Scrophulariaceae

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Figwort family
Scrophularia nodosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Scrophulariaceae
Juss.
Genera

See text.

Synonyms

Bontiaceae Horan.
Buddlejaceae K.Wilh., nom. cons.
Hebenstretiaceae Horan.
Limosellaceae J.Agardh
Myoporaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
Oftiaceae Takht. & Reveal
Selaginaceae Choisy, nom. cons.
Spielmanniaceae J.Agardh, nom. illeg.
Verbascaceae Bercht. & J.Presl[1]

 
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Figwort family
Scrophularia nodosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Lamiales
Family:Scrophulariaceae
Juss.
Genera

See text.

Synonyms

Bontiaceae Horan.
Buddlejaceae K.Wilh., nom. cons.
Hebenstretiaceae Horan.
Limosellaceae J.Agardh
Myoporaceae R.Br., nom. cons.
Oftiaceae Takht. & Reveal
Selaginaceae Choisy, nom. cons.
Spielmanniaceae J.Agardh, nom. illeg.
Verbascaceae Bercht. & J.Presl[1]

The Scrophulariaceae, the figwort family, are a family of flowering plants. The plants are annual or perennial herbs with flowers with bilateral (zygomorphic) or rarely radial (actinomorphic) symmetry. Members of the Scrophulariaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution, with the majority found in temperate areas, including tropical mountains. The family name is based on the name of the included genus Scrophularia L..

Taxonomy[edit]

In the past it was treated as including about 275 genera and over 5,000 species, but its circumscription has been radically altered since numerous molecular phylogenies have shown the traditional broad circumscription to be grossly polyphyletic.[2] Many genera have recently been transferred to other families within the Lamiales, notably Plantaginaceae and Orobanchaceae but also several new families.[3][4] Several families of the Lamiales have had their circumscriptions enlarged to accommodate genera transferred from Scrophulariacae sensu lato.

Fischer (2004) considered the family to consist of three subfamilies; Antirrhinoideae, Gratioloideae, and Digitalidoideae. He further divided the Gratioloideae into five tribes; Gratioleae, Angeloniaeae, Stemodieae, Limoselleae and Lindernieae. He then divided the Gratioleae, with its sixteen genera (and about 182 species) into three subtribes; Caprarinae, Dopatrinae and Gratiolinae. The Gratiolinae had ten genera (about 121 species) distributed through temperate and tropical America; Bacopa and Mecardonia (formerly Herpestis), Amphianthus, Gratiola, Sophronanthe, Benjaminia, Scoparia, Boelkea, Maeviella and Braunblequetia. Many of these were transferred to the family Plantaginaceae, in the tribe Gratioleae.

Uses[edit]

The family includes some medicinal plants, among them:

Genera[edit]

Tribe Aptosimeae
  • Anticharis Endl.
  • Aptosimum Burch. ex Benth.
  • Peliostomum E.Mey. ex Benth.[5]
Tribe Buddlejeae
  • Buddleja L. – Butterfly-bush
  • Emorya Torr.
  • Gomphostigma Turcz.[6]
Tribe Hemimerideae
Tribe Leucophylleae
Tribe Limoselleae
  • Barthlottia Eb.Fisch.
  • Camptoloma Benth.
  • Chaenostoma Benth. (sometimes included in Sutera but separated by Kornhall and Bremer[9])
  • Chenopodiopsis Hilliard
  • Cromidon Compton
  • Dischisma Choisy
  • Glekia Hilliard
  • Globulariopsis Compton
  • Glumicalyx Hiern
  • Gosela Choisy
  • Hebenstretia L
  • Jamesbrittenia Kuntze[9]
  • Limosella L.[10]
  • Lyperia Benth.
  • Manuleopsis Thell. ex Schinz
  • Melanospermum Hilliard
  • Microdon Choisy
  • Phyllopodium Benth.
  • Polycarena Benth.
  • Reyemia Hilliard
  • Selago L.
  • Strobilopsis Hilliard & B.L.Burtt
  • Sutera Roth syn. Manulea Thun. – Dwarf Snapdragon, "Bacopa"
  • Tetraselago Junell
  • Trieenea Hilliard
  • Zaluzianskya F.W.Schmidt[11]
Tribe Myoporeae
Tribe Scrophularieae
Tribe Teedieae
  • Dermatobotrys Bolus
  • Freylinia Colla
  • Oftia Adans.
  • Ranopisoa J.F.Leroy
  • Teedia Rudolphi
Not placed in a tribe
  • Brachystigma Pennell – Desert foxglove
  • Dasistoma Raf.
  • Hemianthus Nutt.
  • Leucosalpa Scott-Elliot
  • Phygelius E.Mey. ex Benth. – Cape fuchsia[14]

