Sam Malone

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Sam Malone
Cheers character
Sam Malone bartender.jpg
Sam Malone cutting off lemon peels in the pilot "Give Me a Ring Sometime"
First appearance"Give Me a Ring Sometime" (episode 1.01)
Last appearance"The Show Where Sam Shows Up" (Frasier episode 2.16)
Portrayed byTed Danson
Information
GenderMale
OccupationOwner/Bartender[1]
Spouse(s)Deborah (divorced)
Significant other(s)Diane Chambers (ex-girlfriend)
NationalityAmerican
 
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Sam Malone
Cheers character
Sam Malone bartender.jpg
Sam Malone cutting off lemon peels in the pilot "Give Me a Ring Sometime"
First appearance"Give Me a Ring Sometime" (episode 1.01)
Last appearance"The Show Where Sam Shows Up" (Frasier episode 2.16)
Portrayed byTed Danson
Information
GenderMale
OccupationOwner/Bartender[1]
Spouse(s)Deborah (divorced)
Significant other(s)Diane Chambers (ex-girlfriend)
NationalityAmerican

Samuel "Mayday" Malone[2] is a fictional character on the American television show Cheers, portrayed by Ted Danson. The central character of the series, Sam is a former relief pitcher for the Boston Red Sox Major League Baseball team and an owner and a bartender of Cheers. He is a recovering alcoholic and notorious lothario.

Although his celebrity status was short-lived, Sam retains that standing within the confines of Cheers, where he is beloved by the regular patrons. He seduces many women, yet he fails to achieve a meaningful relationship with them. Notoriously, he has on-and-off relationships with Diane Chambers (Shelley Long) in 1982–1987 and the series finale in 1993, "One for the Road." Also, he attempts to seduce Rebecca Howe (Kirstie Alley) but fails whenever she rejects his advances. Sam and Rebecca attempt a relationship many times, but they find no passion for each other and then decide to be friends.

Sam appeared in all 275 episodes of Cheers between 1982–1993. He also made a guest appearance in the Frasier episode "The Show Where Sam Shows Up". He has been a favorite of viewers and critics alike and the subject of academic analyses (primarily about masculinity).

Casting[edit]

Fred Dryer, portrayer of Dave Richards and former American football player

Before the series began in September 1982, other actors considered or were considered for the role of Sam Malone. Ed O'Neill auditioned for the role but did not win the part.[3] John Lithgow missed the audition when he was ill.[4] Ted Danson appeared as a hairdresser in "The Unkindest Cut", the 1982 episode of the television series Taxi; Glen and Les Charles, creators of then-upcoming television series Cheers along with James Burrows, were executive consultants for that episode. Danson and the other two actors, William Devane and Fred Dryer, were the three finalists for the audition of Sam Malone.[5]

Originally, Sam Malone was supposed "to be a former wide receiver for the American football team, New England Patriots."[5] Fred Dryer was initially chosen for that role due to his status as a former football player, but NBC executives witnessed the chemistry between Ted Danson and Shelley Long, so the creators chose Ted Danson instead.[6][7] Therefore, Sam then evolved into a former relief pitcher for the baseball team, Boston Red Sox.[5] To prepare for his role, Danson attended a bartending school in Burbank, California.[8]

Fred Dryer later appeared as Dave Richards, one of Sam Malone's friends and a sports commentator, in Cheers.

Ted Danson, portrayer of Sam Malone

I had no idea how unintelligent [Sam] was. At first I thought he was making these – because Sam would come out with these things that were funny, and I thought, well, maybe he's being ironic. You know, maybe he's smart enough to know that he's saying stupid things in the beginning. I think it took me about a year and a half before, maybe a season and a half before I had an inkling on how to play Sam Malone, because he was a relief pitcher, which comes with a certain amount of arrogance.

