Shot put

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Athletics
Shot put
Tomasz Majewski - 2. Memoriał Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg
The double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski.
Men's records
WorldUnited States Randy Barnes 23.12 m (1990)
OlympicEast Germany Ulf Timmermann 22.47 m (1988)
Women's records
WorldSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (1987)
OlympicEast Germany Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (1980)
 
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Athletics
Shot put
Tomasz Majewski - 2. Memoriał Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg
The double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski.
Men's records
WorldUnited States Randy Barnes 23.12 m (1990)
OlympicEast Germany Ulf Timmermann 22.47 m (1988)
Women's records
WorldSoviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (1987)
OlympicEast Germany Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (1980)

The shot put (pronounced /ˈʃɒt pʊt/) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object —the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women's competition began in 1948.

History[edit]

Czechoslovakian shot putter Plihan at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stopboard

Homer makes mention of competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, and date back to approximately the first century.[1] In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing.[citation needed]

The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866.[2]

Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135 metres (7.00 ft) in diameter, with a stopboard about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made in the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules.

Legal throws[edit]

Czechoslovakian shot putter Jiří Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck

The following rules are adhered to for a legal throw:

Foul throws occur when an athlete:

Misconceptions[edit]

The following are either obsolete or non-existent but commonly believed rules:

Competition[edit]

A shot putter with a representation of the circle and legal sector

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, and it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.

Each competition has a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three preliminary rounds to determine qualification for the final, and then three more rounds in the final. Each competitor is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner.

In open competitions the men's shot weighs 7.260 kilograms (16.01 lb), and the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms (8.8 lb). Junior, school, and masters competitions often use different weights of shots, typically below the weights of those used in open competitions; the individual rules for each competition should be consulted in order to determine the correct weights to be used.

Putting styles[edit]

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty degrees.

Glide[edit]

The origin of the glide dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien of the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot.

With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle, and then kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right. As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, the left arm is swung out then pulled back tight, followed by the shoulders, and they then strike in a putting motion with their right arm. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name "glide".

Spin[edit]

In 1972 Aleksandr Baryshnikov set his first USSR record using a new putting style, the spin ("круговой мах" in Russian), invented by his coach Viktor Alexeyev.[3][4] The spin involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. In 1976 Baryshnikov went on to set a world record of 22.00 m (72.18 ft) with his spin style, and was the first shot putter to cross the 22 metre mark.[5]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the middle of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twisting the hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.

When the athlete executes the spin, the upper body is twisted hard to the right, so the imaginary lines created by the shoulders and hips are no longer parallel. This action builds up torque, and stretches the muscles, creating an involuntary elasticity in the muscles, providing extra power and momentum. When the athlete prepares to release, the left foot is firmly planted, causing the momentum and energy generated to be conserved, pushing the shot in an upward and outward direction.

Another purpose of the spin is to build up a high rotational speed, by swinging the right leg initially, then to bring all the limbs in tightly, similar to a figure skater bringing in their arms while spinning to increase their speed. Once this fast speed is achieved the shot is released, transferring the energy into the shot put.

Usage[edit]

Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin. However the glide remains popular, especially among Olympic and World Champions and among women, since the technique leads to greater consistency compared to the rotational technique. Almost all throwers start by using the glide. Tomasz Majewski notes that although most athletes use the spin,[6] he and some other top shot putters achieved success using this classic method (for example he became first to defend the Olympic title in 56 years).

The world record by a male putter of 23.120 m (75 ft 10.236 in) by Randy Barnes was completed with the spin technique, while the second-best all-time put of 23.063 m (75 ft 7.992 in) by Ulf Timmermann was completed with the glide technique.

Measuring which technique can provide the most potential is difficult, as many of the best throws recorded with each technique have been completed by athletes under doping suspicions, or with a record of drug violations.[citation needed] The decision to glide or spin may need to be decided on an individual basis, determined by the thrower's size and power. Short throwers may benefit from the spin and taller throwers may benefit from the glide, but many throwers do not follow this guideline.

