Sherbrooke

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Sherbrooke
City
Ville de Sherbrooke
Wellington Street North
Wellington Street North
Flag of Sherbrooke
Flag
Official seal of Sherbrooke
Seal
Coat of arms of Sherbrooke
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Queen of the Eastern Townships
Motto: Ne quid nimis
Sherbrooke is located in Southern Quebec
Sherbrooke
Sherbrooke
Location in southern Quebec.
Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900[1]
Country Canada
Province Quebec
RegionEstrie
RCMNone
Settled1793
ConstitutedJanuary 1, 2002
Boroughs
Government[2]
 • TypeSherbrooke City Council
 • MayorBernard Sévigny
 • Federal ridingCompton—Stanstead / Sherbrooke
 • Prov. ridingRichmond / Saint-François / Sherbrooke
Area[2][3]
 • City367.10 km2 (141.74 sq mi)
 • Land353.49 km2 (136.48 sq mi)
 • Urban[4]171.04 km2 (66.04 sq mi)
 • Metro[5]1,459.61 km2 (563.56 sq mi)
Highest elevation378 m (1,240 ft)
Lowest elevation128 m (420 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • City154,601
 • Density437.4/km2 (1,133/sq mi)
 • Urban[4]140,628
 • Urban density822.2/km2 (2,129/sq mi)
 • Metro[5]201,890
 • Metro density138.3/km2 (358/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006–2011Increase 4.9%
 • Dwellings75,880
Time zoneEST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s)J1E to J1R
Area code(s)819
Highways
A-10
A-55
A-410
A-610

Route 112
Route 108
Route 143
Route 216
Route 220
Route 222
Telephone Exchanges-212 239 340 345-9 432 434 437 446 542 560 -6 569 570 - 4 575 577
GNBC CodeEIDHN
NTS Map021E05
Websitewww.ville.sherbrooke.qc.ca
 
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This article is about the city in Quebec, Canada. For other uses, see Sherbrooke (disambiguation).
Sherbrooke
City
Ville de Sherbrooke
Wellington Street North
Wellington Street North
Flag of Sherbrooke
Flag
Official seal of Sherbrooke
Seal
Coat of arms of Sherbrooke
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Queen of the Eastern Townships
Motto: Ne quid nimis
Sherbrooke is located in Southern Quebec
Sherbrooke
Sherbrooke
Location in southern Quebec.
Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900Coordinates: 45°24′N 71°54′W / 45.400°N 71.900°W / 45.400; -71.900[1]
Country Canada
Province Quebec
RegionEstrie
RCMNone
Settled1793
ConstitutedJanuary 1, 2002
Boroughs
Government[2]
 • TypeSherbrooke City Council
 • MayorBernard Sévigny
 • Federal ridingCompton—Stanstead / Sherbrooke
 • Prov. ridingRichmond / Saint-François / Sherbrooke
Area[2][3]
 • City367.10 km2 (141.74 sq mi)
 • Land353.49 km2 (136.48 sq mi)
 • Urban[4]171.04 km2 (66.04 sq mi)
 • Metro[5]1,459.61 km2 (563.56 sq mi)
Highest elevation378 m (1,240 ft)
Lowest elevation128 m (420 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
 • City154,601
 • Density437.4/km2 (1,133/sq mi)
 • Urban[4]140,628
 • Urban density822.2/km2 (2,129/sq mi)
 • Metro[5]201,890
 • Metro density138.3/km2 (358/sq mi)
 • Pop 2006–2011Increase 4.9%
 • Dwellings75,880
Time zoneEST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC−4)
Postal code(s)J1E to J1R
Area code(s)819
Highways
A-10
A-55
A-410
A-610

Route 112
Route 108
Route 143
Route 216
Route 220
Route 222
Telephone Exchanges-212 239 340 345-9 432 434 437 446 542 560 -6 569 570 - 4 575 577
GNBC CodeEIDHN
NTS Map021E05
Websitewww.ville.sherbrooke.qc.ca