You know, you only get called in when you're in trouble and you're there to save the day, and that takes a special kind of arrogance, I think. And Sam Malone had that arrogance. And I, Ted Danson, did not. I was nervous, scared, excited about, you know, grateful about my new job.[9]

—Ted Danson, NPR's "Fresh Air", September 17, 2009

Danson earned $450,000 per episode as Sam Malone within the last few years of Cheers before "One for the Road" was aired on May 20, 1993.[10][11] In the final season of Cheers (1992–93), Danson wanted to stop portraying Sam Malone, which contributed to the end of Cheers. When an interviewer asked Danson about changes of Sam, Danson responded, "He got older, you know," and then, "They tried to make him Sammy again. But he's 45 now. I'm 45. It's OK to be chasing around when you're 37. But when you're 45, it's kind of sad to be chasing around that way."[10] There were attempts to revamp the show without Ted Danson, such as moving the show to the first-run syndication, but these ideas were later dropped.[6]

Some people think Cheers is 'Cheers', and the bar is the soul of [Cheers]. Other people think Cheers is Cheers plus Sam, and Sam is the soul. Because [Danson] had chicken pox, [as Sam did in "The Ghost and Mrs. LeBec" (1990)], we had to do one show without Sam, and it was a challenge. He's the one who [is] everyone's friend, tells the truth, [and] takes care of everybody.[12]

—Cheri Eichen, Los Angeles Daily News, November 1990

Cheers[edit]

Early life[edit]

Sam's family is Irish Catholic.[13] He dropped out of high school in his senior year to play professional baseball.[e 1] He became a relief pitcher for the Boston Red Sox, where he met Coach Ernie Pantusso (Nicholas Colasanto). His baseball career took a nosedive when he developed a drinking problem. When the series begins in 1982, Sam has been running Cheers for five years.[e 2][e 3] Over time, his role as a bartender turned him into the "resident ringleader for an assortment of poor souls and wanna-bes."[14] He has a highly successful older brother named Derek, who is an unseen character, voiced by George Ball, and with whom he barely gets along.

Post-baseball activities[edit]

Sam appears in beer commercials in "Now Pitching, Sam Malone" (1983). In "Take My Shirt... Please?" (1986), he unsuccessfully tries to auction off his Red Sox jersey. In "Everyone Imitates Art" (1986), he sends one of Diane's old love letters to Reader's Digest as a poem and then credits himself for that. He also substitutes for his friend, Dave Richards (Fred Dryer), as a televised sports commentator in "I on Sports" (1987). (Sam delivers sports news well, but makes bad commentaries, proving himself unqualified for this job, and further attempts to save his career, like rapping and ventriloquism, fail to succeed.)

Women[edit]

Sam is "athletically handsome"[15] yet "a sleazy, promiscuous, aggressive, exhibitionistic narcissist".[16] As a lothario,[17] Sam dates and has flings with women in his life,[15] including "women who want to have fun,"[18] even before Cheers began in 1982. Nevertheless, he fails to fulfill every relationship in his life.[19] In "Sam Turns the Other Cheek" (1984), he went out with one of his women until he found out that she is married. Moreover, as discovered, at his standards, he does not go for married women, underaged girls, and comatose women. As discovered in "Sam's Women" (1982), he was once married to Debra (Donna McKechnie), but his marriage did not last. Notoriously, Sam Malone is irresistible to Diane Chambers (Shelley Long) and somewhat resisted by Rebecca Howe (Kirstie Alley), inspired by works about "mixture of romance and antagonism of two people, [portrayed by Spencer Tracy and Katharine Hepburn], in a competitive situation."[20][21][22]

In "Now Pitching, Sam Malone" (1983), Sam has an affair with his publicity agent Lana (Barbara Babcock) to appear in commercials, but he breaks off this relationship and then loses his job. In "Battle of the Exes" (1984), Sam pretends to be Carla's "boyfriend" at her request to spite her ex-husband Nick Tortelli (Dan Hedaya) and Nick's wife Loretta (Jean Kasem). Later, they embrace, then kiss, and decide to be mere friends with a handshake. In "Teacher's Pet" (1985), he has a fling with his adult high school teacher to gain his chances to earn himself a diploma, but he breaks off this relationship, has his exams re-examined, and then successfully earns a diploma without having another fling with her again. In "Dark Imaginings" (1986), he attempts to seduce a young woman, but he ends up with a hernia and has an operation for it.

