Sandy Springs, Georgia

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Sandy Springs
—  City  —
City of Sandy Springs
A large portion of modern Sandy Springs skyline is composed of the Concourse office towers.
Location in Fulton County and the state of Georgia
Sandy Springs, Georgia is located in Metro Atlanta
Sandy Springs
Sandy Springs location in Metro Atlanta
Coordinates: 33°56′15″N 84°22′7″W / 33.9375°N 84.36861°W / 33.9375; -84.36861Coordinates: 33°56′15″N 84°22′7″W / 33.9375°N 84.36861°W / 33.9375; -84.36861
CountryUnited States
StateGeorgia
CountyFulton
IncorporatedDecember 2005[1]
Government
 • MayorEva Galambos[2]
 • City ManagerJohn F. McDonough[3]
Area
 • Total39.0 sq mi (101.0 km2)
 • Land37.7 sq mi (97.7 km2)
 • Water1.3 sq mi (3.2 km2)
Elevation1,093 ft (333 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total93,853
 • Density2,596.8/sq mi (1,002.0/km2)
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes30328, 30327, 30338, 30342, 30350, 30358[4]
Area code404/470/678/770
FIPS code13-68516[5]
GNIS feature ID0332975[6]
Websitehttp://www.sandyspringsga.gov
 
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Sandy Springs
—  City  —
City of Sandy Springs
A large portion of modern Sandy Springs skyline is composed of the Concourse office towers.
Location in Fulton County and the state of Georgia
Sandy Springs, Georgia is located in Metro Atlanta
Sandy Springs
Sandy Springs location in Metro Atlanta
Coordinates: 33°56′15″N 84°22′7″W / 33.9375°N 84.36861°W / 33.9375; -84.36861Coordinates: 33°56′15″N 84°22′7″W / 33.9375°N 84.36861°W / 33.9375; -84.36861
CountryUnited States
StateGeorgia
CountyFulton
IncorporatedDecember 2005[1]
Government
 • MayorEva Galambos[2]
 • City ManagerJohn F. McDonough[3]
Area
 • Total39.0 sq mi (101.0 km2)
 • Land37.7 sq mi (97.7 km2)
 • Water1.3 sq mi (3.2 km2)
Elevation1,093 ft (333 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total93,853
 • Density2,596.8/sq mi (1,002.0/km2)
Time zoneEST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes30328, 30327, 30338, 30342, 30350, 30358[4]
Area code404/470/678/770
FIPS code13-68516[5]
GNIS feature ID0332975[6]
Websitehttp://www.sandyspringsga.gov

Sandy Springs is a city in north Fulton County, Georgia, United States. It is a northern suburb of Atlanta. According to the 2010 Census, Sandy Springs has a population of 93,853.[7]

Contents

History

In 1842, the Austin-Johnson House was erected on what is now Johnson Ferry Road. It is the oldest house in Sandy Springs.[8] In 1851, Wilson Spruill donated five acres (two hectares) of land for the founding of the Sandy Springs United Methodist Church, near the natural spring for which the city is named. In 1905, the Hammond School was built at Johnson Ferry Road and Mt. Vernon Highway, across the street from the church.

In 1950, the state legislature blocked Atlanta from annexing the community, which remained rural until the Interstate Highway System was authorized by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. In 1959, after a fire at Hammond Elementary School, Atlanta Mayor William Hartsfield urged residents to support annexation so that the area would have better firefighting protection. Community opposition killed the proposal. In the early 1960s, Georgia 400 and Interstate 285 were constructed, connecting Sandy Springs to metro Atlanta and initiating a housing boom that brought new residents and major land development. In 1966, annexation by Atlanta was defeated in a referendum, with two-thirds voting against.