Sherbrooke (/ˈʃɜrbrʊk/; Quebec French pronunciation [ʃɛʁbʁʊk]) is a city in southern Quebec, Canada. Sherbrooke is situated at the confluence of the Saint-François (St. Francis) and Magog rivers in the heart of the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) and census division (CD) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. With 154,601 residents at the 2011 census,[3] Sherbrooke was the sixth largest city in the province of Quebec and the thirtieth largest in Canada. The Sherbrooke Census Metropolitan Area had 201,890 inhabitants,[5] making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Quebec and nineteenth largest in Canada.

Originally known as Hyatt's Mill, it was renamed after Sir John Coape Sherbrooke (1764–1840), a British soldier who was Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia (1812–1816), and Governor General of British North America (1816–1818).

Sherbrooke is the primary economic, political, cultural and institutional centre of Estrie, and was known as the Queen of the Eastern Townships at the beginning of the 20th century.

Sherbrooke is an important university centre with eight institutions educating 40,000 students and employing 11,000 people (3,700 of whom are professors, teachers and researchers).[6] The direct economic impact of these institutions exceeds 1 billion dollars.[6] The proportion of university students is 10.32 students per 100 inhabitants. In proportion to its population, Sherbrooke has the largest concentration of students in Quebec.[7]

Since the nineteenth century, Sherbrooke has also been an important manufacturing centre, although this segment of the economy has experienced a considerable transformation in recent decades as a result of the decline of the city's traditional manufacturing sectors. Today, the service sector occupies a prominent place in the economy of the city, as well as a growing knowledge-based economy.[8]

The Sherbrooke region is surrounded by mountains, rivers and lakes. There are several ski hills nearby and various tourist attractions in regional flavour. Mont-Bellevue Park, a large park in the city, is used for downhill skiing.

History[edit]

Sherbrooke in 1828

The First Nations were the first inhabitants, having originally settled the region between 8,000 and 3,000 years ago.[9] Traces of seasonal camps, characterized by arrowheads, scrapers, and other similar tools have been found. Terracotta objects dating from forestry (3000 to 1000 BCE) were also found, indicating that the region continued to be occupied by nomadic people during this period.[clarification needed]

Upon the arrival of Samuel de Champlain in Quebec in 1608, this region was under the control of the Mohawks. France created an alliance through its missionaries with the Abenaki, located in Maine and Vermont. The French were driven to the valley of the St. Lawrence River near Trois-Rivières after a Mohawk victory in the war of 1660. Seeking to obtain control of the territory, the area around present-day Sherbrooke was a battlefield between the two peoples who had to travel to the region.

During the Seven Years' War between France and Britain, the Abenaki, still allied with the French, travelled along the rivers of the Eastern Townships, frequently near present-day Sherbrooke during British raids. The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783, ending the war, and soon after its recognition came the Independence of the United States. The Eastern Townships were under Abekani control for a few years, having practised hunting and fishing for centuries. However, the American Revolution attracted loyalists to the region who began to covet the land and obtain government grants.

The first European settler to reside in the Sherbrooke region was a French Canadian named Jean-Baptiste Nolain, of whom few details are known, except that he arrived in 1779 to engage in agriculture.

Sherbrooke in 1889

The first attempts at colonization occurred in 1792 on the banks of the St. Francis River. This settlement was known as Cowan's Clearance. In 1793, loyalist Gilbert Hyatt, a farmer from Schenectady, New York, established his farm not far from the confluence of the Massawippi River and Coaticook River, before the governor of Lower Canada officially awarded the land. In the next two years, 18 families came to live on the site. The Crown acknowledged Hyatt's ownership of the land in 1801. Hyatt built the first dam on the Magog River, in collaboration with another loyalist named Jonathan Ball, who had bought land on the north bank of the river. Hyatt then built a gristmill in 1802 on the south bank of the river, while Ball built a sawmill on the north shore. By constructing the mill, Hyatt effectively founded the small village that became known as "Hyatt's Mills". The village was named "Hyatt's Mills" until 1818 when the village was renamed after Governor General Sir John Sherbrooke at the time of his retirement and return to England.

