Scorzonera

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Scorzonera
S. purpurea var. rosea
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Genus:Scorzonera
L.
Species
See text
 
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Scorzonera
S. purpurea var. rosea
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
(unranked):Angiosperms
(unranked):Eudicots
(unranked):Asterids
Order:Asterales
Family:Asteraceae
Genus:Scorzonera
L.
Species
See text
Scorzonera humilis

Scorzonera is a genus of the sunflower family (Asteraceae), subfamily Lactucoideae, tribe Lactuceae, subtribe Scorzonerinae. The genus Scorzonera contains about 175 species.[1] The best-known of these species is probably the edible black salsify Scorzonera hispanica. Scorzonera tau-saghyz produces rubber.[2]

Scorzonera is recorded as a food plant for the larva of the Nutmeg, a species of moth.

Contents

Species

Etymology

The word Scorzonera derives from the Italian "scorza" (= bark) and "nera" (= black). A second explanation could come from Old French, where "scorzon" means "snake". Black Salsify has been used for a long time to treat poisonous snake bites.

Secondary metabolites

In some members of the genus Scorzonera costus lactone and lactucin type type guaianolides were detected.[3] Flavonoids found in Scorzonera include apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin as well as derivatives of luteolin and quercetin.[4] Other secondary metabolites reported from the genus Scorzonera encompass caffeoylquinic acids, coumarins, dihydroisocoumarins, lignans, stilbenoids, and triterpenoids.[5] The chemosystematically and phytochemically most relevant class of compounds found in the genus Scorzonera are unique stilbenoid derivatives, these are after their main structural feature ‒ a bibenzyl moiety ‒ and after the region of origin of the first source plants ‒ the Tyrol in the Eastern Alps ‒ tyrolobibenzyls. These compounds feature a unique 4-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]benzofuran]-2-carboxylic acid structural element, so far not reported from any other source.[6]

References

  1. ^ Kare Bremer (1994). Asteraceae: Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland. ISBN 978-0881922752. 
  2. ^ "Plants for a future: Scorzonera tau-saghiz". http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Scorzonera+tau-saghyz&PRINT. 
  3. ^ Zidorn, C (2010). "Sesquiterpene lactones and their precursors as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Phytochemistry (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 69: 2270–2296. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2008.06.013. ISSN 0031-9422. 
  4. ^ Sareedenchai, V; Zidorn, C (2010). "Flavonoids as chemosystematic markers in the tribe Cichorieae of the Asteraceae". Biochemical Systematics and Ecology (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) 38: 935–957. doi:10.1016/j.bse.2009.09.006. ISSN 0305-1978. 
  5. ^ Jehle, M; Bano, J; Ellmerer, E P; Zidorn, C (2010). "Natural products from Scorzonera aristata (Asteraceae)". Natural Product Communications (Westerville, OH; USA) 5: 725–727. ISSN 1934-578X. 
  6. ^ Zidorn, C; Ellmerer-Müller, E P; Stuppner, H (2000). "Tyrolobibenzyls ‒ Novel secondary metabolites from Scorzonera humilis". Helvetica Chimica Acta (Zürich; Switzerland) 83: 2920–2925. ISSN 0018-019x. 

External links