Debate over incorporation began in the 1970s when the city of Atlanta attempted to use a state law to force annexation of Sandy Springs. The attempt failed when the Supreme Court of Georgia ruled that the law was unconstitutional. In response, the Committee for Sandy Springs was formed in 1975. In every legislative session, state legislators representing the area introduced a bill in the Georgia General Assembly to authorize a referendum on incorporation. Legislators representing Atlanta and southwestern Fulton County, who feared tax revenue that would be lost from incorporation, blocked the bills using the procedural requirement that all local legislation be approved first by a delegation of representatives from the affected area. In 1989, a push was made for Sandy Springs to join neighboring Chattahoochee Plantation in Cobb County. This move was blocked by Speaker of the House Tom Murphy.

When the Republican Party gained a majority in both houses of the General Assembly in 2005, the procedural rules previously used to prevent a vote by the full chamber were changed so that the bill was handled as a state bill and not as a local bill. The assembly also repealed the requirement that new cities must be at least three miles (4.8 km) from existing cities, because the new city limits border both Roswell and Atlanta. The bill allowing for a referendum on incorporation was introduced and passed as HB 37.[9] The referendum initiative was approved by the Assembly and signed by Governor Sonny Perdue.

The referendum was held on June 21, 2005, and residents voted 94% to 6% in favor of incorporation. Many residents expressed displeasure with county services, claiming, based upon financial information provided by the county, that the county was redistributing revenues to fund services in less financially stable areas of the county, ignoring local opposition to rezoning, and allowing excessive development. Many residents of unincorporated and less-developed south Fulton County strongly opposed incorporation, fearing the loss of tax revenues which fund county services. County residents outside Sandy Springs were not allowed to vote on the matter. Efforts such as requesting the U.S. Justice Department to reject the plan were unsuccessful.

A mayor and six city council members were elected in early November 2005, with Eva Galambos, who had initiated and led the charge for incorporation, elected mayor by a wide margin. Formal incorporation occurred on December 1, making Sandy Springs the third-largest city ever to incorporate in the U.S.[1] The city's police force and fire department began service in 2006. In 2010, the city became the first jurisdiction in Georgia to successfully "bail out" from the preclearance requirements of Section 5 of the Voting Rights Act.[10]

Geography

The boundaries of Sandy Springs are Atlanta to the south, Cobb County (at the Chattahoochee River) to the west and north, Roswell (also at the river) to the north, and Dunwoody and Brookhaven, at the DeKalb County line, to the east. A small panhandle in the northeast extends between the Chattahoochee River to the north and Dunwoody to the south, ending in a very small border with Peachtree Corners in Gwinnett County.

Climate

Sandy Springs has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa).

Climate data for Sandy Springs
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °F (°C)75
(24)
80
(27)
88
(31)
91
(33)
95
(35)
101
(38)
102
(39)
101
(38)
98
(37)
88
(31)
84
(29)
76
(24)
102
(39)
Average high °F (°C)50
(10)
55
(13)
63
(17)
71
(22)
78
(26)
84
(29)
88
(31)
86
(30)
81
(27)
72
(22)
62
(17)
53
(12)
70
(21)
Average low °F (°C)29
(−2)
32
(0)
38
(3)
45
(7)
54
(12)
62
(17)
67
(19)
66
(19)
60
(16)
47
(8)
39
(4)
32
(0)
47
(8)
Record low °F (°C)−10
(−23)
1
(−17)
6
(−14)
24
(−4)
31
(−1)
40
(4)
48
(9)
50
(10)
28
(−2)
25
(−4)
10
(−12)
−1
(−18)
−10
(−23)
Precipitation inches (mm)5.34
(135.6)
4.78
(121.4)
5.52
(140.2)
4.04
(102.6)
4.63
(117.6)
3.66
(93)
4.17
(105.9)
4.32
(109.7)
3.87
(98.3)
3.58
(90.9)
3.73
(94.7)
4.18
(106.2)
51.82
(1,316.2)
Source: [11]

Neighborhoods

Northside Tower, a landmark for downtown Sandy Springs at Roswell Road and Sandy Springs Place

Demographics

Historical populations
CensusPop.
198046,877
199067,84244.7%
200085,78126.4%
201093,8539.4%
source:[21][22]

(Note: the 2000 census numbers are for Sandy Springs prior to incorporation, but cover the same area.)

