Shikoku Pilgrimage

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Pilgrims at Zentsū-ji, Temple 75 and the birthplace of Kūkai
An aruki-henro or walking pilgrim, marked out by his distinctive sedge hat, white shirt, and kongō-zue. The henro-michi route passes through the countryside and a number of cities.

The Shikoku Pilgrimage (四国遍路 Shikoku Henro?) or Shikoku Junrei (四国巡礼?) is a multi-site pilgrimage of 88 temples associated with the Buddhist monk Kūkai (Kōbō Daishi) on the island of Shikoku, Japan. A popular and distinctive feature of the island's cultural landscape, and with a long history, large numbers of pilgrims (known as henro (遍路?)) still undertake the journey for a variety of ascetic, pious, and tourism-related purposes.[1] The pilgrimage is traditionally completed on foot, but modern pilgrims use cars, taxis, buses, bicycles, or motorcycles. The standard walking course is approximately 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) long and can take anywhere from 30 to 60 days to complete.

In addition to the 88 "official" temples of the pilgrimage, there are over 200 bangai — temples not considered part of the official 88. To complete the pilgrimage, it is not necessary to visit the temples in order; in some cases it is even considered lucky[citation needed] to travel in reverse order. Henro (遍路?) is the Japanese word for pilgrim, and the inhabitants of Shikoku call the pilgrims o-henro-san (お遍路さん?), the o (?) being an honorific and the san (さん?) a title similar to "Mr." or "Mrs.". They are often recognizable by their white clothing, sedge hats, and kongō-zue or walking sticks. Alms or osettai are frequently given. Many pilgrims begin and complete the journey by visiting Mount Kōya in Wakayama Prefecture, which was settled by Kūkai and remains the headquarters of Shingon Buddhism. The 21 kilometres (13 mi) walking trail up to Koya-san still exists, but most pilgrims use the train.

Attesting to the popularity of the Shikoku pilgrimage, from the eighteenth century a number of smaller imitative versions have been established.[2] These include a 150 kilometres (93 mi) circuit on Shōdo Island northeast of Takamatsu;[3] a 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) course on the grounds of Ninna-ji in Kyoto;[4] a route on the Chita Peninsula near Nagoya;[5] and circuits in Edo and Chiba Prefecture.[2]

History[edit]

Background[edit]

Pilgrimages have played an important part in Japanese religious practice since at least the Heian period. Typically centred upon holy mountains, particular divinities, or charismatic individuals, they are usually to Buddhist sites although those to the shrines of Kumano and Ise are notable exceptions.[1][2]

Kōbō Daishi[edit]

Kūkai, born at Zentsū-ji (Temple 75) in 774, studied in China, and upon his return was influential in the promotion of esoteric Buddhism. He established the Shingon retreat of Kōya-san, was an active writer, undertook a programme of public works, and during visits to the island of his birth is popularly said to have established or visited many of its temples and to have carved many of their images. He is posthumously known as Kōbō Daishi.[6][7]

Development[edit]

The legends and cult of Kōbō Daishi, such as the episode of Emon Saburō, were maintained and developed by the monks of Kōya-san who travelled to expound Shingon and were active, along with other hijiri, in Shikoku.[8] In the Edo period, the policy of tochi kinbaku (土地緊縛?) restricted and regulated the movement of ordinary people. Pilgrims were required to obtain travel permits, follow the main paths, and pass through localities within a certain time limit, with the book of temple stamps or nōkyō-chō helping to provide proof of passage.[9]

Practice[edit]

Stages[edit]

Shikoku literally means four provinces, those of Awa, Tosa, Iyo, and Sanuki, reorganised during the Meiji period into the Prefectures of Tokushima, Kōchi, Ehime, and Kagawa. The pilgrim's journey through these four provinces is likened to a symbolic path to enlightenment, with temples 1-23 representing the idea of awakening (発心 hosshin?), 24-39 austerity and discipline (修行 shugyō?), 40-65 attaining enlightenment (菩提 bodai?), and 66-88 entering nirvana (涅槃 nehan?).[10]

Equipment[edit]

