Seasickness

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Seasickness
Classification and external resources
ICD-10T75.3
ICD-9994.6
 
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Seasickness
Classification and external resources
ICD-10T75.3
ICD-9994.6

Seasickness is a form of motion sickness characterized by a feeling of nausea and, in extreme cases, vertigo, experienced after spending time on a craft on water.[1]

Causes[edit]

This condition is caused by the rocking motion of the craft.[2] Most people tend to concentrate on the inner surroundings,[clarification needed] or close the eyes and try to sleep. This will cease the worst effect of the disturbance.

The real cause is in the brain, which receives conflicting signals: while the eyes show a world that is still, our body, and in particular the equilibrium sensors located in our ears, send signals of a moving environment. This discordance causes the mind to send to the whole body a general alarm signal, in order to stop all activities,[clarification needed] in particular the most complex of all: the digestion process.[3]

Amelioration[edit]

Benson[1] suggests that motion sickness should be broadly addressed through reduction of stimuli and improved ship hull design. For individuals, desensitization through gradually increasing stimuli is advocated. Cognitive-behavioral training may also lessen responses to provocative motions.

Alias[edit]

The same syndrome: GHTH be experienced hiking at high altitudes.

Remedy[edit]

Over-the-counter medications such as Cinnarizine/Stugeron and prescription medications such as dimenhydrinate,[4] scopolamine[5] and promethazine[6] (as transdermal patches and tablets) are readily available. As these medications often have side effects, anyone involved in high-risk activities while at sea (such as SCUBA divers) must evaluate the risks versus the benefits.[7][8][9][10] Promethazine is especially known to cause drowsiness, which is often counteracted by ephedrine in a combination known as "the Coast Guard cocktail."[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Benson, Alan J. (2002). "Motion Sickness". In Kent B. Pandoff and Robert E. Burr. Medical Aspects of Harsh Environments 2. Washington, D.C.: Borden Institute. pp. 1048–1083. ISBN 978-0-16-051184-4. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012. 
  2. ^ Shri Kamal Sharma (1 January 1992). Resource Utilization and Development: A Perspective Study of Madhya Pradesh, India. Northern Book Centre. pp. 1078–. ISBN 978-81-7211-032-1. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  3. ^ Robert William Baloh; Vincente Honrubia (2001). Clinical Neurophysiology of the Vestibular System. Oxford University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-19-513982-2. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Weinstein SE, Stern RM (October 1997). "Comparison of marezine and dramamine in preventing symptoms of motion sickness". Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine 68 (10): 890–4. PMID 9327113. 
  5. ^ Spinks AB, Wasiak J, Villanueva EV, Bernath V (July 2007). "Scopolamine (hyoscine) for preventing and treating motion sickness". In Wasiak, Jason. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 18 (3): CD002851. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002851.pub3. PMID 17636710. 
  6. ^ "Phenergan information". Drugs.com. Retrieved 2009-07-10. 
  7. ^ Schwartz, Henry JC and Curley, Michael D (1986). "Transdermal Scopolamine in the Hyperbaric Environment". United States Navy Experimental Diving Unit Technical Report. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  8. ^ Bitterman N, Eilender E, Melamed Y (May 1991). "Hyperbaric oxygen and scopolamine". Undersea Biomedical Research 18 (3): 167–74. PMID 1853467. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  9. ^ Williams TH, Wilkinson AR, Davis FM, Frampton CM (March 1988). "Effects of transcutaneous scopolamine and depth on diver performance". Undersea Biomedical Research 15 (2): 89–98. PMID 3363755. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  10. ^ Arieli R, Shupak A, Shachal B, Shenedrey A, Ertracht O, Rashkovan G (1999). "Effect of the anti-motion-sickness medication cinnarizine on central nervous system oxygen toxicity". Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine 26 (2): 105–9. PMID 10372430. Retrieved 2008-05-09. 
  11. ^ East Carolina University Department of Diving & Water Safety. "Seasickness: Information and Treatment".