According to the 2010 US Census in 2010 the population of Sandy Springs was 93,853. There were 42,334 households. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 65.0% white, 20.0% black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 5.0% Asian, 6.9% from some other race and 2.7% from two or more races. 14.2% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.[23]

In the official census of 2000, when there were 85,781 people, 39,288 households, and 19,683 families residing in the CDP, the population density was 2,274.1 people per square mile (878.1/km²). There were 42,794 housing units at an average density of 1,134.5 per square mile (438.0/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 77.55% White, 12.04% African American, 0.18% Native American, 3.29% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 4.94% from other races, and 1.95% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.93% of the population. According to a 2006 report by the Atlanta Jewish Federation, 15,300 Jews reside in Sandy Springs and the adjacent city of Dunwoody.[24]

There were 48,288 households, out of which 21.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.1% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 49.9% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.87.

In the CDP the age distribution of the population shows 17.8% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 40.3% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.0 males.

According to a 2008 estimate, the median income for a household in the city was $106,240, and the median income for a family was $129,810. The average income for a household was $116,406 and the average income for a family was $169,815. Males had a median income of $60,053 versus $50,030 for females. The per capita income for the city was $70,790. About 3.1% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.9% of those under age 18 and 1.9% of those age 65 or over.[25]

[26]

Economy

The City of Sandy Springs is home to more than 3,700 businesses resulting in almost 57,000 private sector jobs within the city. Sandy Springs’ largest private sector employers are:

Employer Number Employed Percentage of Total City Employment

 1. Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta        5,422   9.5% 2.      Northside Hospital                      4,241   7.4% 3.      IBM Corporation                         2,483   4.4% 4.      St. Joseph’s Hospital                   1,969   3.5% 5.      United Parcel Service                   1,879   3.3% 6.      Cisco Systems, Inc.                     1,708   3.0% 7.      ING North American Insurance Corp.        766   1.3% 8.      AT&T Mobility                                 656   1.2% 9.      RBS Lynk Inc.                             600   1.1% 10.     Cox Enterprises                           584   1.0% 11.     ACS State Healthcare, LLC.                510   0.9% 12.     National Account Service Company          480   0.8% 13.     Newell Rubbermaid Inc.                    453   0.8% 14.     Global Payments Inc.                      410   0.7% 15.     Elavon, Inc.                              400   0.7% 

The largest employers within Sandy Springs are hospitals, headquarters and regional offices from a variety of industries including computer related services, package delivery, telecommunications, media, financial transaction processing and more.

Sandy Springs is home to three hospitals: Northside Hospital, St. Joseph’s Hospital and Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, comprising 40 percent of the hospital beds in the region and more than 20% of the City’s total employment.

Arts & culture

Annual festivals

The fifth annual Sandy Springs Cycling Challenge, a professional bike race, will take place on May 6, 2012 and is the finalee to the US Crits Speed Week that starts in Athens, Georgia. This year it will include a wine and food classic. Proceeds from this event go to support the Sandy Springs Police and Fire departments. Returning as the main sponsor is Global Imports.

