Cebu

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Cebu
Lalawigan ng Cebu
Lalawigan sa Sugbu
—  Province  —

Flag

Seal
Map of the Philippines with Cebu highlighted
Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472
Country Philippines
RegionCentral Visayas (Region VII)
FoundedApril 27, 1565
CapitalCebu City
Government
 • TypeProvince of the Philippines
 • GovernorGwendolyn Garcia (PDP-Laban)
 • Vice GovernorAgnes Magpale (Bakud)
Area
 • Total4,932.79 km2 (1,904.56 sq mi)
Area rank22nd out of 80
Population (2010)
 • Total4,170,000
 • Rank5th out of 80
 • Density850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Density rank7th out of 80
Divisions
 • Independent cities3
 • Component cities6
 • Municipalities44
 • Barangays1,066
including independent cities: 1,203
 • Districts1st to 6th districts of Cebu (shared with Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu cities)
including independent cities: 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City
Time zonePHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code
Spoken languagesCebuano, Tagalog, English
Websitewww.cebu.gov.ph
 
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Cebu
Lalawigan ng Cebu
Lalawigan sa Sugbu
—  Province  —

Flag

Seal
Map of the Philippines with Cebu highlighted
Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472
Country Philippines
RegionCentral Visayas (Region VII)
FoundedApril 27, 1565
CapitalCebu City
Government
 • TypeProvince of the Philippines
 • GovernorGwendolyn Garcia (PDP-Laban)
 • Vice GovernorAgnes Magpale (Bakud)
Area
 • Total4,932.79 km2 (1,904.56 sq mi)
Area rank22nd out of 80
Population (2010)
 • Total4,170,000
 • Rank5th out of 80
 • Density850/km2 (2,200/sq mi)
 • Density rank7th out of 80
Divisions
 • Independent cities3
 • Component cities6
 • Municipalities44
 • Barangays1,066
including independent cities: 1,203
 • Districts1st to 6th districts of Cebu (shared with Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu cities)
including independent cities: 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City
Time zonePHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code
Spoken languagesCebuano, Tagalog, English
Websitewww.cebu.gov.ph

Cebu (Cebuano: Sugbo) is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands. Cebu is a long narrow island stretching 225 kilometers from north to south, surrounded by 167 neighbouring, smaller islands, which include Mactan, Bantayan, Malapascua, Olango and the Camotes Islands. Cebu has narrow coastlines, limestone plateaus and coastal plains. It also has rolling hills and rugged mountain ranges traversing the northern and southern lengths of the island. Cebu's highest mountains are over 1000 meters high. Flat tracts of land can be found in the city of Bogo and in the towns of San Remigio, Medellin and Daanbantayan at the northern region of the province. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city in the Philippines, which forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities which include Danao City, Lapu-Lapu City, Mandaue City and Talisay City and eight other municipalities. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines.

Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade, education and industry in the Visayas. Condé Nast Traveler Magazine named Cebu the 7th best island destination in the Indian Ocean-Asia region in 2007,[1] 8th best Asian-Pacific island destination in 2005, 7th in 2004 and in 2009.

Contents

Demographics

The population of Cebu in 2007 was 2,440,120, with its largest city accounting for 799,762 people, or more than a third of the entire provincial population.[2] Cebuano is the official language spoken in Cebu and it is also spoken in most areas of the Visayas, including Bohol, western Leyte, Negros Oriental and some provinces of Mindanao (Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur, Davao City, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Camiguin, Compostela Valley, South Cotabato and Sarangani. The population of Central Visayas is predominantly young with about 37 percent of its population below 10 years old. This is very evident in the very broad base of the population pyramid in the region which has prevailed since 1970 but at a declining rate. A decline of 2.29 percentage points in the proportion of household population below 15 years old was noted from 1980 to 1995. Conversely, an increase of 3.06 percentage points was observed in the 15-64 age group during the same period. The population of the region is evenly distributed between male and female. However, the male population in the region has been increasing at a faster rate compared to the female population.[3]

Religion

The majority of its population are Roman Catholic,[4] there are also some followers of Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.