In "What's Up, Doc?" (1989), Sam flirts with unamazed therapist Dr. Shiela Rydell (Madolyn Smith Osborne), a friend of Frasier and Lilith. Despite his failed attempts to seduce her, including a failed pretense to suffer from impotence, Sam goes on a date with Dr. Rydell. However, during the date in the bar, after closing time, she tells him that his life is full of sex primarily to mask his loneliness and his inability to fulfill a meaningful relationship and nothing more. Despite her best efforts to excite him, Sam deems her as bad as any smart women whom he went out with, ends the relationship, and kicks her out of the bar.

Sam appears to be happily single and free from having a family of his own, and to never be concerned about conceiving illegitimate children.[23] In "Swear to God" (1988), he is afraid that he might be a father of an illegitimate child, whose mother is one of his ex-girlfriends. Although relieved that he is presumably not, Sam vows to God that he stay away from sex. When he is willing to betray his oath, Carla scaremongers him about superstitious events. At risk of his sexual agony, Sam is prompted into avoiding sex with women, especially when he encounters every woman and a bible in every motel.

Diane Chambers[edit]

He has on- and off-relationships with "a bright, attractive graduate student" Diane Chambers (Shelley Long).[24][25] In the first five seasons (1982–1987), Sam and Diane find each other attractive but condemn each other as social class opposites. Every time they consummate their relationship, they break up. During their off-relationships, Sam has flings with many women, while Diane has relationships with men who fit her upper-class ideals. In the two-part first season finale, "Showdown" (1983), his successful brother Derek arrives in Boston, becomes beloved by bar patrons, and starts dating Diane, leaving Sam jealous. No longer able to keep their feelings to themselves about each other, Sam and Diane make a passionate embrace toward each other, leaving Derek aside.

Sam and Diane consummate a relationship, which becomes dysfunctional, however, by an endless cycle of breakups and reunions,[26] but then end their relationship in the second season finale, "I'll Be Seeing You, Part 2" (1984). In the two-part third season premiere "Rebound" (1984), Sam relapses into alcoholism and begins excessive womanizing, and Diane ends up in a psychiatric hospital, where she meets Frasier. With the help of Coach, Diane, and Frasier, Sam slowly regains his sobriety. At first, Sam is reluctant to hire her. Coach tells the whole dynamic that refusal would bring disaster among them, prompting Diane to work again. Later in the season, Sam becomes heartbroken again when Diane leaves Boston again in "Cheerio, Cheers" (1985) to elope with Frasier.

In the fourth season premiere, "Birth, Death, Love, and Rice" (1985), Sam finds out from Frasier that Diane dumped Frasier at the altar, hooked up with many men, and then checked into a convent. Suddenly, Sam comes to her rescue and takes her back to Cheers. During the whole season (1985–86), Sam and Diane avoid their feelings for each other and then end up rekindling without success. In the fourth season finale, "Strange Bedfellows" (1986), Sam dates the intelligent, attractive, female politician; Janet Eldridge (Kate Mulgrew), who tells him to fire Diane as a waitress. Eventually, after his water gun play with Diane at her press conference, Janet breaks him up because she sees that he is still in love with Diane.

In the fifth season premiere, "The Proposal" (1986), Sam proposes to Diane. Nevertheless, she rejects his proposal. Many times throughout the season (1986–87) he proposes, but she rejects. In "Chambers vs. Malone" (1987), Sam is charged by Diane for crimes that he did not commit. In the courtroom, he proposes again at a judge's behest; she finally accepts. In the fifth season finale, "I Do, Adieu" (1987), they attempt to marry, but they agree to call off the wedding, so Diane leaves Cheers and Sam behind for a writing career. As Les Charles observed, Sam was a "straight man" to Diane; after Long's departure, he became more "carefree" and a "goof-off."[27]

Rebecca Howe[edit]

In 1987, Sam sells Cheers to the corporation, travels with his yacht, and soon returns to the bar to work there under employment of a "voluptuously beautiful"[15] new manager, Rebecca Howe. Since then, Sam many times flirts with and attempts to seduce Rebecca, but she rejects his advances.[15] In the Season Eight finale, "Cry Harder" (1990), Sam retrieves ownership of the bar from the corporation by paying it 85 cents (retail price was one dollar) to save the bar from financial victimization of Robin Colcord (Roger Rees), Rebecca's lover. At the last minute, Sam and Rebecca embrace with a kiss. However, in the Season Nine premiere, "Love Is a Really, Really, Perfectly Okay Thing" (1990), Sam becomes less enthusiastic about their passion and admits it to Rebecca with disappointments. In Season Ten (1991–1992), they try to conceive a child, but then they have decided to stay friends.