Excluded genera[edit]

The following genera, traditionally included in the Scrophulariaceae, have been transferred to other families as indicated:

  • Glossostigma Wight & Arn.Phrymaceae
  • Gratiola L. → Plantaginaceae
  • Hebe Comm. ex Juss. → Plantaginaceae
  • Holmgrenanthe Elisens → Plantaginaceae
  • Howelliella Rothm. → Plantaginaceae
  • Keckiella Straw → Plantaginaceae
  • Kickxia Dumort. → Plantaginaceae
  • Lagotis Gaertn. → Plantaginaceae
  • Limnophila R.Br. → Plantaginaceae
  • Linaria Mill. → Plantaginaceae
  • Lindernia All. → Linderniaceae[17]
  • Lophospermum D.Don → Plantaginaceae
  • Mabrya Elisens → Plantaginaceae
  • Maurandella (A.Gray) Rothm. → Plantaginaceae
  • Maurandya Ortega → Plantaginaceae
  • Mazus Lour. → Phrymaceae
  • Mecardonia Ruiz & Pav. → Plantaginaceae
  • Melampyrum L. → Orobanchaceae
  • Micranthemum Michx. → Plantaginaceae
  • Mimulus L. → Phrymaceae
  • Misopates Raf. → Plantaginaceae
  • Mohavea A.Gray → Plantaginaceae
  • Nemesia → Plantaginaceae
  • Neogaerrhinum Rothm. → Plantaginaceae

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Family: Scrophulariaceae Juss., nom. cons.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 
  2. ^ Fischer says that, if we consider morphology, it has been obvious for the last decades that scrophulariaceae do not represent a monophyletic group. See FISCHER (2004), p. 346.
  3. ^ a b Olmstead, R. G., dePamphilis, C. W., Wolfe, A. D., Young, N. D., Elisons, W. J. & Reeves P. A. (2001). "Disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". American Journal of Botany 88 (2): 348–361. doi:10.2307/2657024. JSTOR 2657024. PMID 11222255. 
  4. ^ Olmstead, R. G. (2003). "Whatever happened to the Scrophulariaceae?". Fremontia 30: 13–22.  - on line here
  5. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Aptosimeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  6. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Buddlejeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  7. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Hemimerideae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  8. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Leucophylleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  9. ^ a b Kornhall, Per and Bremer, Birgitta (2004). "New circumscription of the tribe Limoselleae (Scrophulariaceae) that includes the taxa of the tribe Manuleeae". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 146 (4): 453–467. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2004.00341.x. 
  10. ^ Oxelman, B.; Kornhall, P.; Olmstead, R.G.; Bremer, B. (2005). "Further disintegration of the Scrophulariaceae". Taxon 54 (2): 411–425. doi:10.2307/25065369. JSTOR 25065369. 
  11. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Limoselleae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  12. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Myoporeae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  13. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae tribe Scrophularieae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  14. ^ "Genera of Scrophulariaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2009-03-29. 
  15. ^ Albach, D. C.; Meudt, H. M.; Oxelman, B. (2005). "Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae". American Journal of Botany 92 (2): 297–315. doi:10.3732/ajb.92.2.297. PMID 21652407. 
  16. ^ "Lindernia All.". A Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. Missouri Botanical Garden and Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 
  17. ^ Haston, E., Richardson, J. E., Stevens, P. F., Chase, M. W., Harris, D. J. (2007). "A linear sequence of Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II families". Taxon 56 (1): 7–12. doi:10.2307/25065731. 
  18. ^ Nelson D. Young, Kim E. Steiner, Claude W. dePamphilis (Autumn 1999). "The Evolution of Parasitism in Scrophulariaceae/Orobanchaceae: Plastid Gene Sequences Refute an Evolutionary Transition Series". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86 (4): 876–893. doi:10.2307/2666173. JSTOR 2666173. 
  19. ^ "GRIN genera sometimes placed in Scrophulariaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-10-17. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]