The image of Santo Niño de Cebú (Holy Child of Cebu), the oldest Christian image in the Philippines, is enshrined and venerated at the Basilica of Santo Niño. According to Philippine historical documents, the statue of the Santo Niño (Holy Child) was given to the wife of the Rajah of Cebu by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. The friendship is depicted in Cebu's cultural event, the Sinulog where street parades and loud drum beats preceded by a Christian mass is celebrated every third Sunday of January. Cebu has a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and has several major churches, including the Basilica Minor del Santo Niño de Cebu, Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral, Santo Rosario Parish Church, San José-Recoletos Church, Sacred Heart Church, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, National Shrine of Our Lady of the Rule, National Shrine of Saint Joseph, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Cebu and other Christian churches, as well as several other non-Catholic churches, mosques and temples.

Climate

Though Cebu has two official[citation needed] seasons, Dry and Wet, rainfall is usually not particularly high, with average rainfall hitting around 100 millimeters per month. The wet season usually comes from June to December, while the dry season comes from January until May. Rainfall is highest in June and July. Cebu's temperatures can reach a high of 36 degree celsius from March to May, to as low as 18 degrees at the mountains during the cooler season from October to January. The average temperature in Cebu is around 24 to 32 degree celsius, and does not fluctuate much except for the month of May, which is the hottest month. Cebu averages 70–80 percent humidity.[5]

History

Between the 13th and 16th century Cebu then known as Zubu[6] (or Sugbo) was an island inhabited by Hindu, animist and Muslim[7] ruled by Rajahs and Datus.[8] It was a kingdom of the defunct Rajahnate of Cebu.

The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which used to exist in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri 'Lumay' otherwise known as 'Rajamuda Lumaya', a native prince of the Chola dynasty which had invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead.[9]

Nao Victoria, Magellan's ship Replica

The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 established a period of Spanish exploration and colonization.[10][11]

A map showing the route of the Magellan expedition circumnavigating the world.

Losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On September 20, 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda enroute to Southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean. They reached the Philippines on March 16, 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and have provisions.

Pigafetta's illustrations of Cebuanos during the expedition.

Arriving in Cebu City, Magellan, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos and Juana. The Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On April 14, Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized.

Magellan soon heard of Datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu-Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On April 27, the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan killed by the natives of Mactan[12] in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellan's second in command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world.

Survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain. Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailing from Mexico arrived in 1565 and established a colony.[13] The Spaniards fought the King Rajah Tupas and occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santíssimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus). Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos (University of San Carlos) was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its forts to foreign trade. The first printing house ("Imprenta de Escondrillas y Cia") was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion (College of the Immaculate Conception) was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu ("El Boletin de Cebú") began publishing in 1886. In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on February 24, 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians.

Cebu, being one of the most densely populated island in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942. The 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was reestablished on 1942 to 1946 and the 8th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again on 1944 to 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu City and Cebu Province and started by the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helping Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces. Almost three years later in March 1945, combined Filipino and American forces landed and reoccupied the island during the liberation of the Philippines. Cebuano guerrilla groups led by an American, James Cushing is credited for the establishment of the Koga Papers which is said to have changed the American plans to retake the Philippines from Japanese occupation in 1944, by helping the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth Army forces enter Cebu in 1945. The following year the island achieved independence from colonial rule in 1946.

Infrastructure

The Mactan-Cebu International Airport on Mactan Island serves the general area of Cebu City and its surrounding area.

The Cebu South Road Properties (SRP)

The Cebu International Port is the largest shipping hub in the Visayas.[citation needed] Notable business districts are the Cebu Business Park and the Asiatown IT Park, built on what was once the location of the Lahug Airport (Cebu's old airport prior to Mactan-Cebu International Airport). This area hosts industries related to the information technology industry such as software development, telecommunications, engineering research and development centers, and business process outsourcing.

Economy

Cebu City is the largest city and economic hub of the island.
Mid-rise office buildings in Asiatown IT Park, Cebu City.

