Saskatchewan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Saskatchewan
FlagCoat of arms
Motto: Latin: Multis e Gentibus Vires
("Strength from Many Peoples")
CapitalRegina
Largest citySaskatoon
Largest metroSaskatoon
Official languagesEnglish
DemonymSaskatchewanian, Saskatchewanese, Saskatchewanite, Saskatchewaner[1]
Government
TypeConstitutional monarchy
Lieutenant GovernorVaughn Solomon Schofield
PremierBrad Wall (Saskatchewan Party)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats14 of 308 (4.5%)
Senate seats6 of 105 (5.7%)
ConfederationSeptember 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (10th)
Area Ranked 7th
Total651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)
Land591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)
Water (%)59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) (9.1%)
Proportion of Canada6.5% of 9,984,670 km2
Population Ranked 6th
Total (2011)1,033,381 [2]
Density (2011)1.75 /km2 (4.5 /sq mi)
GDP Ranked 5th
Total (2011)C$74.738 billion[3]
Per capitaC$70,654 (4th)
Abbreviations
PostalSK
ISO 3166-2CA-SK
Time zoneCentral: UTC−6, year-round in most areas
Postal code prefixS
FlowerWestern Red Lily
TreePaper Birch
BirdSharp-tailed Grouse
Websitewww.gov.sk.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Saskatchewan
FlagCoat of arms
Motto: Latin: Multis e Gentibus Vires
("Strength from Many Peoples")
CapitalRegina
Largest citySaskatoon
Largest metroSaskatoon
Official languagesEnglish
DemonymSaskatchewanian, Saskatchewanese, Saskatchewanite, Saskatchewaner[1]
Government
TypeConstitutional monarchy
Lieutenant GovernorVaughn Solomon Schofield
PremierBrad Wall (Saskatchewan Party)
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of Saskatchewan
Federal representation(in Canadian Parliament)
House seats14 of 308 (4.5%)
Senate seats6 of 105 (5.7%)
ConfederationSeptember 1, 1905 (Split from NWT) (10th)
Area Ranked 7th
Total651,900 km2 (251,700 sq mi)
Land591,670 km2 (228,450 sq mi)
Water (%)59,366 km2 (22,921 sq mi) (9.1%)
Proportion of Canada6.5% of 9,984,670 km2
Population Ranked 6th
Total (2011)1,033,381 [2]
Density (2011)1.75 /km2 (4.5 /sq mi)
GDP Ranked 5th
Total (2011)C$74.738 billion[3]
Per capitaC$70,654 (4th)
Abbreviations
PostalSK
ISO 3166-2CA-SK
Time zoneCentral: UTC−6, year-round in most areas
Postal code prefixS
FlowerWestern Red Lily
TreePaper Birch
BirdSharp-tailed Grouse
Websitewww.gov.sk.ca
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Saskatchewan (Listeni/səˈskæəwən/ or /səˈskæəˌwɑːn/) is a prairie province in Canada, which has a total area of 651,900 square kilometres (251,700 sq mi) and a land area of 592,534 square kilometres (228,800 sq mi), the remainder being water area (covered by lakes/ponds, reservoirs and rivers). Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by the Province of Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the U.S. states of Montana and North Dakota. As of December 2013, the population of Saskatchewan was estimated at 1,114,170.[4] Residents primarily live in the southern half of the province. Of the total population, 257,300 live in the province's largest city, Saskatoon, while 210,000 live in the provincial capital, Regina. Other major cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Yorkton, Swift Current and North Battleford.[5]

Saskatchewan was first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774, having also been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups. It became a province in 1905, its name derived from the Saskatchewan River. The river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy ("swift flowing river") in the Cree language.[6] The province's economy is based on agriculture, mining, and energy. Saskatchewan's current premier is Brad Wall and its lieutenant-governor is Vaughn Solomon Schofield.

"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan First Nations."[7] The First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the tribes; they have acquired about 761,000 acres (3079 kilometres squared), now reserve lands. Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon.[7]

Geography[edit]

As Saskatchewan's borders largely follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, because of its size, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is partially crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program (1880–1928).

Map of the province

Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, and on the south by the American states of Montana and North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features (i.e. they are all parallels and meridians). Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two provinces that are land-locked.

The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel.

Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Canadian Shield in the north and the Interior Plains in the south. Northern Saskatchewan is mostly covered by boreal forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, and adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres (120 sq mi). The Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands (Grasslands National Park), are areas of the province that remained unglaciated during the last glaciation period.

