The Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, are a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual and perennial herbs, as well as one genus of shrubs. Flowers have bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus ScrophulariaL..
In the past it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic. Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae but also several new families. Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from Scrophulariacae sensu lato.
Fischer (2004) considered the family to consist of three subfamilies; Antirrhinoideae, Gratioloideae, and Digitalidoideae. He further divided the Gratioloideae into five tribes; Gratioleae, Angeloniaeae, Stemodieae, Limoselleae and Lindernieae. He then divided the Gratioleae, with its sixteen genera (and about 182 species) into three subtribes; Caprarinae, Dopatrinae and Gratiolinae. The Gratiolinae had ten genera (about 121 species) distributed through temperate and tropical America; Bacopa and Mecardonia (formerly Herpestis), Amphianthus, Gratiola, Sophronanthe, Benjaminia, Scoparia, Boelkea, Maeviella and Braunblequetia. Many of these were transferred to the family Plantaginaceae, in the tribe Gratioleae.
^Gándara, Etelvina; Victoria Sosa (March 2013). "Testing the monophyly and position of the North American shrubby desert genus Leucophyllum (Scrophulariaceae: Leucophylleae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society171 (3): 508–518. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01327.x.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
^ abKornhall, Per and Bremer, Birgitta (2004). "New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society146 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00341.x.
^Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R.G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". Taxon54 (2): 411–425. doi:10.2307/25065369. JSTOR25065369.
^"Lindernia All.". A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
^Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731.
^Nelson D. Young, Kim E. Steiner, Claude W. dePamphilis (Autumn 1999). "The Evolution of Parasitism in Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae: Plastid Gene Sequences Refute an Evolutionary Transition Series". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden86 (4): 876–893. doi:10.2307/2666173. JSTOR2666173.
Fischer, E. (2004). "Scrophulariaceae". In Kubitzki, K.; Kadereit, J.W. Flowering Plants — Dicotyledons: Lamiales. The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants VII. Springer. pp. 333−432. ISBN3-540-40593-3.