About 80% of its domestic shipping is located in Cebu. Its extensive international port facilities, its proximity to intra-Asiam shipping and air routes are major factors which led multinational companies like: AAA Commercial Broker & Consultancy Inc, Affiliated Computer Services (A Xerox Company), Alliance Software, Inc., Asahi Optical, Bigfoot Entertainment, BMC Group, Convergys, Fairchild Semiconductor, JobsDB.com, JP Morgan Chase & Co., Lexmark Philippines Inc., Marine Colloids, Maithland-Smith, Mitsumi, NEC Technologies, Olympus Optical, Pentax, Muramoto Audio-Visual, Taiyo-Yuden, Teradyne, Timex, Tsuneishi Heavy Industries, and United Technologies; to establish offices and/or factories on the main islands as well as in the island of Mactan, where they are clustered in special economic zones known as the Mactan Economic Processing Zone 1 (MEPZ-1) and the Mactan Economic Processing Zone 2 (MEPZ-2).

Cebu's labor force is oriented towards non-agricultural lines and is rated one of the most productive work force in the country. High domestic and foreign tourist arrivals, geographic location, accessibility and natural resources have fueled the development growth of Cebu with an excellent industrial record and now the fastest growing economy in the Philippines.

Cebu is home to some national and international corporations like: Its international port (cargo and container) is currently one of the busiest in the country. Homegrown brands in the city have expanded throughout the past years finding success in the national and even in the international market like Penshoppe, Oxygen, Loalde, and Island Souvenirs. Other homegrown brands that have expanded outside the city and province include: Bo's Coffee, Julie's Bakeshop, and Orange Brutus.

Due to its burgeoning furniture-making industry, Cebu has been named as the furniture capital of the Philippines. The Department of Trade and Industry in Cebu is aiming to develop this aspect of Cebu's economy by specifically targeting small to medium enterprises or SMEs whose products are considered export quality. Cebu is also becoming an IT hub as many companies, either local or international, are establishing their headquarters in Cebu. The city has become a site for various call centers and BPOs. The Cebu Chamber of Commerce and Industry, an organization of Cebu's businesses, are hedging the city's growth and economy on information and communications technology, with the aim of making it a premier ICT investment, software and e-services hub in Southeast Asia. Shipbuilding companies in Cebu have manufactured bulk carriers of up to 70,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) and double hulled fastcrafts as well.

The Cebu International Convention Centre serves as a landmark in recognition of Mandaue City’s involvement in the international trade. As venue of the 12th ASEAN summit, the city continues to establish an important role in international industrial relation, becoming the core of development and strengthening its role as the growth center of the province of Cebu.

Education

The Philippine elementary school begins from Grade 1 to Grade 6. The high school program takes six years to finish, taken after graduating from elementary school. Cebu is the main educational institute in the central region of the country. It has several large universities each with a number of college branches throughout Cebu City and more than a dozen other schools and universities specializing in various courses such as Medicine, Engineering, Nautical courses, Nursing, Law, Commerce, Education, Computer and IT and other professions.

The most prominent of these universities are the University of San Carlos, University of the Philippines Cebu College, University of San Jose–Recoletos, Cebu Normal University, University of Cebu, University of Southern Philippines Foundation, Southwestern University, and the University of the Visayas. The only medical university in the country is the Cebu Doctors' University (formerly Cebu Doctors' College) located in the Cebu Boardwalk in nearby Mandaue City. It was elevated to university status in November 2004. The Cebu Institute of Technology – University (formerly Cebu Institute of Technology) located in N. Bacalso Ave. and the Cebu Technological University (formerly Cebu State College of Science and Technology) which is located in M.J. Cuenco Avenue cor. R. Palma Street, Cebu City are the newest universities. CIT-U and CTU were elevated to university status in the year 2010. The Cebu's first film school, The International Academy of Film and Television was established on Mactan Island in 2004. The Asian College of Technology, is also located in Metro Cebu.

Media

Cebu has television and cable stations namely: MyChannel (MyChannel - 28), Real Cebu Television (RCTV - 36), Amazing Cebu (Amazing Cebu - 56) and the Cebu Catholic Television Network (CCTN - 47) (a religious station partly owned and endorsed by the Archdiocese of Cebu). MyChannel 28, Real Cebu Television (RCTV - 36), and Amazing Cebu (Amazing Cebu 56) are only seen on cable television while CCTN operates an UHF frequency on channel 47. It can also be accessed through Skycable's channel 56.