The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres (4,567 ft), is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2km from the provincial boundary with Alberta.[8] The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres (699 ft). The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico.[9]

Climate[edit]

Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province.[10] The province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm (but not really hot) summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate (Köppen type Dfb) in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills; drying off to a semi-arid steppe climate (Köppen type BSk) in the southwestern part of the province. Drought can affect agricultural areas during long periods with little or no precipitation at all. The northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) with a shorter summer season. Summers can get very hot, sometimes above 38 °C (100 °F) during the day, and with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of the Western United States during much of July and August, very cool or hot but changeable air masses often occur during spring and in September. Winters are usually bitterly cold, with frequent Arctic air descending from the north.[11] with high temperatures not breaking −17 °C (1 °F) for weeks at a time. Warm chinook winds often blow from the west, bringing periods of mild weather. Annual precipitation averages 30 to 45 centimetres (12 to 18 inches) across the province, with the bulk of rain falling in June, July, and August.[12]

Saskatchewan is one of the most tornado active parts of Canada, averaging approx. 12 to 18 tornadoes per year, some violent. In 2012, 33 tornadoes were reported in the province. The Regina Cyclone, took place in June 1912 when 28 people died in a F4 Fujita scale tornado. Severe and non-severe thunderstorm events occur in Saskatchewan, usually from early spring to late summer. Hail, strong winds and isolated tornadoes are a temporary occurrence.

The hottest temperature ever recorded anywhere in Canada happened in Saskatchewan. The temperature rose to 45 degrees Celsius in Midale and Yellow Grass. The coldest ever recorded in the province was −56.7 degrees Celsius in Prince Albert, which is north of Saskatoon.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Saskatchewan[13]
CityJuly (°C)July (°F)January (°C)January (°F)
Maple Creek27/1181/52-5/-1623/4
Estevan27/1381/55-9/-2016/-4
Weyburn26/1279/54-10/-2114/-6
Moose Jaw26/1279/54-8/-1918/-2
Regina26/1179/52-10/-2214/-8
Saskatoon25/1177/52-12/-2210/-8
Melville25/1177/52-12/-2310/-9
Swift Current25/1177/52-7/-1719/1
Humboldt24/1175/52-12/-2310/-9
Melfort24/1175/52-14/-237/-9
North Battleford24/1175/52-12/-2210/-8
Yorkton24/1175/52-13/-239/-9
Lloydminster23/1173/52-10/-1914/-2
Prince Albert23.9/11.175/52-13/-25.29/-13

History[edit]

Henry Kelsey sees the buffalo on the western plains.

Saskatchewan has been populated by various indigenous peoples of North America, including members of the Sarcee, Blackfeet, Atsina, Cree, Saulteaux, Assiniboine (Nakoda) and Lakota Sioux. The first known European to enter Saskatchewan was Henry Kelsey in 1690, who travelled up the Saskatchewan River in hopes of trading fur with the province's indigenous peoples. The first permanent European settlement was a Hudson's Bay Company post at Cumberland House, founded in 1774 by Samuel Hearne.[14]

Cree Pipe Stem Carrier, a painting of a Plains Cree warrior by Paul Kane.

In 1803 the Louisiana Purchase transferred from France to the United States part of what is now Alberta and Saskatchewan. In 1818 it was ceded to the United Kingdom. Most of what is now Saskatchewan, though, was part of Rupert's Land and controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company, which claimed rights to all watersheds flowing into Hudson Bay, including the Saskatchewan, Churchill, Assiniboine, Souris, and Qu'Appelle River systems.

In the late 1850s and early 1860s, scientific expeditions led by John Palliser and Henry Youle Hind explored the prairie region of the province.

In 1870, Canada acquired the Hudson's Bay Company's territories and formed the North-West Territories to administer the vast territory between British Columbia and Manitoba. The Crown also entered into a series of numbered treaties with the indigenous peoples of the area, which serve as the basis of the relationship between First Nations, as they are called today, and the Crown. Since the late twentieth century, land losses and inequities as a result of those treaties have been subject to negotiation for settlement between the First Nations in Saskatchewan and the federal government, in collaboration with provincial governments.

Part of Alberta and Saskatchewan were traded from the United States, which in return received part of Rupert's Land, today part of North Dakota and Minnesota.

In 1885, post-Confederation Canada's first "naval battle" was fought in Saskatchewan, when a steamship engaged the Métis at Batoche in the North-West Rebellion.[15]

A seminal event in the history of what was to become Western Canada was the 1874 "March West" of the federal government's new North-West Mounted Police. Despite poor equipment and lack of provisions, the men on the march persevered and established a federal presence in the new territory. Historians[who?] have argued that had this expedition been unsuccessful, the expansionist United States would have been tempted to expand into the political vacuum.[citation needed] The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway would likely have been delayed or taken a different, more northerly route, stunting the early growth of towns like Brandon, Regina, Medicine Hat and Calgary – had these existed at all. Failure to construct the railway could also have forced British Columbia to join the United States.

In 1876, following their defeat of United States Army forces at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory in the United States, the Lakota Chief Sitting Bull led several thousand of his people to Wood Mountain. Survivors and descendants founded Wood Mountain Reserve in 1914.

European-Canadian settlement of the province started to take off as the Canadian Pacific Railway was built in the early 1880s, and the Canadian government divided up the land by the Dominion Land Survey and gave free land to any willing settlers.

The North-West Mounted Police set up several posts and forts across Saskatchewan, including Fort Walsh in the Cypress Hills, and Wood Mountain Post in south-central Saskatchewan near the United States border.