In 1832 Sherbrooke attracted most of the activities of the British American Land Company (BALC) and benefited from the injection of British capital into the region. Manufacturing activities were established that harnessed the Magog River's hydropower. From 1835 Sherbrooke began to seek government support to establish a railway line, but this only became a reality in 1852 through the line connecting the cities of Montreal and Portland.

The second half of the nineteenth century saw the establishment of academic institutions which transformed Sherbrooke into a college town.

King George VI and Queen Elizabeth visited the city by train on June 12, 1939. Over 100,000 people were estimated to be in the crowd that greeted them. They were there to build goodwill for the British Empire before they confronted Nazi Germany and the Axis Powers during World War II.[10][11]

Despite the town's English name and heritage, relatively few traces of the city's English past remain, and the vast majority of the city's residents speak French.

As part of the 2000–2006 municipal reorganization in Quebec, the city grew considerably on January 1, 2002, with the amalgamation of the following towns and municipalities: Sherbrooke, Ascot, Bromptonville, Deauville, Fleurimont, Lennoxville, Rock Forest, and Saint-Élie-d'Orford. Part of Stoke was also annexed to the newly expanded Sherbrooke.

Geography[edit]

Sherbrooke skyline and Mount Orford

Located at the confluence of the Saint-François (St. Francis) and Magog rivers in the heart of the Eastern Townships and the Estrie administrative region. Sherbrooke is also the name of a territory equivalent to a regional county municipality (TE) and census division (CD) of Quebec, coextensive with the city of Sherbrooke. Its geographical code is 43.[vague]

Sherbrooke is the seat of the judicial district of Saint-François.[12]

Climate[edit]

Sherbrooke has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb), with long, cold, and snowy winters, warm summers, and short but crisp springs and autumns. Highs range from −5.8 °C (21.6 °F) in January to 24.6 °C (76.3 °F) in July. In an average year, there are 34 nights at or colder than −20 °C (−4 °F), and 6.5 nights at or colder than −30 °C (−22 °F); 4.1 days will see highs reaching 30 °C (86 °F).[13] Annual snowfall is large, averaging at 287 centimetres (113 in), sometimes falling in May and October. Precipitation is not sparse any time of the year, but is the greatest in summer and fall and at its least from January to April, totalling 1,100 millimetres (43.3 in) annually.

Cityscape[edit]

Gordon Street

Boroughs[edit]

In 2002, Sherbrooke merged with most of the suburban municipalities in the surrounding area: Rock Forest, Saint-Élie-d'Orford, Deauville, Fleurimont, Bromptonville, Ascot, and Lennoxville. This resulted in the creation of six boroughs for the city: Brompton, Fleurimont, Lennoxville, Mont-Bellevue, Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville, and Jacques-Cartier.

Neighbourhoods[edit]

The city has several unofficial neighbourhoods with historical and cultural importance such as:

  • Le quartier universitaire
  • Le Vieux-Nord
  • Collinsville
  • Secteur Galvin
  • L'Est
  • Ascot
  • Mi-Vallon
  • du Pin-Solitaire
  • Le Petit Canada

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic origin (2006)[14][N 1]
Ethnic originPopulationPercent
Canadian99,46568.8%
French46,91532.4%
Irish8,5305.9%
English4,5303.1%
North American Indian4,4803.1%
Scottish2,8852.0%
Québécois2,6701.8%
German2,1751.5%
Italian2,0351.4%
Sherbrooke
YearPop.±%
18718,532—    
188112,410+45.5%
189115,930+28.4%
190118,724+17.5%
191123,865+27.5%
192133,624+40.9%
193139,325+17.0%
194147,614+21.1%
195163,608+33.6%
195672,789+14.4%
196182,939+13.9%
196694,988+14.5%
1971103,083+8.5%
1976111,137+7.8%
1981117,848+6.0%
1986122,282+3.8%
1991131,123+7.2%
1996136,681+4.2%
2001139,388+2.0%
2006147,427+5.8%
2011154,601+4.9%
[15][16]

