Sanford, Florida

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Sanford
City
City of Sanford
Historic Welcome Center in Downtown Sanford
Historic Welcome Center in Downtown Sanford
Official seal of Sanford
Seal
Nickname(s): Historic Waterfront Gateway, Celery City
Location in Seminole County and the state of Florida
Location in Seminole County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°47′22″N 81°16′32″W / 28.78944°N 81.27556°W / 28.78944; -81.27556Coordinates: 28°47′22″N 81°16′32″W / 28.78944°N 81.27556°W / 28.78944; -81.27556[1]
Country United States
State Florida
CountySeminole
IncorporatedSeptember 29, 1877
Founded byHenry Shelton Sanford
Government
 • TypeCommission–Manager
 • MayorJeff Triplett
 • City ManagerNorton N. Bonaparte, Jr.
Area[1]
 • City26.5 sq mi (69 km2)
 • Land23.0 sq mi (60 km2)
 • Water3.5 sq mi (9 km2)
Elevation[2]35 ft (11 m)
Population (2012)[3]
 • City54,651 (US: 662th)
 • Density2,333.4/sq mi (900.9/km2)
 • Urban1,510,516 (32nd)
 • Metro2,223,674 (26th)
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)32771, 32773
Area code(s)321, 407
FIPS code12-63650
GNIS feature ID0290631[2]
Websitewww.sanfordfl.gov
 
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Sanford
City
City of Sanford
Historic Welcome Center in Downtown Sanford
Historic Welcome Center in Downtown Sanford
Official seal of Sanford
Seal
Nickname(s): Historic Waterfront Gateway, Celery City
Location in Seminole County and the state of Florida
Location in Seminole County and the state of Florida
Coordinates: 28°47′22″N 81°16′32″W / 28.78944°N 81.27556°W / 28.78944; -81.27556Coordinates: 28°47′22″N 81°16′32″W / 28.78944°N 81.27556°W / 28.78944; -81.27556[1]
Country United States
State Florida
CountySeminole
IncorporatedSeptember 29, 1877
Founded byHenry Shelton Sanford
Government
 • TypeCommission–Manager
 • MayorJeff Triplett
 • City ManagerNorton N. Bonaparte, Jr.
Area[1]
 • City26.5 sq mi (69 km2)
 • Land23.0 sq mi (60 km2)
 • Water3.5 sq mi (9 km2)
Elevation[2]35 ft (11 m)
Population (2012)[3]
 • City54,651 (US: 662th)
 • Density2,333.4/sq mi (900.9/km2)
 • Urban1,510,516 (32nd)
 • Metro2,223,674 (26th)
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP code(s)32771, 32773
Area code(s)321, 407
FIPS code12-63650
GNIS feature ID0290631[2]
Websitewww.sanfordfl.gov

Sanford is a port city in the central region of the State of Florida. It is the county seat of Seminole County. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 53,570. It is a principal city of the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, which was home to 2,134,411 people as of the 2010 census.

Known as the "Historic Waterfront Gateway City", Sanford sits on the southern shore of Lake Monroe at the head of navigation on the St. Johns River. Native Americans first settled in the area thousands of years before the city was formed. The Seminoles would arrive in the area in the 18th century. During the Second Seminole War in 1836, the United States Army established Camp Monroe and built a road that is currently known as Mellonville Avenue. The city sits approximately 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Orlando.

Sanford is home to Seminole State College of Florida and the Central Florida Zoo and Botanical Gardens. Its downtown attracts tourists with shops, restaurants, a marina, and a lakefront walking trail.The Orlando Sanford International Airport, which headquarters the Aerosim Flight Academy (formerly the Delta Connection Academy), functions as the secondary commercial airport for international and domestic carriers, in the Orlando metropolitan area.

City initiatives[edit]

The city's RiverWalk trail is a bike/walk/run trail that was completed in 2004. The ten-foot wide paved walkway spans a distance of several miles in Sanford's downtown area along the waterfront of Lake Monroe. Phase 2, which adds over 3000 feet to the trail, will be completed in Spring of 2014. The city is redoing the face of Sanford Avenue, one of the main streets, with a new brick road, wider sidewalks, trees, flowers, and benches. It will be connected to the central Florida commuter railway SunRail. To support the its green initiatives, Sanford has added five electric car charging stations.[4] In 2012, the city launched the "Imagine Sanford" initiative, which asks all Sanford residents to get involved in city planning by submitting and voting on improvement ideas via the city's Imagine Sanford website.[5] The city of Sanford also launched a redesigned city government website in 2012.[6]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The Mayaca or Jororo Indians inhabited the shores of Lake Monroe at the time of European contact. By 1760, however, war and disease had decimated the tribe, which would be replaced by the Seminole Indians. Florida was acquired by the United States from Spain in 1821, but the Seminole Wars would delay settlement. In 1835, the Seminoles burned the port of Palatka on the St. Johns River, then the major artery into Central Florida from the East Coast. Consequently, an army garrison was established upstream, on the southern side of Lake Monroe near a trading post. Called Camp Monroe, the log breastwork was attacked on February 8, 1837. It would be strengthened and renamed Fort Mellon in honor of Captain Charles Mellon, the sole American casualty.