Despite having these local stations, Cebuanos prefer to watch the Philippines' three dominant television networks namely: ABS-CBN, TV5 and GMA Network Inc. While national newspapers have presence in the island, Cebu has English-language local newspapers: The Freeman, Sun-Star - Cebu and Cebu Daily News, while there are also Cebuano language newspapers, SunStar SuperBalita owned by Sun Star and Banat News owned by The Freeman. Each of the local newspapers sell for about 10 peso a copy, which is much cheaper than their national counterparts.

Government

Cebu is subdivided into 6 component cities and 44 municipalities. The cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue are independent cities that are not under provincial supervision.

Congressional districts

Component Cities

The cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue are often grouped with the province, but are governed independently.

In 2007, the towns of Bogo, Carcar and Naga became cities. They, along with 13 other cities in the country, were demoted back to municipalities the following year by the Philippine Supreme Court, citing that these 16 cities did not pass the requirements of cityhood.[14] However, on December 22, 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators."[15] As such, the cityhood status of Bogo, Carcar and Naga, are effectively restored.

On August 27, 2010, the cities of Bogo, Carcar and Naga is now plain old municipalities again. It shares the fate of 13 other cities, after the Supreme Court reinstated a 2008 decision declaring as “unconstitutional" the cityhood laws converting 16 municipalities into cities.

A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least P100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.

Voting 7-6, with two justices not taking part, the SC reinstated its Nov. 18, 2008 decision declaring as unconstitutional the Republic Acts (RAs) converting 16 municipalities into cities.[16] The most recent development in the legal battles surrounding the "League of 16" came on February 15, 2011. Voting 7-6, the Supreme Court (SC) ruled this week that 16 towns that became cities in 2007 can stay as cities. It's the fourth time the SC has ruled on the case and the third reversal. It said the conversion of the 16 towns into cities met all legal requirements.

Municipalities

Landmarks

Events

Sinulog is a religious festival celebrated every third Sunday of January. The feast is held in honor of the patron saint, Señor Santo Niño de Cebú (Lord Holy Child of Cebu) and the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the Philippines. The Fiesta Señor (Festival Lord) converge a procession and take part in a mardigras parade.

Gallery

Sister Province

References

  1. ^ "Condé Nast Traveler Readers' Choice Top Islands". http://www.concierge.com/bestof/readerschoice/top_islands/topislands_asia. 
  2. ^ "2007 Census of population". Philippine government. http://www.census.gov.ph/data/census2007/index.html. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ "More on demographics". The Commission on Population of the Philippines. http://www.popcom.gov.ph/regions/07/more_on_demographics.html. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  4. ^ "Cebu - Paradise: Culture and Lifestyle". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph/?getid=2&getsubid=24&infolinkids=26&GetBodyName=Culture%20and%20Lifestyle&rightpdisable=0. 
  5. ^ "Guide to Cebu-Weather in Cebu www.guidetocebu.com". http://www.guidetocebu.com/information/weather.html. 
  6. ^ "Welcome to Cebu- history". www.sinulog.ph. http://www.sinulog.ph/sugbu/history.html. 
  7. ^ "Cebu's history". www.plantationbay.com. http://www.plantationbay.com/cebu.asp. 
  8. ^ "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph/?getid=2&getsubid=5&infolinkids=6&GetBodyName=History&rightpdisable=0. 
  9. ^ Jovito Abellana, Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik, 1952
  10. ^ "Philippine History-Spanish Colonization". www.philippinecountry.com. http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_history/spanish_colonization.html. Retrieved 2006. 
  11. ^ "Philippine history, part2 The first Spanish expedition of 1521". http://www.information.ph/history_02.html. 
  12. ^ "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph?getid=2&getsubid=5&infolinkids=6&GetBodyName=History&rightpdisable=0. 
  13. ^ "Philippine history, part3 The Spanish colonization". http://www.information.ph/history_02B.html. 
  14. ^ Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Inquirer.net. http://globalnation.inquirer.net/cebudailynews/news/view/20081121-173541/Cities-demotion-worries-DepEd-execs. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  15. ^ Benjamin B. Pulta. "SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities". The Daily Tribune. http://www.tribuneonline.org/nation/20091223nat1.html. 
  16. ^ Rey E. Requejo. "Cityhood ruling overturned". Manila Standard Today. http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/insideNation.htm?f=2010/august/28/nation1.isx&d=2010/august/28. 

External links