According to the 2011 Census, there were 154,601 people residing in Sherbrooke, a 4.9% increase over the 2006 Census.[5] The city of Sherbrooke has a land area of 353.49 square kilometres (136.48 sq mi), and a population density of 437.356/km2 (1,132.747/sq mi).[5] The median age of the population wasa 40.3 in 2011 and 84.3% of the population were aged 15 and over.[5]

French was the first language of 129,970 people (89.9%), while English was the first language of 5,740 (4%), 7,815 (5.4%) people spoke other first languages, 640 (0.4%) had learned both English and French, while 370 (0.3%) had learned both French and another language.[17] French was the home language of 133,175 people (92.1%), English of 5,350 (3.7%), other languages of 4,480 (3.1%), both English and French of 685 (0.5%), and French and another language of 820 (0.6%).[18]

Census Metropolitan Area[edit]

Sherbrooke CMA

The Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) comprises the cities of Sherbrooke, Magog and Waterville, the municipalities of Ascot Corner, Compton, Stoke and Val-Joli; the parish municipality of Saint-Denis-de-Brompton; the township municipalities of Hatley and Orford; and the village municipality of North Hatley. The population in 2011 was 201,890.

The CMA was defined slightly differently in 2006: it did not include Orford or Val-Joli. The remainder of this section applies to the 2006 census, since the applicable 2011 census figures are not yet available as of May 2012.

Indigenous peoples comprised just over 0.6% of the population.[19]

French was mother tongue to 90.6% of residents (counting both single and multiple responses). The next most common mother tongues were English at 5.6%, Spanish at 1.3%, Arabic and Serbo-Croatian languages at 0.6% each, Persian at 0.4%, Niger–Congo languages at 0.3%, and Chinese and German at 0.2% each. (Percentages may total more than 100% owing to rounding and multiple responses).[20][21]

About 87% of the population identified as Roman Catholic in 2001 while 6% said they had no religious affiliation, 1.2% were Anglican, 0.8% Muslim, 0.8% United Church, 0.7% Baptists, 0.5% Eastern Orthodox and 0.3% Jehovah’s Witnesses. Pentecostals and Methodists accounted for 0.2% each, while Buddhists, Presbyterians, Seventh-day Adventists, Mormons and Plymouth Brethren accounted for 0.1% each.[22]

Four thousand recent immigrants (arriving between 2001 and 2006) now comprise about 2% of the total population. Approximately 13% have emigrated from Colombia, 12% from France, 7% from Afghanistan, 6% from each of Morocco and Argentina, 5% from each of Algeria and Congo, 4% from China, and 3% from each of Burundi, Tunisia, and Tanzania. About 2% of these recent immigrants were born in the United States while about 2% were born in Bosnia and Herzegovina.[23]

Economy[edit]

Wellington Street North in downtown Sherbrooke

Sherbrooke, which is the economic centre of Estrie, is a significant cultural, industrial, and academic hub in the province. The city is directly served by three railways that have junctions with the Canadian National and Canadian Pacific railways: the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad, the Quebec Central Railway, and the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway. Sherbrooke is also served by four highways as well as a regional airport, named for Sherbrooke, but located in the nearby city of Cookshire-Eaton.

