë vajzevajzavevajzësvajzave
Ablative(prej) një vajze(prej) vajzash(prej) vajzës(prej) vajzave

The definite article is placed after the noun as in many other Balkan languages, for example Romanian and Bulgarian.

Albanian has developed an analytical verbal structure in place of the earlier synthetic system, inherited from Proto-Indo-European. Its complex system of moods (6 types) and tenses (3 simple and 5 complex constructions) is distinctive among Balkan languages. There are two general types of conjugation. See Albanian morphology for more information.

Albanian word order

In Albanian the constituent order is subject–verb–object and negation is expressed by the particles nuk or s' in front of the verb, for example:

However, the verb can optionally occur in sentence-initial position, especially with verbs in the non-active form (forma joveprore):

In imperative sentences, the particle mos is used :

Albanian verbs, like those of other Balkan languages, have an "admirative" mood (mënyra habitore) which is used to indicate surprise on the part of the speaker, or to imply that an event is known to the speaker by report and not by direct observation. In some contexts, this mood can be translated by English "apparently".

Numerals

një—onedy—two
tre—threekatër—four
pesë—fivegjashtë—six
shtatë—seventetë—eight
nëntë—ninedhjetë—ten
njëmbëdhjetë–elevendymbëdhjetë—twelve
trembëdhjetë—thirteenkatërmbëdhjetë—fourteen
pesëmbëdhjetë—fifteengjashtëmbëdhjetë—sixteen
shtatëmbëdhjetë—seventeentetëmbëdhjetë—eighteen
nëntëmbëdhjetë—nineteennjëzet—twenty
njëzetenjë–twenty-onenjëzetedy—twenty-two
tridhjetë—thirtydyzet—forty
pesëdhjetë—fiftygjashtëdhjetë—sixty
shtatëdhjetë—seventytetëdhjetë—eighty
nëntëdhjetë—ninetynjëqind—one hundred
pesëqind—five hundrednjëmijë—one thousand
një milion—one millionnjë miliard—one billion

Vocabulary

Cognates with Illyrian

Early Greek loans

There are some 30 Ancient Greek loanwords in Albanian, some of which come from the Northwestern dialect, which point to contacts with Doric colonies on the Albanian coast and inland.[68] Ancient Greek loans mainly refer commodity items and trade goods.

Gothic loans

Some Gothic loanwords were borrowed through Late Latin, while others came from the Ostrogothic expansion into parts of Praevalitana around Nakšić and the Gulf of Kotor in Montenegro.

The earliest accepted document in the Albanian language is from the 15th century AD. The earliest reference to a Lingua Albanesca is from a 1285 document of Ragusa. This is a time when Albanian Principalities start to be mentioned and expand inside and outside the Byzantine Empire. It is assumed that Greek and Balkan Latin (which was the ancestor of Romanian and other Balkan Romance languages), would exert a great influence on Albanian. Examples of words borrowed from Latin: qytet < civitas (city), qiell < caelum (sky), mik < amicus (friend).

