Semax

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Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro
Semax structure.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-1-[2-([(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-([2-([(2S)-2-([(2S)-2-amino-4-methylsulfanylbutanoyl]amino)-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoyl]amino)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoyl]amino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino)acetyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal statusUnscheduled
Identifiers
CAS number4037-01-8 80714-61-0 (free base)
ATC codeNone
PubChemCID 122178
Chemical data
FormulaC37H51N9O10S 
Mol. mass813.92 g/mol
 
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Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro
Semax structure.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2S)-1-[2-([(2S)-1-[(2S)-2-([2-([(2S)-2-([(2S)-2-amino-4-methylsulfanylbutanoyl]amino)-5-hydroxy-5-oxopentanoyl]amino)-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoyl]amino)-3-phenylpropanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carbonyl]amino)acetyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Legal statusUnscheduled
Identifiers
CAS number4037-01-8 80714-61-0 (free base)
ATC codeNone
PubChemCID 122178
Chemical data
FormulaC37H51N9O10S 
Mol. mass813.92 g/mol

Semax is a drug produced and prescribed mostly in Russia and Ukraine for a broad range of conditions but predominantly for its purported nootropic, neuroprotective, and neurorestorative properties. Semax is a heptapeptide, synthetic analog of a fragment of ACTH, ACTH (4-10), of the following structure: Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro. The compound has not been evaluated by the U.S. FDA. It is unscheduled in the U.S. and legal to import by private citizens for personal use.[1][2]

Semax has undergone extensive study in Russia and is on the Russian List of Vital & Essential Drugs approved by the Russian Federation government on December 7, 2011 (N-2199; ATC code N06BX).[3] Medical uses for Semax include treatment of stroke, transient ischemic attack, memory and cognitive disorders, peptic ulcers, optic nerve disease, and to boost the immune system.[1][1][4][5][6]

In animals, Semax rapidly elevates the levels and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its signaling receptor TrkB in the hippocampus,[7] and rapidly activates serotonergic and dopaminergic brain systems.[8][9] In accordance, it has been found to produce antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects,[10][11] attenuate the behavioral effects of exposure to chronic stress,[10][11] and potentiate the locomotor activity produced by D-amphetamine.[9][12] As such, it has been suggested that Semax may be effective in the treatment of depression,[13] as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).[14]

Semax, as well as a related peptide drug, selank, have been found to inhibit enzymes involved in the degradation of enkephalins and other endogenous regulatory peptides, and this action may be involved in their effects.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Institute of Molecular Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences website (http://old.img.ras.ru/semax1-e.htm)
  2. ^ DEA List of Controlled Substances
  3. ^ Russian List of Vital & Essential Drugs 2199 (http://semax.ru/filemanager/download/26/)
  4. ^ Kurysheva, NI; Shpak, AA; Ioĭleva, EE; Galanter, LI; Nagornova, ND; Shubina, NIu; Shlyshalova, NN (2001). "Semax in the treatment of glaucomatous optic neuropathy in patients with normalized ophthalmic tone". Vestnik oftalmologii 117 (4): 5–8. PMID 11569188. 
  5. ^ Ivanikov, IO; Brekhova, ME; Samonina, GE; Myasoedov, NF; Ashmarin, IP (2002). "Therapy of peptic ulcer with semax peptide". Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine 134 (1): 73–4. doi:10.1023/A:1020621124776. PMID 12459874. 
  6. ^ Korneev, EA; Kazakova, TB (1999). "Current approaches to the analysis of the effects of stress on metabolic processes in cells of the nervous and immune systems". Med. Immunology 1 (1–2): 17–22. 
  7. ^ Dolotov OV, Karpenko EA, Inozemtseva LS, et al. (October 2006). "Semax, an analog of ACTH(4-10) with cognitive effects, regulates BDNF and trkB expression in the rat hippocampus". Brain Res. 1117 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.07.108. PMID 16996037. 
  8. ^ Eremin KO, Kudrin VS, Grivennikov IA, Miasoedov NF, Rayevsky KS (2004). "Effects of Semax on dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of the brain". Dokl. Biol. Sci. 394: 1–3. PMID 15088389. 
  9. ^ a b Eremin KO, Kudrin VS, Saransaari P, et al. (December 2005). "Semax, an ACTH(4-10) analogue with nootropic properties, activates dopaminergic and serotoninergic brain systems in rodents". Neurochem. Res. 30 (12): 1493–500. doi:10.1007/s11064-005-8826-8. PMID 16362768. 
  10. ^ a b Vilenskiĭ DA, Levitskaia NG, Andreeva LA, Alfeeva LIu, Kamenskiĭ AA, Miasoedov NF (June 2007). "[Effects of chronic Semax administration on exploratory activity and emotional reaction in white rats]". Ross Fiziol Zh Im I M Sechenova (in Russian) 93 (6): 661–9. PMID 17850024. 
  11. ^ a b Yatsenko KA, Glazova NY, Inozemtseva LS, et al. (November 2013). "Heptapeptide semax attenuates the effects of chronic unpredictable stress in rats". Dokl. Biol. Sci. 453: 353–7. doi:10.1134/S0012496613060161. PMID 24385169. 
  12. ^ Volodina MA, Sebentsova EA, Glazova NY, et al. (March 2012). "Semax attenuates the influence of neonatal maternal deprivation on the behavior of adolescent white rats". Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 152 (5): 560–3. PMID 22803132. 
  13. ^ Pae CU (January 2008). "Therapeutic possibility of "Semax" for depression". CNS Spectr 13 (1): 20–1. PMID 18204410. 
  14. ^ Tsai SJ (2007). "Semax, an analogue of adrenocorticotropin (4-10), is a potential agent for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Rett syndrome". Med. Hypotheses 68 (5): 1144–6. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.07.017. PMID 16996699. 
  15. ^ Kost NV, Sokolov OIu, Gabaeva MV, et al. (2001). "Semax and selank inhibit the enkephalin-degrading enzymes from human serum". Bioorg. Khim. (in Russian) 27 (3): 180–3. PMID 11443939. 

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