Final years[edit]

Ted Danson wore a hairpiece to conceal his baldness for the role of Sam Malone during filming of Cheers. His baldness was revealed at the 1990 Primetime Emmy Awards.[28] In the Cheers episode, "It's Lonely on the Top" (1993), Sam Malone reveals his own hairpiece that conceals his actual baldness to Carla (Rhea Perlman).

According to the April 1–4, 1993, telephone survey of 1,011 people by the Times Mirror Center for the People and the Press (now Pew Research Center),[N 1] Sam Malone was a top favorite character by 26%. For whom he should marry, 21% voted Diane Chambers, 19% voted Rebecca Howe, 48% voted Sam to stay single, and 12% had "no opinion" on this matter.[29][30] For which character should star in a spin-off, 15% voted Sam, 12% voted Woody Boyd (Woody Harrelson), 10% voted Norm Peterson (George Wendt), and 29% voted no spin-offs.[30] Frasier Crane (Kelsey Grammer), whose own spin-off Frasier debuted in September 1993, was voted 2% to have his own show.[31] According to the 1993 article from People magazine, newspaper columnist Mike Royko chose Diane to be with Sam. Novelist Jackie Collins picked Rebecca. Celebrated personality Zsa Zsa Gabor chose both as Sam's potentials. Tennis player Martina Navratilova found Sam too good for either of them. Novelist-archaeologist Clive Cussler perceived Carla Tortelli (Rhea Perlman) as "Sam's best bet."[32]

Nevertheless, in "The Guy Can't Help It" (1993), Sam begs Rebecca and then Carla to be his wife, but they reject his proposals and confront his past sexual behaviors, especially at his current age. Sam realizes his sexual addiction and begins to participate in Dr. Robert Sutton's (Gilbert Lewis) group meetings, advised by Frasier.

In the 1993 series finale, "One for the Road," after six years of separation, Sam becomes reunited with Diane, who arrives from Los Angeles. However, they admit that they are never destined to be together because they are total opposites, despite their good times together. As Diane prepares to leave Boston again, Sam stops her and then begs her for another fling again. The next day, Sam and Diane become engaged again and then leave Boston behind for Los Angeles, much to the gang's dismay. At the plane, Sam and Diane begin to have second thoughts about their future together with rhetorical questions from announcers. Finally, when the plane becomes delayed, they decide amicably to part ways, having made their peace after many years apart. Sam returns to Boston, and Diane goes to Los Angeles.

At the bar, Sam and his friends celebrate his return. Then, when everyone leaves except Norm and Sam, Norm Peterson (George Wendt) reassures Sam that Sam would "come back" to and never leave his one "true love". (TV Guide implied that Cheers, the bar, is Sam's true love,[33] but Norm's comments are deemed as vague and confusing.[34])

Other appearances[edit]

Ted Danson reprised his role of Sam Malone from Cheers in pregame segments of the 1983 Super Bowl[35] and of one of baseball games of the 1986 World Series,[36] The Magical World of Disney episode "Mickey's 60th Birthday",[37] and The Simpsons episode "Fear of Flying".[o 1] In the Super Bowl pregame skit, Sam and his buddies at the bar chide Diane for not knowing and ridiculing football and then meet Pete Axthelm, the NBC sportscaster who stops by.[o 2] In the pregame skit of the 1986 World Series game, Sam is interviewed by Bob Costas at the bar.[36] In "Mickey's 60th Birthday", Sam realizes that he forgets Rebecca's birthday, so he begs Mickey Mouse to sing "Happy Birthday to You" as her birthday present. However, Rebecca chooses Mickey over Sam, who still wants to seduce her.[o 3] In The Simpsons, Sam is dating twins while trying to marry Diane without Rebecca knowing.[o 1]

Frasier (1995)[edit]

Throughout most of Cheers, Sam is "allowed to be happy" and "[to live] a rich life".[18] However, towards the end of the series' run, Sam goes into therapy for sex addiction. In "The Show Where Sam Shows Up", the 1995 episode of Frasier, Sam is depicted as a self-identified sexual addict with help from group meetings and committed to change himself.[38] Sam is engaged to Sheila (Téa Leoni), a fellow sex addict whom he met during group therapy, but he breaks off the engagement after she admits that she slept with two regular Cheers barflies during their engagement,[39] including Cliff Clavin.