Many Métis people, who had not been signatories to a treaty, had moved to the Southbranch Settlement and Prince Albert district north of present-day Saskatoon following the Red River Rebellion in Manitoba in 1870. In the early 1880s, the Canadian government refused to hear the Métis' grievances, which stemmed from land-use issues. Finally, in 1885, the Métis, led by Louis Riel, staged the North-West Rebellion and declared a provisional government. They were defeated by a Canadian militia brought to the Canadian prairies by the new Canadian Pacific Railway. Riel, who surrendered and was convicted of treason in a packed Regina courtroom, was hanged on November 16, 1885. Since then, the government has recognized the Métis as an aboriginal people with status rights, and provided them with various benefits related to that status.

20th century[edit]

As more settlers came to the prairies on the railway, the population grew. On September 1, 1905, Saskatchewan became a province, with inauguration day held September 4. The Dominion Lands Act permitted settlers to acquire one quarter of a square mile of land to homestead and offered an additional quarter upon establishing a homestead. Immigration peaked in 1910, and in spite of the initial difficulties of frontier life – distance from towns, sod homes, and backbreaking labour – new settlers established a European-Canadian style of prosperous agrarian society.

Bennett buggies, automobiles pulled by horses, were used during the Great Depression by farmers too impoverished to purchase gasoline.

In 1913, the Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association was established as Saskatchewan's first ranchers' organization. At its the founding convention in 1913, the members established three goals: to watch over legislation; to forward the interests of the stock growers in every honourable and legitimate way; and to suggest to parliament legislation to meet changing conditions and requirements.[16] Its farming equivalent, the Saskatchewan Grain Growers Association, was the dominant political force in the province until the 1920s; it had close ties with the governing Liberal party.

In the late 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan, imported from the United States and Ontario, gained brief popularity in nativist circles in Saskatchewan and Alberta. The Klan, briefly allied with the provincial Conservative party because of their mutual dislike for Premier James G. "Jimmy" Gardiner and his Liberals (who ferociously fought the Klan), enjoyed about two years of prominence. It declined and disappeared, subject to widespread political and media opposition, plus internal scandals involving the use of the organization's funds.

In 1970, the first annual Canadian Western Agribition was held in Regina. This farm-industry trade show, with its strong emphasis on livestock, is rated as one of the five top livestock shows in North America, along with those in Houston, Denver, Louisville and Toronto.

The province celebrated the 75th anniversary of its establishment in 1980, with Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon, presiding over the official ceremonies.[17][18] In 2005, 25 years later, her sister, Queen Elizabeth II, attended the events held to mark Saskatchewan's centennial.[19]

Since the late 20th century, First Nations have become more politically active in seeking justice for past inequities, especially related to government taking of indigenous lands. The federal and provincial governments have negotiated on numerous land claims, and developed a program of "Treaty Land Entitlement", enabling First Nations to buy land to be taken into reserves with money from settlements of claims.

"In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed an historic land claim agreement with Saskatchewan First Nations. Under the Agreement, the First Nations received money to buy land on the open market. As a result, about 761,000 acres have been turned into reserve land and many First Nations continue to invest their settlement dollars in urban areas", including Saskatoon. The money from such settlements has enabled First Nations to invest in businesses and other economic infrastructure.[7]

Demographics[edit]

According to the Canada 2011 Census, the largest ethnic group in Saskatchewan is German (28.6%), followed by English (24.9%), Scottish (18.9%), Canadian (18.8%), Irish (15.5%), Ukrainian (13.5%), French (Fransaskois) (12.2%), First Nations (12.1%), Norwegian (6.9%), and Polish (5.8%). [20]

Saskatchewan's population since 1901
YearPopulationFive-year
% change
Ten-year
% change
Rank among
provinces
190191,279n/an/a8
1911492,432n/a439.53
1921757,510n/a53.83
1931921,785n/a21.73
1941895,992n/a-2.83
1951831,728n/a-7.25
1956880,6655.9n/a5
1961925,1815.111.25
1966955,3443.38.56
1971926,242-3.00.16
1976921,325-0.53.66
1981968,3135.14.56
19861,009,6134.39.66
1991988,928-2.02.16
1996976,615-1.2-3.36
2001978,9330.2-1.06
2006985,3860.70.96
20111,053,9607.07.66

[21][22]

The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 286,815 (30%); the United Church of Canada with 187,450 (20%); and the Lutherans with 78,520 (8%). 148,535 (15.4%) responded "no religion".[23]

Municipalities[edit]

Saskatoon skyline and the South Saskatchewan River

Ten largest municipalities by population

Municipality1996200120062011
Saskatoon193,653196,861202,340222,189
Regina180,404178,225179,246193,100
Prince Albert34,77734,29134,13835,129
Moose Jaw32,97332,13132,13233,274
Yorkton15,15415,10715,03815,669
Swift Current14,89014,82114,94615,503
North Battleford14,05113,69213,19013,888
Estevan10,75210,24210,08411,054
Weyburn9,7239,5349,43310,484
Corman Park7,1428,0438,3498,354

This list does not include Lloydminster, which has a total population of 27,804 but straddles the Alberta–Saskatchewan border. As of 2011, 9,772 people lived on the Saskatchewan side, which would make it Saskatchewan's 10th largest municipality. All of the listed communities are considered cities by the province, with the exception of Corman Park, which is a rural municipality. Municipalities in the province with a population of 5,000 or more can receive official city status.