According to data from the Institut de la statistique du Québec, average personal income per capita in the Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) of Sherbrooke amounted to CA$30,976 in 2010.[24] Estrie's GDP for the same year was $9.59 billion.[25]

Principal employers[edit]

Sherbrooke's biggest employers[26][3]
BusinessNumber of Jobs
Université de Sherbrooke6,000
Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS)5,511
Commission scolaire de la Région-de-Sherbrooke (C.S.R.S.)3,050
Centre de santé et de services sociaux – Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Sherbrooke2,650
Ville de Sherbrooke1,913
Mouvement Desjardins1,715
Cégep de Sherbrooke800
Centre Jeunesse de l'Estrie527
Nordia Corporation500
Postes Canada497
Kruger inc. - Papers for publication division455
Bishop's University450
McDonald's de l'Estrie400

^ Enterprises operating in Sherbrooke only and having 400 or more employees.

Culture[edit]

The Sherbrooke War Memorial by George William Hill is a cenotaph erected in 1926 to commemorate the soldiers who were killed during World War I.[27] This piece of cultural heritage has become emblematic of the City of Sherbrooke.[citation needed]

In the summer season, several festivals, concerts, and events are held in the city, such as the Fête du Lac des Nations, Sherblues & Folk, and the Festival des traditions du monde. Come winter, the city hosts the Carnaval de Sherbrooke.

The city has British architectural heritage, as seen in the buildings in Vieux-Nord.[citation needed]

The city has the fourth largest theatre in Quebec, the Maurice O'Bready University Cultural Centre of Sherbrooke.[28] Music, theatre, and dance shows are staged there. The Centennial Theatre of Bishop's University also hosts music and dance concerts from around the world. The Vieux Clocher, owned by the Université de Sherbrooke, has two stages, the primary being used by various music groups and comedians from around the province. The Théâtre Granada, designated as a historical site by the Canadian government, holds music concerts. It has retained its original architecture since its opening. The Petit Théâtre de Sherbrooke, located downtown, presents musicals and plays for children.[29]

Since 2007, the Centre des arts de la scène Jean-Besré (CASJB), built by the city with the support of the Ministry of Culture and Communications, has assisted in the creation and production of material for the region's artistic community.[30] Currently it serves as the location for training theatre, music, and dance professionals. It contains three rehearsal studios, a production room, a decoration workshop, and a costume workshop, as well as administrative offices for each of its resident companies.[30]

Historical buildings located on Dufferin Street

Auditoriums[edit]

  • Salle Maurice-O'Bready
  • Granada Theatre
  • Centennial Theatre
  • Vieux Clocher
  • Petit Théâtre de Sherbrooke
  • Théâtre Léonard Saint-Laurent
  • Salle Alfred-Des Rochers

Attractions[edit]

The former Winter Prison

Museums and visitors' centres[edit]

Parks[edit]

Sherbrooke has parks and greenspaces that encompass a variety of recreational activities. In total, there are 108 in the municipality.[33] Parks Jacques-Cartier, Mont Bellevue, Bois Beckett, Lucien-Blanchard, Central, Quintal, Victoria, and Marais Réal-D.-Carbonneau are among the most popular destinations.

