Santa Cruz das Flores (Azores)

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Santa Cruz das Flores
Municipality (Concelho)
Pico da Sé, Inverno de 2008, ilha das Flores, Açores.JPG
Pico da Sé: a rare winter scene in the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores
Flag
Coat of arms
Official name: Concelho de Santa Cruz das Flores
Name origin: santa cruz, Portuguese for holy cross; literally Holy Cross of Flores
Country Portugal
Autonomous Region Azores
GroupWestern
IslandFlores
Civil ParishesCaveira, Cedros, Ponta Delgada, Santa Cruz das Flores
CenterSanta Cruz das Flores
 - elevation35 m (115 ft)
 - coordinates39°27′18″N 31°7′53″W / 39.45500°N 31.13139°W / 39.45500; -31.13139
Highest pointMorro Alto
 - locationPico da Burrinha, Santa Cruz das Flores, Santa Cruz das Flores
 - elevation911.03 m (2,989 ft)
 - coordinates39°28′0″N 31°13′38″W / 39.46667°N 31.22722°W / 39.46667; -31.22722
Lowest pointSea level
 - locationAtlantic Ocean
 - elevation0 m (0 ft)
Length13.73 km (9 mi), Northwest-Southeast
Width7.82 km (5 mi), Northeast-Southwest
Area71.69 km2 (28 sq mi)
 - land69.64 km2 (27 sq mi)
 - water.62 km2 (0 sq mi)
 - urban1.43 km2 (1 sq mi)
Population2,493 (2001)
Density35 / km2 (91 / sq mi)
Settlementc.1548
 - Municipalityc.1895
LAUConcelho/Câmara Municipal
 - locationRua Senador André de Freitas, Santa Cruz das Flores, Santa Cruz das Flores
 - elevation24 m (79 ft)
 - coordinates39°27′12.72″N 31°7′40.82″W / 39.4535333°N 31.1280056°W / 39.4535333; -31.1280056
PresidentManuel Alberto da Silva Pereira (PS)
Municipal ChairMaria da Graça Silveira Armas Camacho (PS)
TimezoneAzores (UTC-1)
 - summer (DST)Azores (UTC0)
ISO 3166-2 codePT-
Postal Zone9970 Santa Cruz das Flores
Area Code & Prefix(+351) 292 XXX-XXXX
DemonymFlorenses; Santa-cruzenses
Patron SaintNossa Senhora da Conceição
Municipal AddressRua Senador André de Freitas, 13
9970 Santa Cruz das Flores
Municipal Holidays24 June (São João)
Location of the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores in the archipelago of the Azores
Wikimedia Commons: Santa Cruz das Flores
Website: http://cm-santacruzdasflores.azoresdigital.pt/
 
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Coordinates: 39°27′18″N 31°7′53″W / 39.45500°N 31.13139°W / 39.45500; -31.13139
Santa Cruz das Flores
Municipality (Concelho)
Pico da Sé, Inverno de 2008, ilha das Flores, Açores.JPG
Pico da Sé: a rare winter scene in the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores
Flag
Coat of arms
Official name: Concelho de Santa Cruz das Flores
Name origin: santa cruz, Portuguese for holy cross; literally Holy Cross of Flores
Country Portugal
Autonomous Region Azores
GroupWestern
IslandFlores
Civil ParishesCaveira, Cedros, Ponta Delgada, Santa Cruz das Flores
CenterSanta Cruz das Flores
 - elevation35 m (115 ft)
 - coordinates39°27′18″N 31°7′53″W / 39.45500°N 31.13139°W / 39.45500; -31.13139
Highest pointMorro Alto
 - locationPico da Burrinha, Santa Cruz das Flores, Santa Cruz das Flores
 - elevation911.03 m (2,989 ft)
 - coordinates39°28′0″N 31°13′38″W / 39.46667°N 31.22722°W / 39.46667; -31.22722
Lowest pointSea level
 - locationAtlantic Ocean
 - elevation0 m (0 ft)
Length13.73 km (9 mi), Northwest-Southeast
Width7.82 km (5 mi), Northeast-Southwest
Area71.69 km2 (28 sq mi)
 - land69.64 km2 (27 sq mi)
 - water.62 km2 (0 sq mi)
 - urban1.43 km2 (1 sq mi)
Population2,493 (2001)
Density35 / km2 (91 / sq mi)
Settlementc.1548
 - Municipalityc.1895
LAUConcelho/Câmara Municipal
 - locationRua Senador André de Freitas, Santa Cruz das Flores, Santa Cruz das Flores
 - elevation24 m (79 ft)
 - coordinates39°27′12.72″N 31°7′40.82″W / 39.4535333°N 31.1280056°W / 39.4535333; -31.1280056
PresidentManuel Alberto da Silva Pereira (PS)
Municipal ChairMaria da Graça Silveira Armas Camacho (PS)
TimezoneAzores (UTC-1)
 - summer (DST)Azores (UTC0)
ISO 3166-2 codePT-
Postal Zone9970 Santa Cruz das Flores
Area Code & Prefix(+351) 292 XXX-XXXX
DemonymFlorenses; Santa-cruzenses
Patron SaintNossa Senhora da Conceição
Municipal AddressRua Senador André de Freitas, 13
9970 Santa Cruz das Flores
Municipal Holidays24 June (São João)
Location of the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores in the archipelago of the Azores
Wikimedia Commons: Santa Cruz das Flores
Website: http://cm-santacruzdasflores.azoresdigital.pt/