Economy[edit]

Fields of canola and flax on the Saskatchewan Prairie.

Historically, Saskatchewan's economy was primarily associated with agriculture. However, increasing diversification has resulted in agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting only making up 6.8% of the province's GDP. Saskatchewan grows a large portion of Canada's grain.[24] Wheat is the most familiar crop and the one most often associated with the province (there are sheafs of wheat depicted on the coat of arms of Saskatchewan), but other grains like canola, flax, rye, oats, peas, lentils, canary seed, and barley are also produced. Beef cattle production in the province is only exceeded by Alberta. Mining is also a major industry in the province, with Saskatchewan being the world's largest exporter of potash and uranium.[25] In the northern part of the province, forestry is also a significant industry.

Oil and natural gas production is also a very important part of Saskatchewan's economy, although the oil industry is larger. Among Canadian provinces, only Alberta exceeds Saskatchewan in overall oil production.[26] Heavy crude is extracted in the Lloydminster-Kerrobert-Kindersley areas. Light crude is found in the Kindersley-Swift Current areas as well as the Weyburn-Estevan fields. Natural gas is found almost entirely in the western part of Saskatchewan, from the Primrose Lake area through Lloydminster, Unity, Kindersley, Leader, and around Maple Creek areas.[27]

Saskatchewan's GDP in 2006 was approximately C$45.922 billion,[28] with economic sectors breaking down in the following way:

 %Sector
17.1finance, insurance, real estate, leasing
13.0mining, petroleum
11.9education, health, social services
11.7wholesale and retail trade
9.1transportation, communications, utilities
7.7manufacturing
6.8agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting
6.5business services
5.8government services
5.1construction
5.3other

A list of the top 100[dead link] companies includes The Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan, Federated Cooperatives Ltd. and IPSCO.

Major Saskatchewan-based Crown corporations are Saskatchewan Government Insurance (SGI), SaskTel, SaskEnergy (the province's main supplier of natural gas), and SaskPower. Bombardier runs the NATO Flying Training Centre at 15 Wing, near Moose Jaw. Bombardier was awarded a long-term contract in the late 1990s for $2.8 billion from the federal government for the purchase of military aircraft and the running of the training facility. SaskPower since 1929 has been the principal supplier of electricity in Saskatchewan, serving more than 451,000 customers and managing $4.5 billion in assets. SaskPower is a major employer in the province with almost 2,500 permanent full-time staff located in 71 communities.

Provincial finances[edit]

Fiscal YearPopulation1Gov't Debt2Crown Debt3Budget SurplusGFSF BalancePers. Inc. Tax RevenueCorp. Inc. Tax Revenue4PST Revenue5Resource RevenueHealth ExpenseCredit Rating6
2012–20131,073,1073,804,8175,374,36216,000666,0002,406,254838,2751,284,8932,515,8694,575,589AAA
2011–20121,053,9603,807,5904,462,15955,000708,0001,897,409793,7901,322,1612,821,9574,400,159AAA
2010–20111,041,7294,135,2263,982,38696,0001,006,0001,795,7881,155,2731,186,9222,527,7994,202,106AA+
2009–20101,025,6384,140,4823,852,168167,705958,0001,890,848881,4241,084,0011,910,6243,934,231AA+
2008–20091,010,2184,145,2863,556,2701,969,9331,215,0001,844,226591,9301,108,6284,612,4083,976,241AA+
2007–2008996,1306,824,3233,394,3281,282,8691,528,9341,938,258673,641995,9952,325,1163,504,333AA
2006–2007991,2607,244,9383,449,356397,794887,5001,668,5381,067,4591,079,7941,694,2523,202,965AA
2005–2006994,9967,197,2233,490,817539,466887,5001,447,905918,2791,112,3501,721,1002,990,625AA
2004–2005997,2637,545,5743,360,474765,117748,5001,329,081638,968985,0791,474,1912,773,961AA-
2003–2004995,8488,031,6373,216,602-210,017366,0001,245,763682,052854,4801,140,9622,515,823AA-
2002–2003997,8057,821,4263,205,04382,860577,0001,429,757557,360813,9321,243,6492,342,835A+
2001–20021,001,6437,561,8993,261,468-278,902495,0001,196,410507,542770,984903,0442,199,723A+

The Tabulated Data covers each fiscal year (e.g. 2012–2013 covers April 1, 2012 – March 31, 2013). All data is in $1,000s.

1 These values reflect the estimated population at the beginning of the fiscal year.

2 These values reflect the debt of the General Revenue Fund alone at the end of the fiscal year. They do not reflect the debt of Government Service Organizations (Health Authorities, Crop Insurance Corporation, etc.).

3 These values reflect the combined debt of the Government Service Enterprises (Crown Corporations) at the end of the fiscal year. SaskPower, SaskEnergy, and SaskTel account for 62.3%, 18.2%, and 12.1% of Crown Debt, respectively (as of March 31, 2013).