After the Slavs arrived in the Balkans, the Slavic languages became an additional source of loanwords. The rise of the Ottoman Empire meant an influx of Turkish words; this also entailed the borrowing of Persian and Arabic words through Turkish. Surprisingly the Persian words seem to have been absorbed the most. Some loanwords from Modern Greek also exist especially in the south of Albania. A lot of the borrowed words have been resubstituted from Albanian rooted words or modern Latinized (international) words.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Gheg 4,156,090 + Tosk 3,035,000 + Arbereshe 260,000 + Arvanitika 150,000 = 7,601,090. (Ethnologue, 2005)
    Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  2. ^ http://www.minorityrights.org/1617/italy/albanians.html
  3. ^ http://www.albanianlanguage.net/
  4. ^ Watkins & 1998 38.
  5. ^ Labov & 1994 42.
  6. ^ Hamp & 1994 66-67.
  7. ^ a b Mallory, Adams & 1997 9.
  8. ^ FWF.ac.at
  9. ^ Kopitar & 1829 254.
  10. ^ Meyer & 1888 805.
  11. ^ Meyer-Lübke & 1914 32.
  12. ^ Çabej & 1962 13-51.
  13. ^ Mihaescu & 1966 1, 30.
  14. ^ Mihaescu & 1966 1, 21.
  15. ^ Mihaescu & 1966 1-2.
  16. ^ Rosetti & 1986 195-197.
  17. ^ a b Hamp 1963.
  18. ^ Fine & 1991 10.
  19. ^ Kazhdan & 1991 52-53.
  20. ^ Brown, Ogilvie & 2008 23.
  21. ^ Fortson & 2004 392.
  22. ^ Demiraj 1999.
  23. ^ a b Lloshi & 12.
  24. ^ a b Lloshi, p.12
  25. ^ Üwe Hinrichs; Uwe Büttner (1999). Handbuch der Südosteuropa-Linguistik. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 291. ISBN 978-3-447-03939-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=Phyvk2tPaYQC&pg=PA291. Retrieved 17 May 2012. "The first attempts to write the albanian language are to found in the 12th - 13th centuries. It is understandable that the first documents may have been trade, economic, administrative and religious wrtitings compiled by low-rank clerics." 
  26. ^ Elsie & 2003 28-30.
  27. ^ Prifti & 1982 3.
  28. ^ Iorga & 1971 102.
  29. ^ Anamali & 2002 311.
  30. ^ Lloshi & 2008 97.
  31. ^ "Meshari". National Library of Albania. http://www.bksh.al/gsdl/cgi-bin/library.exe?e=d-01000-00---off-0antikuar--00-1--0-10-0---0---0prompt-10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-3-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-00&a=d&c=antikuar&cl=CL2.3. Retrieved 14 May 2010. 
  32. ^ Todericiu 1967.
  33. ^ Elsie & 1986 158-162.
  34. ^ Marmullaku & 1975 17.
  35. ^ a b Lloshi, p.9
  36. ^ Lloshi & 10.
  37. ^ a b c Lloshi, p.10
  38. ^ Kostallari, Androkli (1973). Drejtshkrimi i gjuhës shqipe. Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë),. http://books.google.com/books?id=M4LLPwAACAAJ&dq=Drejtshkrimi+i+gjuh%C3%ABs+shqipe&hl=en&ei=yn3xS5DONoP-8AaG39j9Cg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. 
  39. ^ Kostallari, Androkli (1976). Fjalori+drejtshkrimor+i+gjuh%C3%ABs+shqipe&cd=2 Fjalori drejtshkrimor i gjuhës shqipe. Instituti i Gjuhësisë dhe i Letërsisë (Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë),. http://books.google.com/books?id=3MilQQAACAAJ&dq=Fjalori+drejtshkrimor+i+gjuh%C3%ABs+shqipe&cd=2. 
  40. ^ Akademia e Shkencave e RPS të Shqipërisë, Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise (Albania). (1980). Fjalor i Gjuhes se Sotme Shqipe. Tirana: Academy of Sciences of Albania. http://books.google.com/books?id=IrsAGwAACAAJ&dq=Fjalor+i+gjuhes+se+sotme+shqipe&hl=en&ei=q540TIjLDYa8lQen8MjSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 7 July 2010. 
  41. ^ Fortson, Benjamin W (2004). Indo-European language and culture: an introduction. Blackwell Publishing. p. 390. ISBN 1-4051-0315-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=5hOtPBF6XWwC&printsec=frontcover&dq='Indo-European+Language+and+Culture:++An+Introduction'&cd=1#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 28 May 2010.  Albanian forms its own separate branch of Indo-European; it is the last branch to appear in written records