The pilgrim's traditional costume comprises a white shirt (白衣 oizuru?), conical Asian hat (すげ笠 suge-kasa?), and kongō-zue (金剛杖?). This may be supplemented by a wagesa (輪袈裟?). The henro also carries a bag (ずだ袋 zuda-bukuro?) containing name slips (納札 osame-fuda?), prayer beads (数珠 juzu?) (also known as nenju (念珠?)), a nōkyō-chō (納経帳?), incense sticks (線香 senkō?), and coins used as offerings (お賽銭 o-saisen?). The more religiously-minded henro may also carry a book of sutras (経本 kyōbon?) and go-eika (ご詠歌?) set with a bell.[11]

Rites[edit]

Upon arrival at each temple the henro washes before proceeding to the Hondō. After offering coins, incense, and the osame-fuda, the Heart Sutra (般若心経 Hannya Shingyō?) is chanted along with repetition of the Mantra of the main image (本尊 honzon?) and the Mantra of Light (光明真言 Kōmyō Shingon?). After kigan and ekō prayers, the henro proceeds to the Daishidō. Coins and a fuda are similarly offered, and again the Heart Sutra is chanted, along with repetition of the Gohōgō Mantra, namu-Daishi-henjō-kongō.[11]

The 88 Temples[edit]

Collectively, the 88 temples are known as Shikoku Hachijūhakkasho (四国八十八箇所?) or simply the Hachijūhakkasho (八十八箇所?).