4 The highest rate of provincial corporate income tax was reduced from 17% to 14% on July 1, 2006. It was further reduced to 13% on July 1, 2007, and finally to 12% on July 1, 2008. The tax on paid-up capital was reduced from 0.6% to 0.3% on July 1, 2006, to 0.15% on July 1, 2007, and abolished altogether on July 1, 2008. These displayed values were obtained by adding the corporate income tax for each year with the corporate capital tax.

5 The Provincial Sales Tax (PST) rate was reduced from 7% to 5% on October 28, 2006.

6 These values are the credit ratings from Standard and Poor's as of the end of the Fiscal Year.

Source: Government of Saskatchewan.[29]

Government and politics[edit]

Saskatchewan has the same form of government[30] as the other Canadian provinces with a lieutenant-governor (who is the representative of the Crown in Right of Saskatchewan), premier, and a unicameral legislature.

For many years, Saskatchewan was one of Canada's more progressive provinces, reflecting many of its citizens' feelings of alienation from the interests of large capital. In 1944 Tommy Douglas became premier of the first avowedly socialist regional government in North America. Most of his Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) represented rural and small-town ridings. Under his Cooperative Commonwealth Federation government, Saskatchewan became the first province to have Medicare. In 1961, Douglas left provincial politics to become the first leader of the federal New Democratic Party.

Provincial politics in Saskatchewan is dominated by the social-democratic New Democrats and the centre-right Saskatchewan Party, with the latter holding the majority in the Legislative Assembly of Saskatchewan as of 2012. Numerous smaller political parties also run candidates in provincial elections, including the Green Party, Liberal Party, and the Progressive Conservative Party, but none is currently represented in the Legislative Assembly (Liberals and Conservatives generally caucus under the Saskatchewan Party banner in provincial affairs). After 16 years of New Democratic governments under premiers Roy Romanow and Lorne Calvert, the 2007 provincial election was won by the Saskatchewan Party under Brad Wall. In the 2011 election, Premier Wall and the Saskatchewan Party were returned with an increased majority.

Recent federal elections have been dominated by the Conservative Party since the party currently represents 13 of 14 federal ridings in Saskatchewan, while the Liberal Party of Canada represents one federal riding.

While both Saskatoon and Regina (Saskatchewan's largest cities) are roughly twice the population of an urban riding in Canada, both are (as of the 2011 federal election) split into multiple ridings that blend them with rural communities.

Law enforcement[edit]

Police agencies
Correctional facilities

Education[edit]

The first education on the prairies took place within the family groups of the First Nation and early fur trading settlers. There were only a few missionary or trading post schools established in Rupert's Land – later known as the North West Territories.

The first 76 North-West Territories school districts and the first Board of Education meeting formed in 1886. The pioneering boom formed ethnic bloc settlements. Communities were seeking education for their children similar to the schools of their home land. Log cabins, and dwellings were constructed for the assembly of the community, school, church, dances and meetings.

The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties and the success of farmers in proving up on their homesteads helped provide funding to standardize education.[citation needed] Text books, normal schools for educating teachers, formal school curricula and state of the art school house architectural plans provided continuity throughout the province. English as the school language helped to provide economic stability, because one community could communicate with another and goods could be traded and sold in a common language. The number of one-room school house districts across Saskatchewan totalled approximately 5,000 at the height of this system of education in the late 1940s.[citation needed]

Following World War II, the transition from many one-room school houses to fewer and larger consolidated modern technological town and city schools occurred as a means of ensuring technical education. School buses, highways, and family vehicles create ease and accessibility of a population shift to larger towns and cities. Combines and tractors mean that the farmer could successfully manage more than a quarter section of land, so there was a shift from family farms and subsistence crops to cash crops grown on many sections of land.

School vouchers have been newly proposed as a means of allowing competition between rural schools and making the operation of co-operative schools practicable in rural areas.

Healthcare[edit]

Saskatchewan's medical health system is widely and inaccurately characterized as "socialized medicine": medical practitioners in Saskatchewan, as in other Canadian provinces, are not civil servants but remit their accounts to the publicly funded Saskatchewan Medical Care Insurance Plan rather than to patients (i.e. a single-payer system).[31] Unlike in Medicare in Australia and private medicine in the UK, Saskatchewan sets a statutory tariff for medical services which may not be exceeded.

Saskatchewan medical health system has faced criticism due a lack of accessibility to the midwifery program. According to Leanne Smith, the director for maternal services in the Saskatoon Health Region declared that half of the women who apply for the midwifery program are turned away.[32] Ministry of Health data shows that midwives saw 1,233 clients in the 2012-13 fiscal year (which runs April to March). But in that fourth quarter, 359 women were still on waiting lists for immediate or future care.[32] The provincial Health Ministry received 47 letters about midwifery services in 2012, most of which asked for more midwives.[32] As a continuing problem in the Saskatchewan health care system, more pressure has been placed to recruit more midwives for the province.

