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The earliest reference to a system of seven archangels as a group appears to be in Enoch I (the Book of Enoch) which is not part of the Jewish Canon but is prevalent in the Judaic tradition, where they are named as Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, Raguel, Remiel and Saraqael. While this book today is non-canonical in most Christian Churches, it was explicitly quoted in the New Testament (Letter of Jude 1:14-15) and by many of the early Church Fathers. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church to this day regards it to be canonical.
The earliest Christian mention is by Pope Saint Gregory I who lists them as Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel (or Anael), Simiel, Oriphiel and Raguel. A later reference to seven archangels would appear in an 8th or 9th century talisman attributed to Auriolus, a "servant of God" in north-western Spain. He issues a prayer to "all you patriarchs Michael, Gabriel, Cecitiel, Oriel, Raphael, Ananiel, Marmoniel ("who hold the clouds in your hands").
The Catholic Church in the Roman Rite only explicitly names 3 archangels: Gabriel, Michael, and Raphael. Gabriel and Michael are the only two named in the New Testament of the Bible. However, the same passages that name Raphael in the book of Tobit also states that he is "one of the seven who stand before God." The other names can be derived from traditional Jewish teaching. The Catholic Church suppressed the names of the other Archangels during the First Council of Nicaea. However, in the Byzantine Rite and other eastern rites of the Catholic Church, there is a popular devotion to the seven archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel, Jegudiel, Raguel, and Selaphiel.
Another variation lists them corresponding to the days of the week as: Michael (Sunday), Gabriel (Monday), Raphael (Tuesday), Uriel (Wednesday), Selaphiel (Thursday), Raguel or Jegudiel (Friday), and Barachiel (Saturday).
In Anglican and Episcopal tradition, there are three or four archangels in its calendar for September 29 feast for St. Michael and All Angels (also called Michaelmas: namely Gabriel, Michael and Raphael), and often, Uriel.
In the more modern angelology, different sources disagree on the names and identities of the seven archangels. In the Book of Enoch, Remiel is also described as one of the leaders of the 200 Grigori, the fallen angels. Various occult systems associate each archangel with one of the traditional seven "luminaries" (the seven naked-eye-visible objects in the heavens, that move counter to that of the other star objects): the Moon, Mercury, Venus, the Sun, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn; but there is disagreement as to which archangel corresponds to which body.
According to Rudolf Steiner, four important archangels also display periodic spiritual activity over the seasons: Spring is Raphael, Summer is Uriel, Autumn is Michael, and Winter is Gabriel. Following this line of reasoning, Aries (astrologically ruled by Mars) represents Spring, Cancer (ruled by Moon) represents Summer, Libra (ruled by Venus) represents Autumn, and Capricorn (ruled by Saturn) represents Winter. Therefore by association, Raphael is Mars, Uriel is Moon, Michael is Venus, and Gabriel is Saturn. * However it should be noted that Rudolf Steiner's Northern Hemisphere indications regarding the seasons and their placement in the Zodiac will be the opposite in the Southern Hemisphere... making Michael the Autumn archangel - with Mars in Ares; Raphael the Spring Archangel - with Venus in Libra; and in mid-winter Gabriel in Cancer; Uriel presides in Capricorn during mid summer in the south;
The seven archangels figure in some systems of ritual magic, each archangel bearing a specific seal.
There may be an etymological relationship between the three "disputed" Archangel names, and they may in fact be equivalent.
It could also be argued that each one of the seven archangels represents one of the heavenly virtues, in the same way that each of the seven princes of hell represents one of the deadly sins.