The Annual Chattahoochee River Summer Splash begins at Morgan Falls to Powers Island Sandy Springs, Georgia on July 28, 2012 Bring your kayak or raft and beat the heat with a six-mile float along the Chattahoochee River during the annual Summer Splash in July. After completing the float, enjoy an afternoon of live music, food and fun for the entire family during festivities at Powers Island. Guests can bring their own kayak, canoe or raft, or rent one from one of our local outfitters. Pre Register and get more info by calling CRNRA at (678) 538-1200 or their Website:www.nps.gov/chat

The Sandy Springs Festival is an annual pet-friendly, celebration to help raise proceeds to maintain and protect the remaining green space of Sandy Springs. They have the Kiwanis Pet Parade and Award Ceremony, a two-hour blast-from-the-past 80's music fest, singing groups and marching bands. It will be on September 25 and 26.[27][28]

Points of interest

The Heritage Sandy Springs Museum that opened on March 20, 2010. It is dedicated to the history of the Sandy Springs community and is located in the repurposed Williams-Payne house at Heritage Green. Two notable exhibits are "Sandy Springs: Land and People" which tells the changing story of Sandy Springs as the home of Native Americans, rural farmers, and modern suburbanites and "A Land Nearby" which features a collection of 20 photographs of Georgia's Barrier Island taken by Dr. Curt Hames Jr. Sandy Springs also has a museum devoted to Anne Frank.

Parks & recreation

Bull Sluice Lake, located in Morgan Falls Overlook Park

Sandy Springs is home to twelve parks and green space areas, three of which provide recreational facilities.[29]

Government

Officials

Services

City services are performed in a public-private partnership. Sandy Springs, at first glance, appears to be run just like other similarly sized cities, with a council-manager form of government. However, it is the first city in the nation to outsource services to such a great extent to a private sector company.[30]

The city's police department took over services from the county on July 1, 2006 with 86 Police Officers from all over the State of Georgia, and is now staffed by 128 officers. The city's fire department began operations in December 2006. The department consists of 97 full-time firefighters. The former Police Chief Gene Wilson Jr. was replaced by current Police Chief Terry Sult in 2009 while the fire department is headed by Chief Jack McElfish. It is staffed by 91 full-time firefighters and 52 part-time firefighters. The police department answered 98,250 calls in FY 2010 while the fire department handled 17,000 responses to 8,205 calls for service.

The city of Sandy Springs has purchased the old Target Corporation building (originally Richway) located on the corner of Sandy Springs Circle and Johnson Ferry Road.[31] The building has sat vacant since the December 2008 purchase. Rumors say that this location will one day be the new home to the Sandy Springs City Hall.

Education

Primary and secondary schools

Public schools are operated by the Fulton County School System. Elementary schools serving sections of Sandy Springs include Dunwoody Springs Charter Elementary School, Heards Ferry Elementary School, High Point Elementary School, Ison Springs Elementary School, Lake Forest Elementary School, Spalding Drive Charter Elementary School, and Woodland Charter Elementary School.[32] Two middle schools, Sandy Springs Middle School and Ridgeview Middle School, and two high schools, North Springs Charter School of Arts and Sciences and Riverwood High School, are in and serve Sandy Springs.

Private schools located in Sandy Springs include:

Cumberland Academy

Public libraries

Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System operates the Sandy Springs Branch.[33]

Economy

Top employers

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[34] the top employers in the city are:

#Employer# of Employees
1Cisco Systems2,056
2IBM1,645
3United Parcel Service1,545
4AT&T Mobility796
5WorldPay572
6Cox Enterprises561
7Global Payments541
8ACS495
9ING448
10Wendy's Company431

Media

Some notable newspapers that cover areas of interest to Sandy Springs include the Sandy Springs Reporter, Sandy Springs Neighbor[35] and The Atlanta Journal Constitution.[36] Two television series are recorded within the city: Auction Kings at Gallery 63 on Roswell Road, and Say Yes to the Dress: Atlanta at Bridals by Lori on Hammond Drive.

Infrastructure

Roads

Sandy Springs is served by two major limited-access highways, Georgia 400 – which runs north-south – and I-285 – which runs east-west. Major surface streets include Roswell Road (U.S. 19 south of I-285 and Georgia 9 entirely), Hammond Drive, Spalding Drive, Johnson Ferry Road, Abernathy Road, Glenridge Drive, and Dunwoody Club Drive.