Types of shots[edit]

The shot put ball is made of different kinds of materials depending on its intended use. Materials used include iron, cast iron, solid steel, stainless steel, brass, and synthetic materials like polyvinyl. Some metals are more dense than others making the size of the shot vary, for example, indoor shots are larger than outdoor shots, so different materials are used to make them. There are various size and weight standards for the implement that depend on the age and gender of the competitors as well as the national customs of the governing body.

World records[edit]

The current world record holders are:

TypeAthleteDistanceVenueDate
Men
OutdoorRandy Barnes23.12 m (75 ft 10 in)Westwood, Los Angeles, California, USAMay 20, 1990
IndoorRandy Barnes22.66 m (74 ft 4 in)Los Angeles, California, USAJanuary 20, 1989
Women
OutdoorNatalya Lisovskaya22.63 m (74 ft 234 in)Moscow, USSRJune 7, 1987
IndoorHelena Fibingerová22.50 m (73 ft 934 in)Jablonec, CZEFebruary 19, 1977

Continental records[edit]

The current records held on each continent are:[7]

AreaMen'sWomen's
DistanceAthleteNationDistanceAthleteNation
Africa21.97 m (72 ft 034 in)Janus Robberts South Africa18.35 m (60 ft 214 in)Vivian Chukwuemeka Nigeria
Asia21.13 m (69 ft 334 in)Sultan Abdulmajeed Al-Hebshi Saudi Arabia21.76 m (71 ft 412 in)Meisu Li China
Europe23.06 m (75 ft 734 in)Ulf Timmermann East Germany22.63 m (74 ft 234 in) WRNatalya Lisovskaya Soviet Union
North and Central
America, and Caribbean
23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) WRRandy Barnes United States20.96 m (68 ft 9 in) ABelsy Laza Cuba
Oceania21.26 m (69 ft 9 in)Scott Martin Australia21.24 m (69 ft 8 in)Valerie Adams New Zealand
South America21.26 m (69 ft 9 in)[8]German Lauro Argentina19.30 m (63 ft 334 in) AElisângela Adriano Brazil

Top ten performers[edit]

Men[edit]

RankMarkAthleteNationalityLocationDate
123.12 m (75 ft 10 in)Randy Barnes United StatesUCLAMay 20, 1990
223.06 m (75 ft 734 in)Ulf Timmermann East GermanyKhaniaMay 22, 1988
322.91 m (75 ft 134 in)Alessandro Andrei ItalyViareggioAugust 12, 1987
422.86 m (75 ft 0 in)Brian Oldfield United StatesEl PasoMay 10, 1975
522.75 m (74 ft 712 in)Werner Günthör  SwitzerlandBernAugust 23, 1988
622.67 m (74 ft 412 in)Kevin Toth United StatesLawrenceApril 19, 2003
722.64 m (74 ft 314 in)Udo Beyer East GermanyBerlinAugust 20, 1986
822.54 m (73 ft 1114 in)Christian Cantwell United StatesGreshamJune 5, 2004
922.52 m (73 ft 1012 in)John Brenner United StatesWalnutApril 26, 1987
1022.51 m (73 ft 10 in)Adam Nelson United StatesGreshamMay 18, 2002

Women[edit]

RankMarkAthleteNationalityLocationDate
122.63 m (74 ft 234 in)Natalya Lisovskaya Soviet UnionMoscowJune 7, 1987
222.45 m (73 ft 734 in)Ilona Briesenick East GermanyPotsdamMay 11, 1980
322.32 m (73 ft 212 in)Helena Fibingerová CzechoslovakiaNitraAugust 20, 1977
422.19 m (72 ft 912 in)Claudia Losch West GermanyHainfeldAugust 23, 1987
521.89 m (71 ft 934 in)Ivanka Khristova BulgariaBelmekenJuly 4, 1976
621.86 m (71 ft 812 in)Marianne Adam East GermanyLeipzigJune 23, 1979
721.76 m (71 ft 412 in)Li Meisu ChinaShijiazhuangApril 23, 1988
821.73 m (71 ft 312 in)Natalya Akhrimenko Soviet UnionLeselidzeMay 21, 1988
921.69 m (71 ft 134 in)Vita Pavlysh UkraineBudapestAugust 15, 1998
1021.66 m (71 ft 034 in)Sui Xinmei ChinaBeijingJune 9, 1990