No.TempleHonzon (main image)LocationCoordinatesImage
1Ryōzen-ji (霊山寺)Shaka NyoraiNaruto, Tokushima34°09′35″N 134°30′09″E / 34.159803°N 134.502592°E / 34.159803; 134.502592 (Ryōzen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #1))Jikuwasan Ryozenji 01.JPG
2Gokuraku-ji (極楽寺)Amida NyoraiNaruto, Tokushima34°09′20″N 134°29′25″E / 34.155556°N 134.490278°E / 34.155556; 134.490278 (Gokuraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #2))Nishozan-gokurakuji-main.JPG
3Konsen-ji (金泉寺)Shaka NyoraiItano, Tokushima34°08′51″N 134°28′07″E / 34.147436°N 134.468544°E / 34.147436; 134.468544 (Konsen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #3))Konsenji 01.JPG
4Dainichi-ji (大日寺)Dainichi NyoraiItano, Tokushima34°09′05″N 134°25′51″E / 34.151306°N 134.430889°E / 34.151306; 134.430889 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #4))P4022426ー4番大日寺夫婦遍路.jpg
5Jizō-ji (地蔵寺)Enmei Jizō BosatsuItano, Tokushima34°08′14″N 134°25′55″E / 34.137222°N 134.431944°E / 34.137222; 134.431944 (Jizō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #5))Mujinzan Jizoji 01.JPG
6Anraku-ji (安楽寺)Yakushi NyoraiKamiita, Tokushima34°07′05″N 134°23′18″E / 34.118056°N 134.388389°E / 34.118056; 134.388389 (Anraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #6))Onsenzan-anrakuji-tahouto.JPG
7Jūraku-ji (十楽寺)Amida NyoraiAwa, Tokushima34°07′15″N 134°22′41″E / 34.12075°N 134.377925°E / 34.12075; 134.377925 (Jūraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #7))P4022616ー7番十楽寺本堂.jpg
8Kumadani-ji (熊谷寺)Senjū KannonAwa, Tokushima34°07′22″N 134°20′24″E / 34.122778°N 134.34°E / 34.122778; 134.34 (Kumadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #8))P4022665-8番 熊谷寺山門から本堂への石段.jpg
9Hōrin-ji (法輪寺)Shaka NyoraiAwa, Tokushima34°06′16″N 134°20′02″E / 34.104378°N 134.333814°E / 34.104378; 134.333814 (Hōrin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #9))Shokakuzan Horinji 01.JPG
10Kirihata-ji (切幡寺)Senjū KannonAwa, Tokushima34°06′28″N 134°18′15″E / 34.10775°N 134.304278°E / 34.10775; 134.304278 (Kirihata-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #10))Kirihataji 03.JPG
11Fujii-dera (藤井寺)Yakushi NyoraiYoshinogawa, Tokushima34°03′06″N 134°20′55″E / 34.051667°N 134.3485°E / 34.051667; 134.3485 (Fujii-dera (Shikoku Pilgrimage #11))Fujiizenji 02.JPG
12Shōsan-ji (焼山寺)Kokūzō BosatsuKamiyama, Tokushima33°59′06″N 134°18′37″E / 33.985028°N 134.31025°E / 33.985028; 134.31025 (Shōsan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #12))Shozanji 02.JPG
13Dainichi-ji (大日寺)Jūichimen KannonTokushima, Tokushima34°02′17″N 134°27′46″E / 34.038117°N 134.462683°E / 34.038117; 134.462683 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #13))Ogurizan Dainichiji 03.JPG
14Jōraku-ji (常楽寺)Miroku BosatsuTokushima, Tokushima34°03′01″N 134°28′32″E / 34.050333°N 134.475639°E / 34.050333; 134.475639 (Jōraku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #14))Seijuzan Jorakuji 06.JPG
15Awa Kokubun-ji (阿波国分寺)Yakushi NyoraiTokushima, Tokushima34°03′20″N 134°28′25″E / 34.055611°N 134.473611°E / 34.055611; 134.473611 (Awa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #15))Awa Kokubunji 12.JPG
16Kannon-ji (観音寺)Senjū KannonTokushima, Tokushima34°04′06″N 134°28′28″E / 34.068472°N 134.474344°E / 34.068472; 134.474344 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #16))Kanonji, Tokushima 02.JPG
17Ido-ji (井戸寺)Yakushi NyoraiTokushima, Tokushima34°05′07″N 134°29′08″E / 34.085167°N 134.485444°E / 34.085167; 134.485444 (Ido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #17))Idoji Hondo.jpg
18Onzan-ji (恩山寺)Yakushi NyoraiKomatsushima, Tokushima33°59′10″N 134°34′42″E / 33.986°N 134.57825°E / 33.986; 134.57825 (Onzan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #18))Onzanji 06.JPG
19Tatsue-ji (立江寺)Jizō BosatsuKomatsushima, Tokushima33°58′04″N 134°36′21″E / 33.967861°N 134.605806°E / 33.967861; 134.605806 (Tatsue-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #19))Tatueji 03.JPG
20Kakurin-ji (鶴林寺)Jizō BosatsuKatsuura, Tokushima33°54′50″N 134°30′20″E / 33.913861°N 134.505611°E / 33.913861; 134.505611 (Kakurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #20))Ryojuzan Kakurinji 05.JPG
21Tairyūji (太竜寺)Kokūzō BosatsuAnan, Tokushima33°52′57″N 134°31′19″E / 33.882528°N 134.521889°E / 33.882528; 134.521889 (Tairyūji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #21))Tairyuji 05.JPG
22Byōdō-ji (平等寺)Yakushi NyoraiAnan, Tokushima33°51′07″N 134°34′58″E / 33.851833°N 134.582778°E / 33.851833; 134.582778 (Byōdō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #22))Byodoji 03.JPG