Situated along lac des Nations, this park is about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) away from the downtown area and is connected to the lac des Nations promenade. It contains several sports facilities including soccer fields and tennis courts. Several festivals are held here including the Fête du Lac des Nations, the Carnaval de Sherbooke, the festivities for the Fête Nationale and Canada Day.
This park is the largest in Sherbrooke, with an area of 200 hectares (490 acres). Situated partially on the campus of l'Université de Sherbrooke, it is managed by the city and developed by volunteer organization Regroupement du Mont-Bellevue. Within the park are mounts Bellevue and John-S.-Bourque, the former of which has a small ski station. The park is also used for cross-country skiing, snowshoeing, walking, and tubing in winter; as well as hiking, mountain biking, archery, tennis, and jogging in summer. The park contains a total of 30 kilometres (19 mi) of trails and several different types of ecosystems.[34]
This park was established on an old maple grove that belonged to Major Henry Beckett between 1834 and 1870. The property remained in his family until it was acquired by the city in 1963.[35] In 2000, the Ministère de Ressources naturelles et de la Faune recognized the property as an old-growth forest.[36] The oldest tree is said to be 270 years old.[37] The park is maintained, protected and promoted by a volunteer group. Several trails have been built by the city which are open year-round. Within the park, there are several artifacts left behind by Beckett, such as foundations, wells, and farm equipment.
Situated 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) west of downtown on the bank of the Magog River, this park is open to several outdoor activities such as swimming and beach volleyball. Bicycles, canoes, kayaks, paddle boats, and dragon boats are available for rent. There is an interpretation centre with an emphasis on the reptiles and amphibians of the region as well as a boutique.
At the heart of the Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville borough, this park is equipped for soccer, tennis, baseball, beach volleyball, and has a playground and an outdoor pool.
Formerly called Parc Central de Fleurimont, this park is situated in the borough of Fleurimont, and mirrors Central Park of Rock Forest-Saint-Élie-Deauville. In early July, the Pif Classic baseball tournament is held in the park, and in August, it hosts the Festival des Traditions du Monde.
Across Terrill Street from one another, these parks are situated just east of downtown. Inside these parks lie pedestrian trails, Olympic-size soccer fields, a handicap accessible outdoor pool, and a sports complex.[38] This multifunctional facility, called the Centre MultiSport Roland-Dussault, has an artificial turf allowing local teams the opportunity to practise indoor soccer, baseball, football, rugby, and so on. There is a hockey arena.
Located near the Saint-François River, this marsh was developed by CHARMES, a non-profit management corporation that seeks to promote ecotourism in and around Sherbrooke.[39][40] The park is located on 40 hectares (99 acres) of land and allows visitors access to wooden piers and observation towers, where there are over 50 tree and shrub species and birds.[41]

Sports[edit]

The Sherbrooke Expos of the Ligue de Baseball Senior Élite du Québec play their home games at Amedée Roy Stadium. There have been various baseball teams from the Eastern League, Canadian Baseball League and Ligue de Baseball Élite du Québec in addition to hosting the 2002 World Junior Baseball Championships.[citation needed] The Sherbrooke Phoenix, a QMJHL is a hometown ice hockey team.

Government[edit]

Boroughs and districts of Sherbrooke

Municipal[edit]

The current mayor of Sherbrooke is Bernard Sévigny.

The merged city is composed of six boroughs: Brompton, Fleurimont, Lennoxville, Mont-Bellevue, Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville and Jacques-Cartier. Each of the boroughs is subdivided into electoral districts, with the number varying based on population. For example, there are only two districts in Brompton, which only has 6,314 inhabitants, whereas Fleurimont (pop. 40,824) has five. Sherbrooke has 21 districts total, for which the average population is 7,200 inhabitants.

BoroughPopulationCity Councillors
Brompton5,9563
Fleurimont41,2765
Jacques-Cartier30,2294
Lennoxville5,1953
Mont-Bellevue33,3774
Rock Forest–Saint-Élie–Deauville29,1914

Federal and provincial[edit]

Sherbrooke is split into the federal electoral districts of Sherbrooke, represented by Pierre-Luc Dusseault of the New Democratic Party (NDP) and Compton—Stanstead, represented by Jean Rousseau of the NDP.

Provincially, Sherbrooke is divided into two electoral districts. Sherbrooke is represented by Serge Cardin of the Parti Québécois (PQ), and Saint-François is represented by Rejean Hebert of the PQ.

Public safety[edit]

In 2007, the crime rate was 5,491 per 100,000.[42]

Military[edit]

Military parade in front of the Sherbrooke Armoury

Sherbrooke does not host any units from the Regular Force, but four Primary Reserve units are stationed in the city:

An important Canadian military artifact is preserved at the Sherbooke Armoury, the Sherman tank "Bomb" which helped liberate Europe fighting with the Sherbrooke Fusiliers Regiment and is the only Canadian tank to have fought D-Day to VE Day.