Transportation[edit]

Trans Canada 1
Eatonia Railway Station

Transportation in Saskatchewan includes an infrastructure system of roads, highways, freeways, airports, ferries, pipelines, trails, waterways and railway systems serving a population of approximately 1,003,299 (according to 2007 estimates) inhabitants year-round. It is funded primarily with local and federal government funds. The Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation estimates that 80% of traffic is carried on the 5,031-kilometre principal system of highways.[33]

The Ministry of Highways and Infrastructure operates over 26,000 kilometres (16,000 mi) of highways and divided highways. There are also municipal roads which comprise different surfaces. Asphalt concrete pavements comprise almost 9,000 kilometres (5,600 mi), granular pavement almost 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi), non structural or thin membrane surface TMS are close to 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi) and finally gravel highways make up over 5,600 kilometres (3,500 mi) through the province. In the northern sector, ice roads which can only be navigated in the winter months comprise another approximately 150 kilometres (93 mi) of travel.[34]

Saskatchewan has over 250,000 kilometres (150,000 mi) of roads and highways, the highest amount of road surface of any Canadian province.[35] The major highways in Saskatchewan are the Trans Canada expressway, Yellowhead Highway northern Trans Canada route, Louis Riel Trail, CanAm Highway, Red Coat Trail, Northern Woods and Water route, and Saskota travel route.

The first Canadian transcontinental railway was constructed by the Canadian Pacific Railway between 1881 and 1885.[36] After the great east-west transcontinental railway was built, north-south connector branch lines were established. The 1920s saw the largest rise in rail line track as the CPR and CNR fell into competition to provide rail service within ten kilometres. In the 1960s there were applications for abandonment of branch lines.[37] Today the only two passenger rail services in the province are The Canadian and Winnipeg – Churchill train, both operated by Via Rail. The Canadian is a transcontinental service linking Toronto with Vancouver.

The main Saskatchewan waterways are the North Saskatchewan River or South Saskatchewan River routes. In total, there are 3,050 bridges maintained by the Department of Highways in Saskatchewan.[38] There are currently twelve ferry services operating in the province, all under the jurisdiction of the Department of Highways.

Ferries of Saskatchewan
FerryLocationWaterwayReference
Estuaryconnecting Estuary and LaporteSouth Saskatchewan River[39]
LemsfordNorth of Lemsford connecting 32 and 30South Saskatchewan River[39]
LancerNorth of Lancer connecting 32 and 30South Saskatchewan River[39]
RiverhurstHighway 42 and Highway 373Lake Diefenbaker[39]
ClarkboroBetween Warman and Aberdeen on 784South Saskatchewan River[39]
HagueBetween Hague and AberdeenSouth Saskatchewan River[39]
St. LaurentEast of Duck Lake, 11 and Batoche 225South Saskatchewan River[39]
FentonBetween 25 and 3 on Grid RoadSouth Saskatchewan River[39]
WeldonBetween 3, Weldon via 682 and 302, Prince AlbertSouth Saskatchewan River[39]
PayntonBetween 16 and 26 via 764North Saskatchewan River[39]
WingardEast of Marcelin, 40 connecting to 11 WingardNorth Saskatchewan River[39]
CecilBetween 302 and 55 east of Prince AlbertNorth Saskatchewan River[39]

The Saskatoon Airport (YXE) was initially established as part of the Royal Canadian Air Force training program during World War II. It was renamed the John G. Diefenbaker Airport in the official ceremony, June 23, 1993.[40] Roland J. Groome Airfield is the official designation for the Regina International Airport (YQR) as of August 3, 2005; the airport was established in 1930. Under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP),[41] twenty Service Flying Training Schools (RAF) were established at various Saskatchewan locations in World War II.[42] 15 Wing Moose Jaw is home to the Canadian Forces formation aerobatics team, the Snowbirds.[41]

Airlines offering service to Saskatchewan are Air Canada, WestJet Airlines, United Airlines, Delta Air Lines, Transwest Air, Norcanair Airlines, La Ronge Aviation Services Ltd, La Loche Airways, Osprey Wings Ltd, Buffalo Narrows Airways Ltd, Skyservice Airlines, Île-à-la-Crosse Airways Ltd, Voyage Air, Pronto Airways, Venture Air Ltd, Pelican Narrows Air Service, Jackson Air Services Ltd, and Northern Dene Airways Ltd.[43]

The Government of Canada has agreed to contribute $20 million for two new interchanges in Saskatoon. One of them being at the Sk Hwy 219 / Lorne Ave intersection with Circle Drive, the other at the Senator Sid Buckwold Bridge (Idylwyld Freeway) and Circle Drive. This is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the Canadian National Railway's intermodal freight terminal thereby increasing Asia-Pacific trade. Also, the Government of Canada will contribute $27 million to Regina to construct a Canadian Pacific Railway CPR intermodal facility and improve infrastructure transportation to the facility from both national highway networks, Sk Hwy 1, the TransCanada Highway and Sk Hwy 11, Louis Riel Trail. This also is part of the Asia-Pacific Gateway and Corridor Initiative to improve access to the CPR terminal and increase Asia-Pacific trade.[44]

Arts and culture[edit]

Museums and galleries
Artist-run centres
Artists

Canadian television sitcoms Corner Gas and Little Mosque on the Prairie are both set in small Saskatchewan towns. The novels of W. O. Mitchell, Sinclair Ross, Frederick Philip Grove, Guy Vanderhaeghe, Michael Helm and Gail Bowen are also frequently set in Saskatchewan, as are children's novels of Farley Mowatt. The English naturalist "Grey Owl" spent much of his life living and studying in what is now Prince Albert National Park.