23Yakuō-ji (薬王寺)Yakushi NyoraiMinami, Tokushima33°43′56″N 134°31′39″E / 33.732306°N 134.527583°E / 33.732306; 134.527583 (Yakuō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #23))Yakuoji 02.JPG
24Hotsumisaki-ji (最御崎寺)Kokūzō BosatsuMuroto, Kochi33°14′56″N 134°10′33″E / 33.249008°N 134.175739°E / 33.249008; 134.175739 (Hotsumisaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #24))Hotsumisakiji 02.JPG
25Shinshō-ji (津照寺)Jizō BosatsuMuroto, Kōchi33°17′16″N 134°08′54″E / 33.287806°N 134.14825°E / 33.287806; 134.14825 (Shinshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #25))Shinshoji 04.JPG
26Kongōchō-ji (金剛頂寺)Yakushi NyoraiMuroto, Kōchi33°18′26″N 134°07′22″E / 33.307222°N 134.122861°E / 33.307222; 134.122861 (Kongōchō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #26))Kongochoji,龍頭山金剛頂寺 大師堂(室戸市)、26番札所 高知県室戸市元崎山 DSCF7169.JPG
27Kōnomine-ji (神峰寺)Jūichimen KannonYasuda, Kōchi33°28′03″N 133°58′29″E / 33.467611°N 133.974778°E / 33.467611; 133.974778 (Kōnomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #27))Kounomineji 05.JPG
28Dainichi-ji (大日寺)Dainichi NyoraiKōnan, Kōchi33°34′39″N 133°42′19″E / 33.577583°N 133.705389°E / 33.577583; 133.705389 (Dainichi-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #28))Houkaisan Dainichiji 05.JPG
29Tosa Kokubun-ji (土佐国分寺)Senjū KannonNankoku, Kōchi33°35′55″N 133°38′26″E / 33.598694°N 133.640417°E / 33.598694; 133.640417 (Tosa Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #29))Tosa Kokubunji 04.JPG
30Zenrakuji (善楽寺)Amida NyoraiKōchi, Kōchi33°35′31″N 133°34′39″E / 33.591917°N 133.577556°E / 33.591917; 133.577556 (Zenrakuji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #30))Zenrakuji01s3872.jpg
31Chikurin-ji (竹林寺)Monju BosatsuKōchi, Kōchi33°32′48″N 133°34′39″E / 33.546611°N 133.577472°E / 33.546611; 133.577472 (Chikurin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #31))Chikurinji Kochi31s3872.jpg
32Zenjibu-ji (禅師峰寺)Jūichimen KannonNankoku, Kōchi33°31′36″N 133°36′41″E / 33.526694°N 133.611389°E / 33.526694; 133.611389 (Zenjibu-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #32))Zenjibuji 05.JPG
33Sekkei-ji (雪蹊寺)Yakushi NyoraiKōchi, Kōchi33°30′03″N 133°32′35″E / 33.500833°N 133.543083°E / 33.500833; 133.543083 (Sekkei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #33))Sekkeiji 02.JPG
34Tanema-ji (種間寺)Yakushi NyoraiHaruno, Kōchi33°29′30″N 133°29′15″E / 33.491722°N 133.487583°E / 33.491722; 133.487583 (Tanema-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #34))Tanemaji 03.JPG
35Kiyotaki-ji (清滝寺)Yakushi NyoraiTosa, Kōchi33°30′45″N 133°24′34″E / 33.5125°N 133.4095°E / 33.5125; 133.4095 (Kiyotaki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #35))Iozan Kiyotakiji 05.JPG
36Shōryū-ji (青竜寺)Fudō MyōōTosa, Kōchi33°25′34″N 133°27′03″E / 33.426°N 133.450806°E / 33.426; 133.450806 (Shōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #36))Shoryuji 03.JPG
37Iwamoto-ji (岩本寺)Five BuddhasShimanto, Kōchi33°12′29″N 133°08′05″E / 33.207972°N 133.134611°E / 33.207972; 133.134611 (Iwamoto-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #37))Iwamotoji 02.JPG
38Kongōfuku-ji (金剛福寺)Senjū KannonTosashimizu, Kōchi32°43′34″N 133°01′07″E / 32.726028°N 133.018556°E / 32.726028; 133.018556 (Kongōfuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #38))Kongofukuji 05.JPG
39Enkō-ji (延光寺)Yakushi NyoraiSukumo, Kōchi32°57′41″N 132°46′27″E / 32.961306°N 132.774056°E / 32.961306; 132.774056 (Enkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #39))Enkouji 01.JPG
40Kanjizai-ji (観自在寺)Yakushi NyoraiAinan, Ehime32°57′53″N 132°33′51″E / 32.964667°N 132.564056°E / 32.964667; 132.564056 (Kanjizai-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #40))Kanjizaiji 07.JPG
41Ryūkōji (竜光寺)Jūichimen KannonUwajima, Ehime33°17′43″N 132°35′55″E / 33.295194°N 132.5985°E / 33.295194; 132.5985 (Ryūkō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #41))Inarizan Ryukoji 04.JPG
42Butsumoku-ji (佛木寺)Dainichi NyoraiUwajima, Ehime33°18′38″N 132°34′53″E / 33.310583°N 132.581472°E / 33.310583; 132.581472 (Butsumoku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #42))Butsumokuji 03.JPG
43Meiseki-ji (明石寺)Senjū KannonSeiyo, Ehime33°22′09″N 132°31′08″E / 33.369222°N 132.518972°E / 33.369222; 132.518972 (Meiseki-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #43))Meisekiji 01.JPG
44Daihō-ji (大宝寺)Jūichimen KannonKumakōgen, Ehime33°39′39″N 132°54′43″E / 33.660889°N 132.912083°E / 33.660889; 132.912083 (Daihō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #44))Sugozan Daihoji 03.JPG