General Zachary Taylor had a road built connecting a string of defenses from Lake Monroe to Fort Brooke (now Tampa). The town of Mellonville was founded around Fort Mellon in 1842 by Daniel Stewart. In 1845, Florida became a U.S. state, and Mellonville became county seat of Orange County, formerly called Mosquito County with its county seat across the lake at Enterprise. Orange groves were planted, with the first fruit packing plant built in 1869. In 1870, "General" Henry Shelton Sanford bought 12,548 acres (50.78 km2) to the west of Mellonville and laid out the community of Sanford. Believing it would become a transportation hub, he called it "The Gateway City to South Florida."

Several groups of Swedes were imported as indentured servants to do the back-breaking labor of establishing a new town and clearing the sub-tropical wilderness in advance of creating a citrus empire, arriving by steamboat in 1871.[7] Incorporated in 1877 with a population of 100, Sanford absorbed Mellonville in 1883. The South Florida Railroad ran a line from Tampa to Sanford, where the Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West Railroad ran a line to Jacksonville, and the area became the largest shipper of oranges in the world. Arriving by steamer in April 1883, President Chester A. Arthur vacationed a week at the Sanford House, a lakeside hotel built in 1875 and expanded in 1882.

In 1887, the city suffered a devastating fire, followed the next year by a statewide epidemic of yellow fever. When the Great Freeze of 1894 and 1895 ruined the citrus industry, farmers diversified by growing vegetables as well. Celery was first planted in 1896, and until 1974 the community would be nicknamed Celery City.

On December 1, 1891, merchant William Clark and registered African American voters of Goldsboro incorporated as a town just to the south of Sanford.[8][9]

20th century[edit]

In 1911, the community of Sanford Heights seceded from Sanford, because of discord over municipal services provided by Sanford. This added to concerns that Sanford's ability to expand would be constrained by the surrounding towns of Goldsboro, Georgetown and Sanford Heights, as well as Lake Monroe to the north. Florida State Representative and former Sanford mayor Forrest Lake led legislative efforts to curtail Sanford Heights ability to incorporate, independent of Sanford. Goldsboro was also a target in Forrest Lake's annexation process, prompting Goldsboro's leaders to start a letter writing campaign to local newspapers.[10] On April 6, 1911, the Sanford city council passed a resolution to annex Goldsboro and on April 26, 1911 the Florida legislature passed the Sanford Charter Bill, dissolving the incorporation of both Sanford and Goldsboro, and reorganizing Sanford as a city that included Goldsboro within its boundaries.[8][11]

In 1913, Sanford became county seat of Seminole County, created from Orange County. Agriculture continued to dominate the economy until 1940, when it proved cheaper to cultivate produce in frost-free South Florida.

Naval aviation[edit]

In 1942, Naval Air Station Sanford was established, which conducted operational training in the PV-1 Ventura, PBO Hudson, F4F/FM-1 Wildcat and the F6F Hellcat. At its peak in 1943-45, NAS Sanford was home to approximately 360 officers, 1500 enlisted men and 150 WAVES and included an auxiliary airfield to the east near Lake Harney known as Outlying Field Osceola. The base was inactivated and reduced to caretaker status in 1946, but was reactivated in 1950 in response to the Korean War and the Cold War. A major construction program ensued, with NAS Sanford redeveloped as a Master Jet Base for carrier-based A-3 Skywarrior and later A-5A and RA-5C Vigilante aircraft. At its peak in the mid-1960s, the base was home to nearly 4000 military personnel, comprising the air station personnel complement, an Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department, the Navy Dispensary, the Marine Barracks, a Replacement Air Group/Fleet Replacement Squadron for the RA-5C, and nine deployable Fleet RA-5C squadrons that routinely deployed aboard large aircraft carriers to the Mediterranean and the Pacific. The latter were heavily enagaged in combat operations during the Vietnam War.