The Arrogant Worms' song "The Last Saskatchewan Pirate" about a disgruntled farmer who takes up piracy on the namesake river mentions various parts of the province such as Saskatoon, Regina and Moose Jaw. Popular Québécois band Les Trois Accords recorded a song in French called "Saskatchewan" on its first album, Gros Mammouth Album. It was the third single of that album and met moderate success in French Canada. The region is also referenced in the titular Buffy Sainte-Marie cover "Saskatchewan", by British Band Red Box; it was released as a single in 1984 and a reworked version appeared on their 1986 début album The Circle & the Square.

The Saskatchewan Roughriders are the province's only major professional sports franchise, and are extremely popular across Saskatchewan. The team's fans are also found to congregate on game days throughout Canada, and collectively they are known as "Rider Nation".

Hockey is the most popular sport in the province. More than 490 NHL players[45] have been born in Saskatchewan, the highest per capita output of any Canadian province, U.S. state, or European country.[46] Notable NHL players born in Saskatchewan include Gordie Howe, Bryan Trottier, Bernie Federko, Clark Gillies, Fern Flaman, Bert Olmstead, Harry Watson, Elmer Lach, Max Bentley, Sid Abel, Doug Bentley, Eddie Shore, Clint Smith, Bryan Hextall, Johnny Bower, Emile Francis, Glenn Hall, Chuck Rayner, Brad McCrimmon, Patrick Marleau, Dave Manson, Theo Fleury, Terry Harper, Wade Redden, Brian Propp, and Scott Hartnell.

In 2006, the founder of One Red Paperclip, Kyle MacDonald, ended his trading-game after swapping a movie role in the film Donna on Demand for a two-story farmhouse in Kipling, Saskatchewan.

Provincial symbols[edit]

Thread count: black 1 green 6 brown 11 gold 26 red 2 yellow 1 red 2 gold 26 brown 11 green 6 black 1 white 2
The official tartan of Saskatchewan, created in 1961.

The flag of Saskatchewan was officially adopted on September 22, 1969. The flag features the provincial shield in the upper quarter nearest the staff, with the floral emblem, the Prairie Lily, in the fly. The upper green (in forest green) half of the flag represents the northern Saskatchewan forest lands, while the golden lower half of the flag symbolizes the southern wheat fields and prairies. A province-wide competition was held to design the flag, and drew over 4,000 entries. The winning design was by Anthony Drake, then living in Hodgeville.[47]

In 2005, Saskatchewan Environment held a province-wide vote to recognize Saskatchewan's centennial year, receiving more than 10,000 on-line and mail-in votes from the public. The walleye was the overwhelming favourite of the six native fish species nominated for the designation, receiving more than half the votes cast.[48] Other species in the running were the lake sturgeon, lake trout, lake whitefish, northern pike and yellow perch.

Saskatchewan's other symbols include the tartan, the license plate, and the provincial flower. Saskatchewan's official tartan was registered with the Court of Lord Lyon King of Arms in Scotland in 1961. It has seven colours: gold, brown, green, red, yellow, white and black. The provincial licence plates display the slogan "Land of Living Skies". The provincial flower of Saskatchewan is the Western Red Lily.

Centennial celebrations[edit]

In 2005, Saskatchewan celebrated its centennial. To honour it, the Royal Canadian Mint issued a commemorative five-dollar coin depicting Canada's wheat fields as well as a circulation 25-cent coin of a similar design. Queen Elizabeth II and the Duke of Edinburgh visited Regina, Saskatoon and Lumsden, and the Saskatchewan-reared Joni Mitchell issued an album in Saskatchewan's honour.

Climate change[edit]

The effects of climate change in Saskatchewan are now being observed in parts of the province. There is evidence of reduction of biomass in Saskatchewan's boreal forests[citation needed] (as with those of other Canadian prairie provinces) that is linked by researchers to drought-related water stress, stemming from global warming, most likely caused by greenhouse gas emissions. While studies, as early as 1988 (Williams, et al., 1988) have shown that climate change will affect agriculture,[49] whether the effects can be mitigated through adaptations of cultivars, or crops, is less clear. Resiliency of ecosystems may decline with large changes in temperature.[50] The provincial government has responded to the threat of climate change by introducing a plan to reduce carbon emissions, "The Saskatchewan Energy and Climate Change Plan," in June, 2007.