Infrastructure[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Sherbrooke Airport, in Cookshire-Eaton is just east of the city. There are currently no scheduled flights operating out of the airport.

Transdev Limocar provides bus service to Montreal via Granby and Magog. Formerly, Autobus Jordez linked Sherbrooke to Drummondville and Trois-Rivières, and also to Victoriaville and Quebec City, but since the company lost their licence to operate heavy vehicles,[43] they have sold their licence to Autobus La Québécoise, who now provide the service.

Société de transport de Sherbrooke (STS) provides bus service within the city. It operates 17 bus routes, 11 minibus routes, and 5 taxibus routes.

The city is located at the eastern terminus of A-10, and directly on the Autoroute Trans-Québécoise (A-55). A-10 provides a direct freeway connection to Montreal and points west, while A-55 connects directly to Trois-Rivières, Shawinigan, and points north, as well as to Interstate 91 to the south (Vermont). A-410 and A-610 are the southern and northern bypass roads, respectively.

Public health[edit]

The suburban Sherbrooke University Hospital ("CHUS" or "Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbooke) has over 5,200 employees, including 550 doctors. It includes a clinical research facility, the Etienne-Lebel Research Center.

Education[edit]

Sherbrooke has eight institutions that make up the Sherbrooke University Pole,[44] which educates some 40,000 students and employs about 11,000 persons.[45] University students comprise 10.32% of the population, the highest concentration in Quebec.[46]

The city is the location of one French-language university, the Université de Sherbrooke, and an English-language university, Bishop's University. U de S is a comprehensive university with schools of medicine and law and extensive graduate programs. Bishop's is smaller and predominantly undergraduate. There are three CEGEPs in Sherbrooke, two of them French-language, the Cégep de Sherbrooke and the Séminaire de Sherbrooke, and one English-language, Champlain College Lennoxville.

Media[edit]