  42. ^ Watkins, Calvert. "Proto-Indo-European: Comparison and Reconstruction", in The Indo-European Languages, Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat, eds. London: Routledge, 1998.
  43. ^ Google Books, Mallory, J. P. and Adams, D. Q.: The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World
  44. ^ JHholm.de, Holm, Hans J.: The Distribution of Data in Word Lists and its Impact on the Subgrouping of Languages. In: Christine Preisach, Hans Burkhardt, Lars Schmidt-Thieme, Reinhold Decker (eds.): Data Analysis, Machine Learning, and Applications. Proc. of the 31st Annual Conference of the German Classification Society (GfKl), University of Freiburg, 7–9 March 2007. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin
  45. ^ HJholm.de A possible Homeland of the Indo-European Languages And their Migrations in the Light of the Separation Level Recovery (SLRD) Method - Hans J. Holm
  46. ^ "Perfect Phylogenetic Networks: A New Methodology for Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Natural Languages, pg. 396" (PDF). Archived from the original on 5 November 2010. http://www.cs.rice.edu/~nakhleh/Papers/81.2nakhleh.pdf. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  47. ^ Fine, JA. The Early medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press, 1991. p.10. Google Books
  48. ^ Fine, JA. The Early medieval Balkans. University of Michigan Press, 1991. p.11. Google Books
  49. ^ "FWF Austrian Science Fund - Press - (Old) Albanian - Living legacy of a dead language?". Fwf.ac.at. http://www.fwf.ac.at/en/public_relations/press/pv200805-en.html. Retrieved 22 September 2010. 
  50. ^ Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 ISBN 1-884964-98-2, ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  51. ^ Gjinari, Jorgji. Dialektologjia shqiptare
  52. ^ Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier, 2008 ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ISBN 978-0-08-087774-7
  53. ^ Orel, Vladimir (2000). A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. BRILL. p. 3. ISBN 978-90-04-11647-4. Retrieved 15 December 2010
  54. ^ de Vaan, Michiel. "PIE *e in Albanian". p. 72. https://openaccess.leidenuniv.nl/bitstream/1887/14920/2/de+Vaan+-+PIE+e+in+Albanian.pdf. Retrieved 16 December 2010. 
  55. ^ Elsie, Robert; (London, Centre for Albanian Studies; England) (2005). Albanian literature: a short history. I.B.Tauris. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-84511-031-4. http://books.google.gr/books?id=ox3Wx1Nl_2MC&pg=PA16&dq=schwa+albanian&hl=en&ei=Zh0JTaHODsqe4QaWuPCeAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=schwa%20albanian&f=false. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  56. ^ a b Granser, Thedor; Moosmüller (Sylvia). "The schwa in Albanian". Institute of Acoustics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. http://www.kfs.oeaw.ac.at/publications/2001_granser_moosmueller_the_schwa_in_albanian.pdf. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  57. ^ Maxwell, Daniel Newhall. (1979). A Crosslinguistic Correlation between Word Order and Casemarking institution. Bloomington: Indiana University Pub.
  58. ^ Stipčević, Aleksandar (1977). The Illyrians: history and culture. Noyes Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=NLcWAQAAIAAJ&q=mal+%2B+Illyrian&dq=mal+%2B+Illyrian&hl=nl&ei=F0UGTszDH9GSOuvv3I4L&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  59. ^ Language, Volumes 1-3. Linguistic Society of America. 1964. http://books.google.com/books?id=9_04AAAAMAAJ&q=bardi+%2B+Illyrian&dq=bardi+%2B+Illyrian&hl=nl&ei=okQGTpGOIIehOvrp0MQN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAg. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  60. ^ Mayani, Zĕchariă (1962). The Etruscans begin to speak. Souvenir Press. http://books.google.com/books?id=MMMkAAAAMAAJ&q=drenis+%2B+Illyrian&dq=drenis+%2B+Illyrian&hl=nl&ei=CEQGTseoKYmdOqPUwMoN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  61. ^ Diokletian und die Tetrarchie: Aspekte einer Zeitenwende. Millenium Studies. http://books.google.com/books?id=dSrxcnuJn44C&pg=PA152&dq=delme+%2B+Illyrian&hl=en&ei=Xj8GTs30Loy28QPPxOTBDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=delme%20%2B%20Illyrian&f=false. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  62. ^ Homeric whispers: intimations of orthodoxy in the Iliad and Odyssey. http://books.google.com/books?id=G4sYfFuSfekC&pg=PA72&dq=dardhe+%2B+illyrian&hl=nl&ei=OGQGTtTxL4aZOo6znMgN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=dardhe%20%2B%20illyrian&f=false. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  63. ^ Albanien: Schätze aus dem Land der Skipetaren. http://books.google.com/books?id=MyOFAAAAIAAJ&q=sica+thika&dq=sica+thika&hl=nl&ei=mWUGTuebGM-gOuakocAN&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  64. ^ Ancient Indo-European dialects: proceedings, Volume 1963. Millenium Studies. http://books.google.com/books?id=0c9CAAAAIAAJ&q=%22ulk%22+%2B+Illyrian&dq=%22ulk%22+%2B+Illyrian&hl=nl&ei=zxcHTvHGNMKa8QPj_cyvDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 25 June 2011. 
  65. ^ "Illyrian Glossary". bizland.com. http://indoeuro.bizland.com/project/glossary/illy.html. 
  66. ^ An Albanian historical grammar. 1977. http://books.google.nl/books?id=3LJiAAAAMAAJ&q=lo%C3%BAgeon+%2B+Illyrian&dq=lo%C3%BAgeon+%2B+Illyrian&hl=nl&ei=dD4HTrJnyIQ6lOKdxQ0&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 26 June 2011. 
  67. ^ Indo-european language and culture: an introduction Blackwell textbooks in linguistics Author Benjamin W. Fortson Edition 2, illustrated, reprint Publisher John Wiley and Sons, 2009 ISBN 1-4051-8896-0, ISBN 978-1-4051-8896-8 p.465
  68. ^ The Field of Linguistics, Volume 2 Volume 1 of World of linguistics Authors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Editors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Publisher Walter de Gruyter, 2010 ISBN 3-11-022025-3, ISBN 978-3-11-022025-4 p.412
  69. ^ Vladimir Orel (2000) postulates a Vulgar Latin intermediary for no good reason. Mallory & Adams (1997) erroneously give the word as native, from *melítiā, the protoform underlying Greek mélissa; however, this protoform gave Albanian mjalcë "bee", which is a natural derivative of Proto-Albanian *melita "honey" (mod. mjaltë).
  70. ^ a b c Ancient Indo-European dialects: proceedings, Volume 1963 Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Authors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel, University of California, Los Angeles. Center for Research in Languages and Linguistics Editors Henrik Birnbaum, Jaan Puhvel Publisher University of California Press, 1966 p.102
  71. ^ a b A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian Author Vladimir Ė. Orel Publisher BRILL, 2000 ISBN 90-04-11647-8, ISBN 978-90-04-11647-4 p.23
  72. ^ A concise historical grammar of the Albanian language: reconstruction of Proto-Albanian Author Vladimir Ė. Orel Publisher BRILL, 2000 ISBN 90-04-11647-8, ISBN 978-90-04-11647-4 p.102
  73. ^ The Field of Linguistics, Volume 2 Volume 1 of World of linguistics Authors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Editors Bernd Kortmann, Johan Van Der Auwera Publisher Walter de Gruyter, 2010 ISBN 3-11-022025-3, ISBN 978-3-11-022025-4 p.412
  74. ^ Guillaum Bonnet, Les mots latins de l'albanais (Paris: L'Harmattan, 1998), 324.
  75. ^ The word fat has both the meaning of "fate, luck" and "groom, husband". This may indicate two separate words that are homophones, one derived from Gothic and the other from Latin fātum; although, Orel (2000) sees them as the same word. Similarly, compare Albanian shortë "fate; spouse, wife" which mirrors the dichotomy in meaning of fat but is considered to stem from one single source—Latin sortem "fate".