See also[edit]

Lists:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Saskatchewanian is the prevalent demonym, and is used by the Government of Saskatchewan. According to the Oxford Guide to Canadian English Usage (ISBN 0-19-541619-8; p. 335), Saskatchewaner is also in use.
  2. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statcan.gc.ca. February 8, 2012. Retrieved February 8, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2011)". Statistics Canada. November 19, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013. 
  4. ^ "Estimates of population, Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. December 18, 2013. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  5. ^ "Statistics Canada, Quarterly demographic estimates, 2009". Statcan.gc.ca. December 23, 2009. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  6. ^ "Government of Canada". Geonames.nrcan.gc.ca. September 18, 2007. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c "Treaty Land Entitlement – The English River Story, Saskatchewan", Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada, accessed November 25, 2011
  8. ^ http://peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=6140
  9. ^ Hydrology from The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan
  10. ^ "National Climate Data". Environment Canada. Retrieved July 17, 2011. 
  11. ^ Bray, Tim (December 23, 2008). "2008/12/23, Four PM". Retrieved February 28, 2008. "English just doesn’t have words to describe cold of that intensity. I was appropriately dressed but am still a mild-climate West Coast Wimp, and the cold hurt me wherever it touched me; and it tried really hard to find chinks in my clothing's armor to penetrate and hurt." 
  12. ^ "Average Weather for Saskatoon, SK – Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. July 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  13. ^ "National Climate Data and Information Archive". Environment Canada. Retrieved September 2, 2010. 
  14. ^ The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases.
  15. ^ Dave Yanko, "Batoche in the North-West Rebellion", Virtualsk.com
  16. ^ "Saskatchewan Stock Growers Association", Official Website
  17. ^ Archer, John H. (1996). "Regina: A Royal City". Monarchy Canada Magazine (Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada). Spring 1996. Archived from the original on February 9, 2008. Retrieved June 30, 2009. 
  18. ^ "Government of Saskatchewan > About Government > News Releases > February 2002 > Province Honours Princess Margaret". Queen's Printer for Saskatchewan. February 11, 2002. Retrieved February 15, 2011. 
  19. ^ "Royal couple touches down in Saskatchewan". CTV. May 18, 2005. Retrieved June 30, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Saskatchewan Ethnic Origins, Visible Minorities & Immigration" Government of Saskatchewan, http://www.stats.gov.sk.ca/stats/pop/2011Ethnic%20Origin.pdf ,
  21. ^ The history of Saskatchewan's population from Statistics Canada
  22. ^ Canada's population[dead link]. Statistics Canada. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  23. ^ "Religions in Canada". 2.statcan.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Canadian Food-Processing Sector". Invest in Canada. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  25. ^ Fact Sheet from the Saskatchewan Mining Association
  26. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. Oil and Gas Industry. Retrieved on: April 26, 2008.
  27. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. The Saskatchewan Oil and Gas InfoMap. Retrieved April 26, 2008.
  28. ^ Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory from Statistics Canada
  29. ^ Public Accounts of Saskatchewan. Government of Saskatchewan. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  30. ^ Government of Saskatchewan. "official page". Retrieved February 15, 2007. 
  31. ^ "How Saskatchewan Health Pays Your Bill – Health – Government of Saskatchewan". Health.gov.sk.ca. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  32. ^ a b c French, Janet. (2013-06-15) Half of women who want midwife turned away. Thestarphoenix.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  33. ^ "Saskatchewan Department of Highways and Transportation". Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  34. ^ Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation. "Performance Plan – Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation". Retrieved September 4, 2007. 
  35. ^ "Saskatchewan". World Travel Guide – Nexus Business Media. 2007. Retrieved September 4, 2007. 
  36. ^ "Canadian Pacific Railway". Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  37. ^ Fung, K.I. (1969). Atlas of Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: Modern Press. 
  38. ^ Ivanochko, Bob (2006). "Bridges". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Saskatchewan City & Town Maps – Directory". Becquet's Custom Programming. Retrieved January 18, 2008. [dead link]
  40. ^ "Airport History". Saskatoon Airport Authority. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  41. ^ a b Chabun, Will (2006). "Aviation". CANADIAN PLAINS RESEARCH CENTER, UNIVERSITY OF REGINA. Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  42. ^ Kraushaar, Clint (May 1998). "The RAF comes to Estevan". The Estevan Airport: A History to 1988. Estevan Community Access Project & Estevan Public Library. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  43. ^ "Saskatchewan Airlines: Airlines in Saskatchewan, Canada". 1994–2008. Retrieved January 18, 2008. 
  44. ^ Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities (2005–2008). "Statement by Hon. Lawrence Cannon, M.P., P.C. Minister of transport, infrastructure and communities at a news conference of Council of ministers responsible for transportation and highway safety". Newswire. CNW Group. Retrieved April 27, 2008. 
  45. ^ "NHL Players Born in Saskatchewan, Canada". Hockey-Reference.com. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  46. ^ Chaput, John. "Hockey". The Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Retrieved 1 November 2013. 
  47. ^ "Saskatchewan, flag of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  48. ^ "Walleye Wins Vote For Saskatchewan's Fish Emblem". Gov.sk.ca. September 30, 2005. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  49. ^ Williams, G.D.V., R.A. Fautley, K.H. Jones, R.B. Stewart, and E.E. Wheaton. 1988. "Estimating Effects of Climatic Change on Agriculture in Saskatchewan, Canada." p. 219-379. In M.L. Parry et al. (ed.) The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture. Vol. 1 Assessment in Cool Temperate and Cold Regions. Reidel Publ. Co. Dordrecht.
  50. ^ Riebsame. W.E. (1991). "Sustainability of the Great Plains in an Uncertain Climate." Great Plains Research Vol.1 No.1, University of Nebraska

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 55°N 106°W / 55°N 106°W / 55; -106