Olympic medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1896 Athens
details
 Robert Garrett (USA) Miltiadis Gouskos (GRE) Georgios Papasideris (GRE)
1900 Paris
details
 Richard Sheldon (USA) Josiah McCracken (USA) Robert Garrett (USA)
1904 St. Louis
details
 Ralph Rose (USA) Wesley Coe (USA) Lawrence Feuerbach (USA)
1908 London
details
 Ralph Rose (USA) Denis Horgan (GBR) John Garrels (USA)
1912 Stockholm
details
 Pat McDonald (USA) Ralph Rose (USA) Lawrence Whitney (USA)
1920 Antwerp
details
 Ville Pörhölä (FIN) Elmer Niklander (FIN) Harry Liversedge (USA)
1924 Paris
details
 Bud Houser (USA) Glenn Hartranft (USA) Ralph Hills (USA)
1928 Amsterdam
details
 John Kuck (USA) Herman Brix (USA) Emil Hirschfeld (GER)
1932 Los Angeles
details
 Leo Sexton (USA) Harlow Rothert (USA) František Douda (TCH)
1936 Berlin
details
 Hans Woellke (GER) Sulo Bärlund (FIN) Gerhard Stöck (GER)
1948 London
details
 Wilbur Thompson (USA) Jim Delaney (USA) Jim Fuchs (USA)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Parry O'Brien (USA) Darrow Hooper (USA) Jim Fuchs (USA)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Parry O'Brien (USA) Bill Nieder (USA) Jiří Skobla (TCH)
1960 Rome
details
 Bill Nieder (USA) Parry O'Brien (USA) Dallas Long (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Dallas Long (USA) Randy Matson (USA) Vilmos Varjú (HUN)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Randy Matson (USA) George Woods (USA) Eduard Gushchin (URS)
1972 Munich
details
 Władysław Komar (POL) George Woods (USA) Hartmut Briesenick (GDR)
1976 Montreal
details
 Udo Beyer (GDR) Yevgeny Mironov (URS) Aleksandr Baryshnikov (URS)
1980 Moscow
details
 Vladimir Kiselyov (URS) Aleksandr Baryshnikov (URS) Udo Beyer (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Alessandro Andrei (ITA) Mike Carter (USA) Dave Laut (USA)
1988 Seoul
details
 Ulf Timmermann (GDR) Randy Barnes (USA) Werner Günthör (SUI)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Mike Stulce (USA) Jim Doehring (USA) Vyacheslav Lykho (EUN)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Randy Barnes (USA) John Godina (USA) Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
2000 Sydney
details
 Arsi Harju (FIN) Adam Nelson (USA) John Godina (USA)
2004 Athens
details
 Adam Nelson (USA) Joachim Olsen (DEN) Manuel Martínez (ESP)
2008 Beijing
details
 Tomasz Majewski (POL) Christian Cantwell (USA) Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)
2012 London
details
 Tomasz Majewski (POL) David Storl (GER) Reese Hoffa (USA)