Notes

a.  ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The latter declared independence on 17 February 2008, while Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory. Its independence is recognised by 91 out of 193 UN member states.

Bibliography

  • Ajeti, Idriz. La presence de l'albanais dans les parlers des populations slaves de la Peninsule Balkanique а la lumiere de la langue et de la toponymie. SA 1968/2
  • Ajeti, Idriz. Për historinë e marrëdhënieve të hershme gjuhësore shqiptare-sllave. SF 1972/4
  • Banfi, Emanuele. Linguistica balcanica. Bologna 1985
  • Banfi, Emanuele. Storia linguistica del sud-est europeo. Milano 1991
  • Bopp, Franz. Über das Albanesische in seinen verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen. Berlin (1855)
  • Buchholz, Oda / Fiedler, Wilfried: Albanische Grammatik ; Leipzig : VEB Verlag Enzyklopädie, (1987)
  • Camaj, Martin. Albanian Grammar. Wiesbaden, Germany: Otto Harrassowitz.
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Disa probleme themelore të historisë së vjetër të gjuhës shqipe. BUSHT,SSHSH 1962/4 (In German SA 1964/1)
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Rreth disa Çështjeve të historisë së gjuhës shqipe. BUSHT,SSHSH1963/3 (In Romanian SCL 1954/4)
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Mbi disa rregulla të fonetikës historike të shqipes. SF 1970/2 (In German “Die Sprache”, Wien 1972)
  • Çabej, Eqrem. L'ancien nom national des albanais. SA 1972/1
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Problemi i vendit të formimit të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1972/4
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Karakteristikat e huazimeve latine të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1974/2 (In German RL 1962/1)
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes.; vëll. II, Tiranë 1976
  • Çabej, Eqrem. Studime etimologjike në fushë të shqipes; vëll. I. Tiranë 1982
  • Camarda, Demetrio. Saggio di grammatologia comparata sulla lingua albanese. Livorno (1864)
  • Camarda, Demetrio. Appendice al Saggio di grammatologia sulla lingua albanese. Prato (1866)
  • Campbell, George L., ed. Compendium of the World’s Languages, 2nd edn., vol. 1: Abaza to Kurdish, s.v. “Albanian”. London and New York: Routledge, 2000, pp. 50–7.
  • Cimochowski, Waclaw. Recherches sur l'histoire du sandhi dans la langue albanaise. LP II, 1950
  • Cimochowski, Waclaw. Des recherches sur la toponomastique de l'Albanie. LP VIII, 1960
  • Cimochowski, Waclaw. Pozicioni gjuhësor i ilirishtes ballkanike në rrethin e gjuhëve indoevropiane. SF 1973/2
  • Demiraj, Shaban. ("Albanian" in pp. 480–501) "Albanian", within The Indo-European Languages, edited by Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat, eds. London: Routledge, 1998;
  • Demiraj, Shaban. Gjuha shqipe dhe historia e saj. Shtëpia botuese e librit universitar (Tirane) 1988
  • Demiraj, Shaban. Fonologjia historike e gjuhës shqipe. (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise) TOENA (Tirane), 1996
  • Demiraj, Shaban. Prejardhja e shqiptarëve në dritën e dëshmive të gjuhës shqipe. Shkenca (Tirane) 1999
  • Demiraj, Shaban. Gramatikë historike e gjuhës shqipe. (Akademia e Shkencave e Shqiperise. Instituti i Gjuhesise dhe i Letersise) 2002
  • De Simone, Carlo. Gli illiri del Sud. Tentativo di una definizione. “Iliria” (Tiranë) 1986/1
  • Desnickaja, A.V. Albanskij jazyk i ego dialekty. Leningrad 1968
  • Desnickaja, A.V. Language Interferences and Historical Dialectology Linguistics, EJ088069 (1973)
  • Desnickaja, A.V. Osnovy balkanskogo jazykoznanija, Cast 1. Leningrad: Nauka Press. 1990
  • Domi, Mahir. Prapashtesa ilire dhe shqipe, përkime dhe paralelizma. SF 1974/4
  • Domi, Mahir. Considerations sur les traits communs ou paralleles de l'albanais avec les autres langues balkaniques et sur leur etude. SA 1975/1
  • Encyclopædia Britannica, "Albanian language" article, 15th edn. (1985).
  • Fortson IV, Benjamin W. ("Albanian" in pp. 390–399) Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction. London: Blackwell, 2004.
  • Gjinari, Jorgji. Për historinë e dialekteve të gjuhës shqipe. SF 1968/4
  • Gjinari, Jorgji. Mbi vazhdimësinë e ilirishtes në gjuhën shqipe. SF 1969/3
  • Gjinari, Jorgji. Struktura dialektore e shqipes e parë në lidhje me historinë e popullit. SF 1976/3
  • Gjinari, Jorgji. Dëshmi të historisë së gjuhës shqipe për kohën dhe vendin e formimit të popullit shqiptar. SF 1982/3