As a result of the increasing costs of the Vietnam War and concurrent domestic federal social programs, NAS Sanford was one of several stateside military installations identified for closure by the Department of Defense in 1967. Flight operations were rapidly scaled down during 1968 as the squadrons of Reconnaissance Attack Wing ONE transferred to the former Turner AFB, renamed NAS Albany, Georgia. This resulted in a significant economic downturn for the City of Sanford and Seminole County with the departure of all military personnel and their families. The airfield was conveyed to the City of Sanford via quitclaim deed by the General Services Administration (GSA) in 1969, renamed Sanford Airport and redeveloped as a general aviation facility. Subsequently renamed Sanford Regional Airport, then Central Florida Regional Airport, the airport commenced commercial airline service in 1995 and was renamed Orlando Sanford International Airport the following year. The navy's presence is commemorated on the airport by two historical markers and the NAS Sanford Memorial Park, which was dedicated on Memorial Day in May 2003 and includes a restored RA-5C Vigilante on permanent static display.

Disney World[edit]

The opening of Walt Disney World in October 1971 shifted the economy of Central Florida further toward tourism and residential development, the center of which is Orlando. But because of Sanford's former preeminence as a trade center, the city retains a significant collection of older commercial and residential architecture, on streets shaded by live oaks hung with Spanish moss. Its location on Lake Monroe and access to the navigable waterway of the St. Johns River has made it Central Florida's additional center for numerous marinas, allowing access for pleasure boats and commercial vessels to and from the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway via Jacksonville and Mayport to the north.

Jackie Robinson in 1946[edit]

On October 23, 1945, the Brooklyn Dodgers announced that they had signed Jackie Robinson, assigning him to their International League team, the Montreal Royals. Branch Rickey, the Brooklyn Dodgers General Manager, believing he "knew" Florida, thought his team could train there, ruffling as few feathers as possible. Robinson and his wife were instructed by Rickey not to try to stay at any Sanford hotels. He and his wife did not eat out at any restaurants not deemed “Negro restaurants." He did not even dress in the same locker room as his teammates.

As soon as the citizenry became aware of Robinson's presence, the mayor of Sanford was confronted by a "large group of white residents" who "demanded that Robinson...be run out of town."[12]

On March 5, 1946, the Royals were informed that they would not be permitted to take the field as an integrated group. Rickey was concerned for Robinson’s life and sent him to stay in Daytona Beach. His daughter, Sharon Robinson, remembered being told, "The Robinsons were run out of Sanford, Florida, with threats of violence."

In his 1993 book, A Hard Road to Glory: A History Of The African American Athlete: Baseball, tennis great Arthur Ashe wrote in response, Rickey "moved the entire Dodger pre-season camp from Sanford, Florida, to Daytona Beach due to the oppressive conditions of Sanford."

Shooting of Trayvon Martin in 2012[edit]

On February 26, 2012, Trayvon Martin, a 17-year-old high school student from Miami Gardens, Florida, was walking to his father's fiancée's home at The Retreat at Twin Lakes when George Zimmerman, a Neighborhood Watch organizer, proceeded to follow him. During an ensuing fight, Zimmerman shot the unarmed teenager, fatally wounding him. Initially, Zimmerman was released after questioning, without being charged of any crimes. 44 days later, Zimmerman was arrested on April 11, and charged with second-degree murder with an option for manslaughter. Zimmerman was tried and found not guilty on July 13, 2013.

Geography[edit]

Sanford is located at 28°47′22″N 81°16′32″W / 28.789425°N 81.275624°W / 28.789425; -81.275624.[1] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.5 square miles (68.63 km2), 22.96 square miles (59.47 km2) of which is land and 3.54 square miles (9.17 km2) of which is water. Sanford is bordered by the communities of Lake Mary to the southwest, and Midway to the northeast. To the north lies Lake Monroe.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
CensusPop.
18902,016
19001,450−28.1%
19103,570146.2%
19205,58856.5%
193010,10080.7%
194010,2171.2%
195011,93516.8%
196019,17560.7%
197017,393−9.3%
198023,17633.2%
199032,38739.7%
200038,29118.2%
201053,57039.9%
Est. 201254,6512.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[13]
2012 Estimate[14]
Sanford Demographics
2010 U.S. CensusSanfordSeminole CountyFlorida
Total population53,570422,71818,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010+39.9%+15.8%+17.6%
Population density2,333.4/sq mi1,367.0/sq mi350.6/sq mi
White or Caucasian57.3%78.2%75.0%
Black or African-American30.5%11.1%16.0%
Hispanic or Latino20.2%17.1%22.5%
Asian2.8%3.7%2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan0.5%0.3%0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian0.1%0.1%0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)3.3%2.9%2.5%
Other5.4%3.6%3.6%

As of the census of 2010,[15] there were 53,570 people residing in the city. The population density was 2,333.4 inhabitants per square mile (6,043/km²). There were 23,061 housing units and 18,911 households. The average number of persons per household was 2.64.