The GDOT is widening Abernathy Road between Johnson Ferry and Roswell Roads from two lanes to four plus a road median, and the city is developing a linear park where homes along Abernathy were demolished, with sidewalks and walking trails to add greenspace and improve connectivity in the city. The western intersection is being reconfigured so that traffic to and from Johnson Ferry Road – which now carries heavy loads of Cobb County commuters across the Chattahoochee River at rush hour – now flows directly with Abernathy to and from the northwest. Additionally, the Roswell Road bridge over I-285 is finally getting a badly needed widening to add a turn lane in each direction. Currently, it is a major traffic bottleneck, as the turn lanes to both direction of I-285 are very short, sharing the center lane of the bridge, and forcing traffic to be allowed to turn twice per cycle (a "split phase") of the traffic lights. Despite the unusual timing of the lights, traffic still backs up into the through lanes, causing major traffic jams at rush hour. The project's scheduled completion is November 2012, about a year after the expected start date. There had previously been talk of a tunnel under the freeway to bypass the highway interchange altogether, however this proved to be much too expensive. Another state project is the addition of a half-diamond interchange to Georgia 400 on the north side of Hammond Drive, allowing southbound traffic to exit and northbound traffic to enter the highway. (Ramps on the south side were not possible due to the proximity of the 400/285 interchange.)

The city's public works department has made significant improvements in the conditions of roads and traffic signals since incorporation in December 2005. The department has cleaned approximately 1,500 catch basins, striped 30 miles (48 km) of roadway, responded to more than 2,000 calls for repair and service, re-timed hundreds of traffic lights to help improve the flow of traffic and reduce automobile idling, and repaved 60 miles (nearly 100 km) of roads.

The 2008 fiscal year saw the creation of the Sandy Springs Traffic Management Center (TMC). The TMC was constructed and began to operate in less than six months. Construction began in February 2008, five cameras viewed traffic along Roswell Road by the end of June. Special features of the TMC include a webpage that allows the public access to real-time traffic conditions and voice-activated controls. By June 2009, 16 traffic cameras are now available and can be viewed onilne at the city's website.[37]

Transit systems

The major provider of mass transit is MARTA, which operates a heavy rail rapid transit line and several bus lines through Sandy Springs. The city is served by the Medical Center, Sandy Springs and North Springs stations. The Georgia Regional Transportation Authority also operates express buses from the North Springs station (which has its own ramps to and from 400) to other counties.

Diplomatic missions

The city has three consulates general.[38][39] The Consulate-General of Colombia in Atlanta is located in Suite 405 at 5901 B Peachtree Dunwoody Road.[40] The Consulate-General of Nigeria in Atlanta[41] is located at 8060 Roswell Road.[42] And finally, the Counsulate-General of India at 5549 Glenridge Drive.