45Iwaya-ji (岩屋寺)Fudō MyōōKumakōgen, Ehime33°39′31″N 132°58′51″E / 33.658667°N 132.980722°E / 33.658667; 132.980722 (Iwaya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #45))Iwayadera temple.jpg
46Jōruri-ji (浄瑠璃寺)Yakushi NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°45′13″N 132°49′09″E / 33.753556°N 132.819111°E / 33.753556; 132.819111 (Jōruri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #46))Iozan Joruriji 03.JPG
47Yasaka-ji (八坂寺)Amida NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°45′29″N 132°48′46″E / 33.757944°N 132.812861°E / 33.757944; 132.812861 (Yasaka-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #47))Yasakaji 03.JPG
48Sairin-ji (西林寺)Jūichimen KannonMatsuyama, Ehime33°47′37″N 132°48′50″E / 33.793722°N 132.813944°E / 33.793722; 132.813944 (Sairin-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #48))Seiryuzan Sairinji 01.JPG
49Jōdo-ji (浄土寺)Shaka NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°49′00″N 132°48′31″E / 33.816667°N 132.808528°E / 33.816667; 132.808528 (Jōdo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #49))Jodoji-matsuyama 01.JPG
50Hanta-ji (繁多寺)Yakushi NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°49′41″N 132°48′16″E / 33.828139°N 132.804556°E / 33.828139; 132.804556 (Hanta-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #50))50番繁多寺本堂P1010126.jpg
51Ishite-ji (石手寺)Yakushi NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°50′52″N 132°47′47″E / 33.847861°N 132.796472°E / 33.847861; 132.796472 (Ishite-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #51))Ishiteji 05.JPG
52Taisan-ji (太山寺)Jūichimen KannonMatsuyama, Ehime33°53′06″N 132°42′54″E / 33.885083°N 132.714972°E / 33.885083; 132.714972 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #52))Ryuunzan Taisanji 06.JPG
53Enmyō-ji (圓明寺)Amida NyoraiMatsuyama, Ehime33°53′30″N 132°44′23″E / 33.89175°N 132.739667°E / 33.89175; 132.739667 (Enmyō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #53))Enmyoji 02.JPG
54Enmei-ji (延命寺)Fudō MyōōImabari, Ehime34°04′01″N 132°57′50″E / 34.066833°N 132.964°E / 34.066833; 132.964 (Enmei-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #54))Chikamizan Enmeiji 04.JPG
55Nankōbō (南光坊)Daitsū-chishō ButsuImabari, Ehime34°04′08″N 132°59′45″E / 34.06875°N 132.99575°E / 34.06875; 132.99575 (Nankōbō (Shikoku Pilgrimage #55))Nankobo 01.JPG
56Taisan-ji (泰山寺)Jizō BosatsuImabari, Ehime34°03′00″N 132°58′28″E / 34.050111°N 132.974583°E / 34.050111; 132.974583 (Taisan-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #56))Taisanji 04.JPG
57Eifuku-ji (栄福寺)Amida NyoraiImabari, Ehime34°01′46″N 132°58′42″E / 34.029472°N 132.978472°E / 34.029472; 132.978472 (Eifuku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #57))Eifukuji 03.JPG
58Senyū-ji (仙遊寺)Senjū KannonImabari, Ehime34°00′47″N 132°58′38″E / 34.013194°N 132.977361°E / 34.013194; 132.977361 (Senyū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #58))Senyuji 03.JPG
59Iyo Kokubun-ji (伊予国分寺)Yakushi NyoraiImabari, Ehime34°01′34″N 133°01′32″E / 34.026167°N 133.025444°E / 34.026167; 133.025444 (Iyo Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #59))Iyo Kokubunji 02.JPG
60Yokomine-ji (横峰寺)Dainichi NyoraiSaijō, Ehime33°50′16″N 133°06′40″E / 33.837861°N 133.111139°E / 33.837861; 133.111139 (Yokomine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #60))Yokomineji 06.jpg
61Kōon-ji (香園寺)Dainichi NyoraiSaijō, Ehime33°53′37″N 133°06′12″E / 33.893528°N 133.103306°E / 33.893528; 133.103306 (Kōon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #61))Koonji 02.JPG
62Hōju-ji (宝寿寺)Jūichimen KannonSaijō, Ehime33°53′50″N 133°06′54″E / 33.897333°N 133.114944°E / 33.897333; 133.114944 (Hōju-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #62))Hojuji 01.JPG
63Kichijō-ji (吉祥寺)BishamontenSaijō, Ehime33°53′46″N 133°07′45″E / 33.896056°N 133.129167°E / 33.896056; 133.129167 (Kichijō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #63))Mikkyozan Kichijoji 02.JPG
64Maegami-ji (前神寺)Amida NyoraiSaijō, Ehime33°53′25″N 133°09′38″E / 33.890222°N 133.160667°E / 33.890222; 133.160667 (Maegami-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #64))Maegamiji 03.JPG
65Sankaku-ji (三角寺)Jūichimen KannonShikokuchūō, Ehime33°58′04″N 133°35′11″E / 33.967639°N 133.5865°E / 33.967639; 133.5865 (Sankaku-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #65))Sankakuji 01.JPG
66Unpen-ji (雲辺寺)Senjū KannonMiyoshi, Tokushima34°02′07″N 133°43′25″E / 34.035222°N 133.723722°E / 34.035222; 133.723722 (Unpen-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #66))Unpenji 05.JPG
