School district

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A school district is a form of special-purpose district which serves to operate local public primary and secondary schools.

United States[edit]

In the United States, public schools are run by school districts, which are independent special-purpose governments, or dependent school systems, which are under the control of state and local government. A school district is a legally separate body corporate and politic. School districts are local governments with powers similar to that of a town or a county including taxation and eminent domain, except in Virginia, whose school divisions have no taxing authority and must depend on another local government (county, city, or town) for funding. Its governing body, which is typically elected by direct popular vote but may be appointed by other governmental officials, is called a school board, board of trustees, board of education, school committee, or the like. This body appoints a superintendent, usually an experienced public school administrator, to function as the district's chief executive for carrying out day-to-day decisions and policy implementations. The school board may also exercise a quasi-judicial function in serious employee or student discipline matters.

Not all school systems constitute school districts as distinct bodies corporate. A few states have no school systems independent of county or municipal governments. One prominent example is Maryland, where all school systems are run at the county or, in the case of Baltimore City, the county-equivalent level. Other states, such as New York, have both independent school districts and school systems that are subordinate to cities. The Hawaii State Department of Education functions as a single state-wide school district. This is unique among the states, but the District of Columbia Public Schools operates district public schools in Washington, DC and the Puerto Rico Department of Education operates all public schools in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, thus they also function as single school districts.

In the 2002 Census of Governments, the United States Census Bureau enumerated the following numbers of school systems in the United States:

School districts in the US have reduced the number of their employees by 3.3%, or 270,000 between 2008 and 2012, owing to a decline in property taxes. [1]

Terminology[edit]

Although these terms can vary slightly between various states and regions, these are typical definitions for school district constitution:

Schools[edit]

Districts[edit]

These terms may not appear in a district's name, even though the condition may apply.

Europe[edit]

Outside the United States, a onomous districts or equivalent authorities often represent various groups seeking education autonomy. In European history, as in much of the world, religious (confessional), linguistic, and ethnic divisions have been a significant factor in school organization. This paradigm is shifting.

In England and Wales, school boards were established in 1870, and abolished in 1902, with county council and county borough councils becoming the Local Education Authorities.[4]

In France, the system of the carte scolaire was dismantled by the beginning of the 2007 school year. More school choice has been given to French students, however, priority is given to those that meet the following criteria:

In Italy, school districts were established in 1974 "Provvedimenti Delegati sulla scuola" ("Assigned Laws [to the Government] about the school").[5] Each district must contain a minimum of 10,000 inhabitants. The federal government attempted to link the local schools with local society and culture and local governments. The school districts were dissolved in 2003 by the "legge finanziaria" (law about the government budget) in an attempt to trim the national budget.[6]

Examples[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ USA Today published March 13, 2012, page A1,"Property taxes start to decline"
  2. ^ Minnesota Statute 120A.05
  3. ^ Special Purpose Governments, Ohio State University. Accessed 2008-01-05.
  4. ^ archives.powys.gov.uk
  5. ^ (Italian) "Text of the DPR n° 416 del 31 maggio 1974 ("Assigned Laws about the school")". 09-10-2011. 
  6. ^ (Italian) "Text of the law n° 289 del 27 dicembre 2002 ("legge finanziaria 2003")". 09-10-2011. 

External links[edit]