References

  1. ^ a b Daughters of the American Revolution, Sandy Springs Chapter (2010). "City of Sandy Springs - From the Daughters of the American Revolution, Sandy Springs Chapter". City of Sandy Springs. http://www.sandyspringsga.org/Community/Sandy-Springs-History/From-the-Daughters-of-the-American-Revolution,-San. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  2. ^ City of Sandy Springs (2010). "City of Sandy Springs - Mayor's Office". http://www.sandyspringsga.org/City-Government/Mayor-s-Office. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  3. ^ City of Sandy Springs (2010). "City of Sandy Springs - City Manager's Office". http://www.sandyspringsga.org/City-Departments/City-Manager-s-Office. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  4. ^ United States Postal Service. "USPS - Look Up a ZIP Code". http://tools.usps.com/go/ZipLookupAction!input.action. Retrieved 2012-02-15.
  5. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  6. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  7. ^ "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. http://factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  8. ^ SandySprings.com (2009). "Sandy Springs GA History". http://www.sandysprings.com/history.aspx. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  9. ^ Wilkinson, Joe; Willard, Wendell; Geisinger, Harry; Lindsey, Edward (2005). "Georgia General Assembly - House Bill 37". Georgia General Assembly. http://www.legis.state.ga.us/legis/2005_06/fulltext/hb37.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-27.
  10. ^ "U.S. Reaches Agreements with Kings Mountain, N.C., and Sandy Springs, Ga., to Terminate Coverage from Preclearance of the Voting Rights Act". Justice.gov. 2010-09-22. http://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/2010/September/10-crt-1067.html. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  11. ^ "Average weather for Sandy Springs". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USGA0640?from=36hr_bottomnav_business. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  12. ^ "‘Downtown’ Sandy Springs: What can bring the core together?". :. 2010-06-18. http://www.reporternewspapers.net/2010/06/18/%E2%80%98downtown%E2%80%99-sandy-springs-what-can-bring-the-core-together/. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ December 18, 2012 (2006-07-25). "Sandy Springs vetoes Dunwoody toppers - Dunwoody Crier: Local News". Thecrier.net. http://thecrier.net/articles/2006/07/25/news/sign.txt. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  15. ^ "MARTA - Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority". Itsmarta.com. http://www.itsmarta.com/ns-nort-overview.aspx. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  16. ^ http://www.northspringshigh.com/Who_We_Are.php
  17. ^ [2][dead link]
  18. ^ "Sandy Springs ITP". intowninsider.com. http://intowninsider.com/category/northside/sandy-springs-northside/. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  19. ^ http://www.5265longisland.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=82&Itemid=114
  20. ^ "Startups, Entrepreneurs and Innovation - Upstart Business Journal". Portfolio.com. http://www.portfolio.com/resources/us-wealth-centers.pdf. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  21. ^ "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790-2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/decennial/index.html. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
  22. ^ Census numbers enumerated were for "Sandy Springs CDP"
  23. ^ 2010 profile of general population and housing characteristics of Sandy Springs from the US Census]
  24. ^ "Highlights of Jewish Community Centennial Study 2006". Shalomatlanta.org. http://www.shalomatlanta.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=185112. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  25. ^ Sandy Springs 2007 Income Estimates
  26. ^ www.sandyspringsga.gov
  27. ^ Sandy Springs Festival Activities & Entertainment
  28. ^ Sandy Springs Festival
  29. ^ Sandy Springs Recreation and Parks Department
  30. ^ David Segal (June 23, 2012). "A Georgia Town Takes the People’s Business Private". New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/24/business/a-georgia-town-takes-the-peoples-business-private.html.
  31. ^ "Sandy Springs to purchase former Target site | Sandy Springs Homes for Sale - Sandy Springs Real Estate - Restaurants - Businesses - Events". 2008-12-11. http://allaboutsandysprings.com/sandy-springs-to-purchase-former-target-site/. Retrieved 2012-12-18.
  32. ^ "Sandy Springs Elementary School Attendance Boundaries School Year 2009–2010." Fulton County School System. Accessed October 26, 2008.
  33. ^ "Sandy Springs Branch." Atlanta-Fulton Public Library System. Retrieved on February 24, 2010.
  34. ^ "City of Lodi CAFR". Lodi.gov. http://www.lodi.gov/finance/pdf/CAFR_2010-11.pdf. Retrieved 2012-10-23.
  35. ^ Sandy Springs Neighbor
  36. ^ The Atlanta Journal Constitution
  37. ^ Capital Improvement Projects
  38. ^ "City Council District Maps." City of Sandy Springs. Accessed October 26, 2008.
  39. ^ "Consulates." Georgia Department of Economic Development. Accessed October 26, 2008.
  40. ^ Home page. Consulate-General of Colombia in Atlanta. Accessed October 26, 2008.
  41. ^ " Consulate-General of Nigeria in Atlanta. Accessed November 10, 2008
  42. ^ Consulate Location

External links