Santa Cruz das Flores (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsɐ̃tɐ ˈkɾuʒ ðɐʃ ˈfloɾɨʃ]) is a municipality in Portugal, located across from the island of Corvo on the island of Flores, in the western part of the autonomous region of Azores. With an area of 70.9 km² its approximately 2,500 inhabitants occupy the northern half of the island. It is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean on all sides except south, where it borders Lajes das Flores.

History[edit]

The earliest record of the northern municipality referred to the village of Santa Cruz das Flores, in 1548. Transcribing the works of Father Gaspar Frutuoso, Francisco Gomes documented the arrival of the crew of the nau Nossa Senhor da Misericórida. In the beginning of the 17th-Century Diogo das Chagas, referred to the villa of Santa Cruz as the "head of the island" and the center of the administration, noting "[the village]...is very well located with the best port on the island...". Going on, he described "...the first road of the Village and from the Porto das Poças another road, which is the last in the village, and where the rest of the roads intersect...". This year marked the municipal administration of the northern half of the island; part of the administrative regalia, was the obligatory construction of a lighthouse.

A primitivo church, dating to the 16th century and constructed in 1627, by vicar Inácio Coelho, who in 1641 provided land for the founding of the Franciscan Convent of São Boaventura, as well as the bread and wine for religious ceremonies.

By the end of 1693, Frair Agostinho de Montalverne, referred to 9000 inhabitants, living in 180 homes, primarily in the village of Santa Cruz. The original settlers were Portuguese, primarily from the area of the Alentejo and Minho.

Since January 7, 1841, the villa of Santa Cruz, was the judicial center for the dual-administration of Flores and Corvo (the Western archipelago); the justice system was handled from Santa Cruz, although a magistrate came from off-island. Santa Cruz grew and quickly surpassed Lajes demographically and in its economic position, finally coopting the politics in the two islands in 1895. On the November 18th of that year, the municipality of Lajes was made redundant, and along with Corvo, it became an integrated municipality from 1895 to about 1898. In 1898, the counsel José Luciano de Castro undertook the restoration of the individual administrative divisions.

Geography[edit]

The twin lakes of Lagoa Funda and Lagoa Rasa, located in the central part of the municipality, and part of the Caldeira Funda Natural Forest Reserve

Physical Geography[edit]

As part of a volcanic island, the municipality of Santa Cruz das Flores offers several scenic vistas, with extinct volcanic cones and lakes in an area generally rugged. It is a natural garden, whose principal activities includes floral-culture and the ubiquitous Azorean dairy industries. The only significantly level ground is occupied by its primary center, Santa Cruz das Flores (parish), located on the eastern coast and near the municipal border with Lajes das Flores. Apart from a commercial center, it is the home of the island's only airport and secondary school.

To the north, along the only roadway, is the hamlet of Fazenda de Santa Cruz, noted for its Forest Reserve (Reserva Florestal da Fazenda de Santa Cruz), artificial lake and the island's only electrical station (constructed in 1967). The park is home to a small spawning program for trout, provides sites for picnicking, location of deer pens and an abundance of endemic plant species.

At the end of the Regional Road is the community of Ponta Delgada a coastal community with a line of sight to Corvo, as well as many sheltered coves and bays. The Gruta dos Encharéus (an enormous coastal grotto 50 meters long by 25 wide), the Gruta do Galo, the islets of Maria Vaz, Cartário, Abrões, Muda, Pão de Açúcar and Furado, as well as the plains of Ponta Delgada, Moinho and Vermelha, among others, are natural symbols of the coast of this municipality.

Climate[edit]

Santiago des Flores has a climate on the border between humid subtropical and oceanic. It has the highest rainfall of all the Azores’ islands and owing to the influence of the Gulf Stream the mildest winters of any place so far from the equator. However, the warm Gulf Stream waters mean rain falls on two-thirds of all days during the year and humidity averages around 80 percent.