  • Gjinari, Jorgji. Dialektologjia shqiptare. Prishtinë: Universiteti, 1970.
  • Hahn, Georg von. Albanesische Studien. Wien (1853)
  • Hamp, E. P. “Albanian”, in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, edited by R. E. Asher, vol. 1. Oxford: Pergamon, 1994, pp. 65–7.
  • Huld, Martin E. Basic Albanian etymologies. Columbus, OH: Slavica Publishers. (1984)
  • Katicic, Radoslav. Ancient languages of the Balkans (Trends in linguistics). The Hague and Paris: Mouton. (1976)
  • Kopitar, B.J. Albanische, walachische und bulgarische Sprache. Vienna (1829)
  • Kretschmer, Paul. Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache, (Introduction of the History of the Greek Language), Göttingen, (1896)
  • Kretschmer, Paul. Sprachliche Vorgeschichte des Balkans, (Parahistoria gjuhësore e Ballkanit), Revue Internationale des e'tudes balkaniquee, vol. II (1935)
  • Lambertz, Maximilian. Lehrgang des Albanischen. Teil I: Albanisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch. Teil II: Albanische Chrestomathie. Teil III: Grammatik der albanischen Sprache (Berlin: Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften 1954, Berlin 1955, Halle/Saale 1959)
  • Mallory, J.P. and D.Q. Adams. "Albanian", in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
  • Mayer, Antun. Die Sprache der alten Illyrier. B. II. Wien 1959
  • Mann, Stuart E.: An Albanian Historical Grammar ; Hamburg : Helmut Buske Verlag, 1977
  • Meyer, Gustav. Albanesische Studien. I - Wien 1882; III - 1892; V - 1896
  • Miklosich, Franz: Albanische Forschungen. I: Die slavischen Elemente im Albanischen. Wien (1870)
  • Miklosich, Franz. Albanische Forschugen, II: Die romanischen Elemente im Albanischen. Wien (1870)
  • Mihaescu, Haralambie. Les elements latins de la langue albanaise. RESEE 1966/1-2
  • Mihaescu, Haralambie La langue latine dans le sud-est de l’Europe. Bucuresti-Paris: Editura Academiei-Les Belles Lettres (1978)
  • Newmark, Leonard et al. Standard Albanian: A Reference Grammar for Students. Standford: Stanford University Press, 1982.
  • Ölberg, Hermann. Einige Uberlegungen zur Autochtonie der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel. Akten Innsbruck (1972)
  • Ölberg, Hermann. Kontributi i gjuhësisë për çështjen e atdheut ballkanik të shqiptarëve. SF 1982/3
  • Pedersen, Holger. Bidrag til den albanesiske sproghistorie. (Festskrift til Vilhelm Thomsen). Kobenhavn (1894)
  • Pedersen, Holger. Albanesisch 1905. Rom. Jb. IX (1905). Erlangen (1909)
  • Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : I rapporti linguistici interadriatici e l’elemento Latino dell’albanese në: Abruzzo. Rivista dell'Istituto di Studi Abruzzesi XIX, 1980
  • Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : Disa vëzhgime mbi elementin Latin të shqipes (Some observations over the Latin element of the Albanian language), in: SF 1982/3
  • Pellegrini, Giovan Battista : Avviamento alla linguistica albanese (Edizione rinnovata) (1997)
  • Pisani, Vittore L'albanais et les autres langues indoeuropéennes, "Annuaire de l'Institut de philologie et d'histoire orientales etslaves", t. X, Bruxelles, 1950
  • Pisani, Vittore. Les origines de la langue albanaise. SA 1964/1
  • Pisani, Vittore. Sulla genesi dell'albanese. Akten Innsbruck (1972)
  • Orel, Vladimir. A Concise Historical Grammar of the Albanian Language: Reconstruction of Proto-Albanian. Leiden: Brill, 2000.
  • Price, Glanville, ed. Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, s.v. “Albanian”. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 4–8.
  • Riza, Selman. Studime albanistike. Pristina 1979
  • Sandfeld, Kristian. Linguistique balkanique, problemes et resultats. Paris 1930
  • Tagliavini, Carlo. La stratificazione del lessico albanese. Elementi indoeuropei. Bologna 1965
  • Thumb, A. Altgriechische Elemente des Albanesischen. IF 26 (1926)
  • Thunmann, Johann. Untersuchungen über die Geschichte der östlichen europäischen Völker. Laipzig (1774)
  • Watkins, Calvert. "Proto-Indo-European: Comparison and Reconstruction", in The Indo-European Languages, Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat, eds. London: Routledge, 1998.
  • Ylli, Xhelal; Sobolev, Andrej N. Albanskii gegskii govor sela Muhurr. Muenchen: Biblion Verlag, 2003. ISBN 3-932331-36-2

External links

Samples of various Albanian dialects
Dictionaries
Keyboard layouts