67Daikō-ji (大興寺)Yakushi NyoraiMitoyo, Kagawa34°06′08″N 133°43′09″E / 34.102194°N 133.719167°E / 34.102194; 133.719167 (Daikō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #67))Daikoji 07.JPG
68Jinne-in (神恵院)Amida NyoraiKan'onji, Kagawa34°08′02″N 133°38′50″E / 34.133986°N 133.647333°E / 34.133986; 133.647333 (Jinne-in (Shikoku Pilgrimage #68))Jinnein 03.JPG
69Kannon-ji (観音寺)Shō KannonKan'onji, Kagawa34°08′04″N 133°38′51″E / 34.1345°N 133.647528°E / 34.1345; 133.647528 (Kannon-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #69))Shippozan Kanonji 08.JPG
70Motoyama-ji (本山寺)Batō KannonMitoyo, Kagawa34°08′23″N 133°41′39″E / 34.139667°N 133.694056°E / 34.139667; 133.694056 (Motoyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #70))MotoyamaJi,Kagawa-01.jpg
71Iyadani-ji (弥谷寺)Senjū KannonMitoyo, Kagawa34°13′47″N 133°43′27″E / 34.229722°N 133.724261°E / 34.229722; 133.724261 (Iyadani-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #71))Iyadaniji-hondou02.jpg
72Mandara-ji (曼荼羅寺)Dainichi NyoraiZentsūji, Kagawa34°13′10″N 133°45′01″E / 34.219389°N 133.750278°E / 34.219389; 133.750278 (Mandara-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #72))Gahaishizan Mandaraji 03.JPG
73Shusshakaji (出釈迦寺)Shaka NyoraiZentsūji, Kagawa34°13′24″N 133°45′01″E / 34.223306°N 133.750219°E / 34.223306; 133.750219 (Shusshakaji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #73))Shusshakaji 05.JPG
74Kōyama-ji (甲山寺)Yakushi NyoraiZentsūji, Kagawa34°13′59″N 133°45′57″E / 34.233194°N 133.765764°E / 34.233194; 133.765764 (Kōyama-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #74))Koyamaji 04.JPG
75Zentsū-ji (善通寺)Yakushi NyoraiZentsūji, Kagawa34°13′30″N 133°46′27″E / 34.225111°N 133.774139°E / 34.225111; 133.774139 (Zentsū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #75))Zentsu-ji in Zentsu-ji City Kagawa pref23s5s4500.jpg
76Konzō-ji (金倉寺)Yakushi NyoraiZentsūji, Kagawa34°15′00″N 133°46′52″E / 34.250097°N 133.781014°E / 34.250097; 133.781014 (Konzō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #76))Konzoji 03.JPG
77Dōryū-ji (道隆寺)Yakushi NyoraiTadotsu, Kagawa34°16′36″N 133°45′46″E / 34.27675°N 133.762694°E / 34.27675; 133.762694 (Dōryū-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #77))Doryuji 04.JPG
78Gōshō-ji (郷照寺)Amida NyoraiUtazu, Kagawa34°18′24″N 133°49′28″E / 34.306694°N 133.824583°E / 34.306694; 133.824583 (Gōshō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #78))Goshoji 04.JPG
79Tennō-ji (天皇寺)Jūichimen KannonSakaide, Kagawa34°18′41″N 133°52′58″E / 34.311472°N 133.882861°E / 34.311472; 133.882861 (Tennō-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #79))Tennoji Koshoin 02.JPG
80Sanuki Kokubun-ji (讃岐国分寺)Jūichimen & Senjū KannonTakamatsu, Kagawa34°18′11″N 133°56′39″E / 34.303139°N 133.944167°E / 34.303139; 133.944167 (Sanuki Kokubun-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #80))Sanuki Kokubunji 05.JPG
81Shiromine-ji (白峯寺)Senjū KannonSakaide, Kagawa34°20′01″N 133°55′36″E / 34.333528°N 133.926764°E / 34.333528; 133.926764 (Shiromine-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #81))Shiromineji 09.JPG
82Negoro-ji (根香寺)Senjū KannonTakamatsu, Kagawa34°20′40″N 133°57′38″E / 34.3445°N 133.960556°E / 34.3445; 133.960556 (Negoro-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #82))Aominezan Negoroji 03.JPG
83Ichinomiya-ji (一宮寺)Shō KannonTakamatsu, Kagawa34°17′12″N 134°01′36″E / 34.286611°N 134.026583°E / 34.286611; 134.026583 (Ichinomiya-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #83))Ichinomiyaji 03.JPG
84Yashima-ji (屋島寺)Jūichimen & Senjū KannonTakamatsu, Kagawa34°21′29″N 134°06′05″E / 34.357917°N 134.10125°E / 34.357917; 134.10125 (Yashima-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #84))Yashimaji 06.JPG
85Yakuri-ji (八栗寺)Shō KannonTakamatsu, Kagawa34°21′36″N 134°08′22″E / 34.359889°N 134.139528°E / 34.359889; 134.139528 (Yakuri-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #85))Yakuriji 01.JPG
86Shido-ji (志度寺)Jūichimen KannonSanuki, Kagawa34°19′28″N 134°10′47″E / 34.324306°N 134.179639°E / 34.324306; 134.179639 (Shido-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #86))Shidoji 01.JPG
87Nagao-ji (長尾寺)Shō KannonSanuki, Kagawa34°16′00″N 134°10′18″E / 34.266706°N 134.171719°E / 34.266706; 134.171719 (Nagao-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #87))Nagaoji 04.JPG
88Ōkubo-ji (大窪寺)Yakushi NyoraiSanuki, Kagawa34°11′29″N 134°12′24″E / 34.191408°N 134.206733°E / 34.191408; 134.206733 (Ōkubo-ji (Shikoku Pilgrimage #88))Okuboji 07.JPG