The median income for a household in the city was $43,470. The per capita income for the city was $20,588. About 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line.

Crime[edit]

Sanford
Crime rates (2012)
Crime typeRate*
Homicide:3
Robbery:166
Aggravated assault:133
Total Violent crime:323
Burglary:822
Larceny-theft:1,986
Motor vehicle theft:156
Arson:1
Total Property crime:2,964
Notes
* Number of reported crimes per 100,000 population.
2012 population: 54,662
Source: 2012 FBI UCR Data

Based on the latest crime statistics compiled in 2011, the crime rate in Sanford, FL is above the aggregate national average.[16]

Transportation and infrastructure[edit]

Sanford was historically a hub for Central Florida transportation as port on the St. Johns River. The Orlando Sanford International Airport provide international and commuter airline service for central Florida. Sanford is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Auto Train which conveys Eastern Seaboard travelers and their vehicles to Lorton, Virginia, about 25 miles (40 km) south of Washington, D.C.

Sanford is near the northern end of the I-4 Corridor between Daytona Beach and Orlando. The State Road 417 or Central Florida GreeneWay begins in Sanford at Interstate 4 and forms the Eastern Beltway around Orlando ending at Walt Disney World.

Lynx bus service is provides public bus transportation in Sanford and throughout central Florida.

The Central Florida Commuter Rail System, SunRail, is scheduled to begin operation in the Spring of 2014 with a station planned in Sanford.

Popular culture[edit]

Sanford has been the setting for several movies, including My Girl (1991), Passenger 57 (1992), Wilder Napalm (1993), Matinee (2003), Monster (2003), and 42 (2013).[citation needed]

Notable people[edit]

Sister cities[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ a b "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  3. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Florida: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012" (CSV). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved November 18, 2013. 
  4. ^ "The Sanford Herald - CITY SPOTLIGHT 'Plug In' to Sanford". Mysanfordherald.com. 2012-01-09. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  5. ^ "Imagine Sanford by MindMixer". Imaginesanford.com. 2012-10-29. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  6. ^ "City of Sanford : Home". Sanfordfl.gov. Retrieved 2012-12-18. 
  7. ^ Long, Mark Howard (2008). "A Decidedly Mutinous Spirit: The Labor Problem in the Postbellum South as an Exercise of Free Labor". In Cassanello, Robert; Shell-Weiss, Melanie. Florida's working-class past: current perspectives on labor, race, and gender from Spanish Florida to the new immigration. foreword by Richard Greenwald and Timothy Minchin. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. pp. 86 & seq. ISBN 0813032830. LCCN 2008025022. Retrieved 2012-03-22. 
  8. ^ a b Bentley, Altermese Smith (2000). Seminole County. Arcadia Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-0738506340. 
  9. ^ Brown, Canter (1998). Florida's Black Public Officials, 1867-1924. University Alabama Press. pp. 40, 74, 80, 94, 100, 126, 140, 171, 176–177. ISBN 0817309152. 
  10. ^ Imperiale, Nancy (May 20, 1990). "Discovering A Lost City Historian Finds Surprising Past Of The Goldsboro Community". Orlando, FL. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved July 19, 2013. 
  11. ^ Robinson, Jim (December 15, 2002). "Grapeville Details Emerge - The Histories Of The Swedish Colony And The Goldsboro Area Are Intertwined". Orlando, FL. Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved July 20, 2013. 
  12. ^ Lowenfish, Lee (2007). Branch Rickey: Baseball's Ferocious Gentleman. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 389–390. 
  13. ^ United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved November 18, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". Retrieved November 18, 2013. 
  15. ^ "State & County QuickFacts - Sanford (city), Florida". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  16. ^ Crime in Sanford, FL. City-Data.com
  17. ^ "Zinn Beck Field". Sanford Babe Ruth & Cal Ripken Baseball League. Retrieved 17 September 2013. 
  18. ^ Comas, Martin E. (2012-03-19). "Sanford, Deltona form 'sister city' partnership to share costs, boost development." Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved 2012-03-26.

External links[edit]