Women[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1948 London
details
 Micheline Ostermeyer (FRA) Amelia Piccinini (ITA) Ina Schäffer (AUT)
1952 Helsinki
details
 Galina Zybina (URS) Marianne Werner (GER) Klavdiya Tochenova (URS)
1956 Melbourne
details
 Tamara Tyshkevich (URS) Galina Zybina (URS) Marianne Werner (EUA)
1960 Rome
details
 Tamara Press (URS) Johanna Lüttge (EUA) Earlene Brown (USA)
1964 Tokyo
details
 Tamara Press (URS) Renate Culmberger (EUA) Galina Zybina (URS)
1968 Mexico City
details
 Margitta Gummel (GDR) Marita Lange (GDR) Nadezhda Chizhova (URS)
1972 Munich
details
 Nadezhda Chizhova (URS) Margitta Gummel (GDR) Ivanka Khristova (BUL)
1976 Montreal
details
 Ivanka Khristova (BUL) Nadezhda Chizhova (URS) Helena Fibingerová (TCH)
1980 Moscow
details
 Ilona Slupianek (GDR) Svetlana Krachevskaya (URS) Margitta Pufe (GDR)
1984 Los Angeles
details
 Claudia Losch (FRG) Mihaela Loghin (ROU) Gael Martin (AUS)
1988 Seoul
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS) Kathrin Neimke (GDR) Li Meisu (CHN)
1992 Barcelona
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (EUN) Huang Zhihong (CHN) Kathrin Neimke (GER)
1996 Atlanta
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER) Sui Xinmei (CHN) Irina Khudoroshkina (RUS)
2000 Sydney
details
 Yanina Karolchik (BLR) Larisa Peleshenko (RUS) Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)
2004 Athens
details
 Yumileidi Cumbá (CUB) Nadine Kleinert (GER)Not awarded[11]
2008 Beijing
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL) Natallia Mikhnevich (BLR) Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)
2012 London
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL) Yevgeniya Kolodko (RUS) Gong Lijiao (CHN)

World Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki Edward Sarul (POL) Ulf Timmermann (GDR) Remigius Machura (TCH)
1987 Rome Werner Günthör (SUI) Alessandro Andrei (ITA) John Brenner (USA)
1991 Tokyo Werner Günthör (SUI) Lars Arvid Nilsen (NOR) Aleksandr Klimenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart Werner Günthör (SUI) Randy Barnes (USA) Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg John Godina (USA) Mika Halvari (FIN) Randy Barnes (USA)
1997 Athens John Godina (USA) Oliver-Sven Buder (GER) C. J. Hunter (USA)
1999 Seville C. J. Hunter (USA) Oliver-Sven Buder (GER) Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
2001 Edmonton John Godina (USA) Adam Nelson (USA) Arsi Harju (FIN)
2003 Saint-Denis Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR) Adam Nelson (USA) Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki Adam Nelson (USA) Rutger Smith (NED) Ralf Bartels (GER)
2007 Osaka Reese Hoffa (USA) Adam Nelson (USA) Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)
2009 Berlin Christian Cantwell (USA) Tomasz Majewski (POL) Ralf Bartels (GER)
2011 Daegu David Storl (GER) Dylan Armstrong (CAN) Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)
2013 Moscow David Storl (GER) Ryan Whiting (USA) Dylan Armstrong (CAN)


Women[edit]

GamesGoldSilverBronze
1983 Helsinki Helena Fibingerová (TCH) Helma Knorscheidt (GDR) Ilona Schoknecht-Slupianek (GDR)
1987 Rome Natalya Lisovskaya (URS) Kathrin Neimke (GDR) Ines Müller (GDR)
1991 Tokyo Huang Zhihong (CHN) Natalya Lisovskaya (URS) Svetlana Krivelyova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart Huang Zhihong (CHN) Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS) Kathrin Neimke (GER)
1995 Gothenburg Astrid Kumbernuss (GER) Huang Zhihong (CHN) Svetla Mitkova (BUL)
1997 Athens Astrid Kumbernuss (GER) Vita Pavlysh (UKR) Stephanie Storp (GER)
1999 Seville Astrid Kumbernuss (GER) Nadine Kleinert (GER) Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2001 Edmonton Yanina Karolchik (BLR) Nadine Kleinert (GER) Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2003 Saint-Denis Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS) Nadzeya Astapchuk (BLR) Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki[12] Olga Ryabinkina (RUS) Valerie Vili (NZL) Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2007 Osaka Valerie Vili (NZL) Nadzeya Astapchuk (BLR) Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2009 Berlin Valerie Vili (NZL) Nadine Kleinert (GER) Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2011 Daegu Valerie Adams (NZL) Nadzeya Astapchuk (BLR) Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2013 Moscow Valerie Adams (NZL) Christina Schwanitz (GER) Gong Lijiao (CHN)

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]