Main article: Media in Sherbrooke

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Taken from the 2006 Census. The percentages add to more than 100% because of dual responses (e.g. "French Canadian" generates an entry in both the "French" and "Canadian" categories.) Groups with greater than 1,500 responses are included.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Reference number 59493 of the Commission de toponymie du Québec (French)
  2. ^ a b Geographic code 43027 in the official Répertoire des municipalités (French)
  3. ^ a b c "Census Profile – Sherbrooke, Ville". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-02-08. Retrieved 9 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Census Profile – Sherbrooke (Population centre)". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-06-06. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Census Profile – Sherbrooke Quebec (Census metropolitan area)". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2012-02-09. Retrieved 9 February 2012. . The census metropolitan area consists of Sherbrooke, Ascot Corner, Compton, Hatley (township), Magog, North Hatley, Orford, Saint-Denis-de-Brompton, Stoke, Val-Joli, Waterville. In the 2006 census, the census metropolitan area had not included Orford and Val-Joli.
  6. ^ a b "Home: Pôle universitaire de Sherbrooke – Université de Sherbrooke". Sherbrooke, QC: Université de Sherbrooke. Retrieved 1 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "Proportion d'étudiants à Sherbrooke". Ville de Sherbrooke. Retrieved 26 August 2010. 
  8. ^ "Économie du savoir". Pole universitaire de Sherbrooke. Retrieved 12 January 2011. 
  9. ^ Kesteman, Jean-Pierre, Histoire de Sherbrooke Take I: l'âge de l'eau à l'ère of vapeur (1802-1866), ed. GGC, 2000, p.14 353.
  10. ^ Wheeler, Scott (December 2011). "King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Visit the Vermont-Quebec Border". Vermont's Northland Journal 10 (9): 6–7. 
  11. ^ Keilty, Joseph (December 2011). "Their Britannic Majesties Captivate Hearts of 100,000 at Art Reception in Sherbrooke". Vermont's Northland Journal, reprinting the June 13, 1939, article from the Caledonia-Record, St. Johnsbury 10 (9): 6–7. 
  12. ^ Territorial Division Act. Revised Statutes of Quebec D-11.
  13. ^ a b "Sherbrooke A, Quebec". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population - 20% sample data". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 2010-10-06. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  15. ^ "Évolution démographique des 10 principales villes du Québec (sur la base de 2006) selon leur limites territoriales actuelles1, Recensements du Canada de 1871 à 2006" (in French). Institut de la statistique du Québec. 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  16. ^ These figures correspond to the territory of the city of Sherbrooke following the municipal reorganizations of 2002 and 2006.
  17. ^ "Population by mother tongue and age groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population - 20% sample data". Canada 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 2009-03-24. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  18. ^ "Population by language spoken most often at home and age groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population - 20% sample data". Canada 2011 Census. Statistics Canada. 2009-03-24. Retrieved 29 July 2012. 
  19. ^ "Sherbrooke". Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  20. ^ "Sherbrooke". Detailed Mother Tongue (148), Single and Multiple Language Responses (3) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  21. ^ "Sherbrooke". Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 and 2006 Censuses - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-11-20. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  22. ^ "Sherbrooke". Religion (95A), Age Groups (7A) and Sex (3) for Population, for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 1991 and 2001 Censuses - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-03-01. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  23. ^ "Sherbrooke". Immigrant Status and Period of Immigration (8) and Place of Birth (261) for the Immigrants and Non-permanent Residents of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data. Statistics Canada. 2007-12-04. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 
  24. ^ "Per capita personal income and its components, RCMs and equivalent territory of the Estrie region, 2006-2010". Institut de la statistique du Québec. 14 Dec 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  25. ^ "Gross domestic product (GDP) at basic prices, Estrie and all of Québec, 2006-2010". Institut de la statistique du Québec. 18 Aug 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  26. ^ "Les 500 plus grands employeurs de l'Estrie". La Tribune. 18 March 2010. Retrieved 24 July 2012. 
  27. ^ Bombardier, David (16 September 2008). "Le cénotaphe sera restauré" (in French). La Tribune. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  28. ^ French: salle Maurice-O’bready du centre culturel de l’Université de Sherbrooke
  29. ^ "Mission" (in French). Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  30. ^ a b "Présentation". Retrieved 13 August 2014. 
  31. ^ [1]
  32. ^ [2]
  33. ^ "Sports, recreation, and outdoor activities". Sherbrooke Innopole. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  34. ^ City of Sherbrooke (24 March 2010). "Un peu d'histoire" (in French). Retrieved 1 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "Histoire du parc du Bois-Beckett" (in French). Le Regroupement du Bois Beckett. Retrieved 26 Aug 2010. 
  36. ^ "Parc du Bois-Beckett" (in French). City of Sherbrooke. 20 Mar 2008. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  37. ^ "Bois-Beckett Park". Destination Sherbrooke. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  38. ^ "Parcs et équipements" (in French). City of Sherbrooke. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  39. ^ "Corporation de gestion CHARMES" (in French). Tourisme Estrie. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  40. ^ "Historique du Marais" (in French). Official site of Marais Réal-D.-Carbonneau. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  41. ^ "Marais Réal-D.-Carbonneau". Destination Sherbrooke. Retrieved 6 July 2012. 
  42. ^ "Best places to do business in Canada". Canadian Business. September 10, 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2008. 
  43. ^ Autocars Jordez a mis ses passagers en danger | Estrie | Radio-Canada.ca
  44. ^ Sherbrooke Innopole - Membership Directory - Membership - Massachusetts Biotechnology Council
  45. ^ Université de Sherbrooke: "Nombre d'étudiants au sein du pôle universitaire"
  46. ^ Ville de Sherbrooke: "Proportion d'étudiants à Sherbrooke"(French)

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