Climate data for Santa Cruz das Flores, Azores
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.1
(70)
21.0
(69.8)
21.8
(71.2)
22.5
(72.5)
25.3
(77.5)
26.9
(80.4)
29.8
(85.6)
30.4
(86.7)
29.6
(85.3)
26.6
(79.9)
25.0
(77)
23.1
(73.6)
30.4
(86.7)
Average high °C (°F)17.0
(62.6)
16.7
(62.1)
17.1
(62.8)
18.0
(64.4)
19.5
(67.1)
21.8
(71.2)
24.6
(76.3)
25.7
(78.3)
24.4
(75.9)
21.8
(71.2)
19.3
(66.7)
17.8
(64)
20.31
(68.55)
Daily mean °C (°F)14.5
(58.1)
14.1
(57.4)
14.6
(58.3)
15.4
(59.7)
16.9
(62.4)
19.0
(66.2)
21.7
(71.1)
22.8
(73)
21.6
(70.9)
19.2
(66.6)
16.9
(62.4)
15.3
(59.5)
17.67
(63.8)
Average low °C (°F)11.9
(53.4)
11.5
(52.7)
12.0
(53.6)
12.7
(54.9)
14.2
(57.6)
16.2
(61.2)
18.8
(65.8)
19.8
(67.6)
18.8
(65.8)
16.5
(61.7)
14.4
(57.9)
12.8
(55)
14.97
(58.93)
Record low °C (°F)2.1
(35.8)
4.0
(39.2)
3.4
(38.1)
5.0
(41)
9.0
(48.2)
9.2
(48.6)
11.4
(52.5)
13.8
(56.8)
11.4
(52.5)
9.1
(48.4)
6.5
(43.7)
5.4
(41.7)
2.1
(35.8)
Rainfall mm (inches)197.1
(7.76)
171.3
(6.744)
155.0
(6.102)
104.4
(4.11)
105.6
(4.157)
97.3
(3.831)
60.6
(2.386)
68.0
(2.677)
123.9
(4.878)
179.5
(7.067)
179.6
(7.071)
223.9
(8.815)
1,666.2
(65.598)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)23.922.021.118.618.615.715.016.419.721.922.124.7239.7
Source: Instituto de Meteorologia [1]

Ecoregions/Protected areas[edit]

The western and interior parts of the municipality are largely vacant of inhabitants and unspoiled by development, partly responsible for the island's biodiversity being recognized by UNESCO (May 26, 2000). Many of the islands natural resources are located in this region, which includes Morro Alto (the highest point in the municipality and island at 915 meters) and the following natural sites of community interest:

In addition to the Forest Reserves, the municipality is bisected by a series of pedestrian hiking trails, that skirt the coastal areas and the interior. These trails, at many levels of endurance, include trips that cover: Ponta Delgada, Cedros, Ponta Ruiva, the village of Santa Cruz, Fazenda, Monte, Vales, Ribeira dos Barqueiros and even the smaller parish of Caveira.[4]

Human Geography[edit]

Population of
Santa Cruz das Flores
(1849 - 2004)
YearPop.  ±%  
18494,858—    
19003,629−25.3%
19303,484−4.0%
19603,207−8.0%
19812,456−23.4%
19912,628+7.0%
20012,493−5.1%
20042,500+0.3%

The municipality is administered by four civil parishes (Portuguese: freguesias) that include:

Although the population of the municipality has remained relatively stable, it has seen a slow decrease over the years.

Since 2006, the local municipal government has developed many infrastructures, re-qualified many existing buildings, roads and improved the accessibility of existing localities. This included many improvements and expansion of roadways, provision of electrical, water and sanitary services, as well as the construction of new subdivisions (such as the Loteamento da Terça) and beautification programs.[5]

Architecture[edit]

Civic[edit]

Religious[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ "Normais climatológicas 1981-2010>Flores". Instituto de Meteorologia. Retrieved 23 August 2012. 
  2. ^ Reserva Florestal de Recreio Luís Paulo Camacho Pamphlet (Portuguese) for the Recreational Forest Reserve.
  3. ^ In 2002, this name was adopted by the Regional Government, to replace the more ambiguous Reserva Florestal Natural da Fazenda de Santa Cruz (English: Fazenda de Santa Cruz Forest Reserve) in Legislative Decree No. 16/1989 (August 30).
  4. ^ Itinerários Pedestres do Concelho Pamphlet (Portuguese) of the Hiking Trails.
  5. ^ Câmara Municipal de Santa Cruz das Flores (January 2007), p.2-11
Sources