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Reader, Ian (1999). "34. Legends, Miracles and Faith in Kōbō Daishi and the Shikoku Pilgrimage". In Tanabe, George J. Religions of Japan in Practice. Princeton University Press. pp. 360–9. ISBN 0-691-05789-3. 
  2. ^ a b c Kitagawa, Joseph M. (1987). On Understanding Japanese Religion. Princeton University Press. pp. 127–136. ISBN 0-691-10229-5. 
  3. ^ "Shodoshima Guide Book". Organization for the Promotion of Tourism in Shikoku. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  4. ^ "Hachijūhakkasho". Ninna-ji. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  5. ^ "Chita Hachijūhakkasho". Chita 88. Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  6. ^ Hakeda, Yoshito S. (1972). Kūkai: Major Works. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05933-7. 
  7. ^ Miyazaki, Tateki (2004). Shikoku henro hitori aruki dōgyō-ninin. Matsuyama. 
  8. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 42ff. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0. 
  9. ^ Kouamé, Nathalie (1997). "Shikoku's Local Authorities and Henro during the Golden Age of the Pilgrimage". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies (Nanzan University). 24 (3/4): 413–425. 
  10. ^ Reader, Ian (2005). Making Pilgrimages: Meaning and Practice in Shikoku. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 52f. ISBN 978-0-8248-2907-0. 
  11. ^ a b Miyata, Taisen (2006). The 88 Temples of Shikoku Island, Japan. Koyasan Buddhist Temple, Los Angeles. pp. 15–18. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]