Reception[edit]

Ted's a true leading man [...] If there's any kind of ripple in the chemistry of the show, he'll address it personally. He doesn't just read his lines and go back home.[12]

John Ratzenberger, actor

A Massachusetts Institute of Technology author, in his 1991 journal article, thanked Sam Malone as part of his acknowledgements for "bringing [him] laughter" along with other cast of Cheers.[40] McKechnie from the Totem journal called Sam's "lucky bottle cap" from the episode, "Endless Slumper" (1982), an example of fetishes used by baseball players for "good fortune".[41] Bill Simmons, previously from ESPN, praised Danson's performance for giving life and color to Sam Malone.[42] In The Complete Idiot's Guide book, Sam Malone "[brings] magic to establishment" and is praised for "successfully running [Cheers]."[43] The Shark Guys website ranked Sam the No. 3 bartender of the "top ten coolest bartenders of all time".[44] In the 2009 NPR interview, Terry Gross called Sam "the opposite of intellectual".[9]

Actor Roger Rees, who portrayed Robin Colcord in Cheers, remarked that no other character may fill in Sam Malone's spot if Sam is written out of the show. Actor Woody Harrelson, who played Woody Boyd, called Sam the person who brings an ensemble together. Rees further commented that the show would not survive without Sam and Danson. Television critic Phil Rosenthal from Los Angeles Daily News found Danson's performance as Sam irreplaceable and remarked that no other actor may capture Sam's "sexiness, vulnerability, and goofiness". Rosenthal credited Sam Malone for helping the series survive by becoming the show's central.[12]

The role of Sam Malone earned Ted Danson two Emmy Awards as the Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series: one in 1990[45] and another in 1993.[46] It also earned Danson two Golden Globe Awards as the Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy Series: one in 1990[47] and another in 1991.[48] It also earned him an American Comedy Award as the Funniest Male Performer in a TV Series.[49]

Sam's appearance in Frasier is mixed. Scott D. Pierce from The Deseret News found him too "old and [tiring]"[50] Nevertheless, John Martin, a syndicate from The New York Times, enjoyed Sam's interaction with main characters of Frasier.[51] Frazier Moore from The Associated Press called Sam's appearance a ratings ploy but a must-see for a Cheers fan and any other viewer who lacks interest in the show Frasier.[52]

Masculinity[edit]

Sam Malone is a subject of and a satire of masculinity. In the 1990 and 1997 journal articles, he is one of the "new macho [heroes]" of the 1980s, "the target of humor," and not a "likely [candidate] to lead the post-feminist counter revolution."[53][54] Like Sam, a `new' macho hero of the 1980s is an opposite of an `old' pre-1980s macho hero that "constituted an antifeminist backlash."[54][55] In the 1993 journal, Steve Craig from the University of North Texas considered him a parody of "traditional male values" and of a negative stereotype of masculinity. To the journal's analysis, Sam's "attempts" to define and exemplify "his version of masculinity" are satirized in the show Cheers "to explore gender identity" without threatening a viewer's own definition of one's own gender.[56]

Ben Shapiro, an American conservative writer, in his 2011 book Primetime Propaganda, calls Sam "a dog, a feminist caricature of men," and a cultural representation of "lower-class conservative."[57] Glen Charles, a creator of Cheers, considers Sam "a spokesman for a large group of people who thought that [the women's movement] was a bunch of bull and look with disdain upon people who don't think it was." Nonetheless, Ted Danson is a declared liberal himself.[58]

Heather Hundley noted that the series sends a "double standards" about men and women, involved in promiscuity. She noted that the series portrays Sam as heroic, who never suffers from negative consequences of his promiscuity,[16] while it portrays Carla Tortelli as "nymphomaniac",[59] who regrets her own promiscuities for out-of-wedlock pregnancies and wrong lovers.[60] She finds the series's portrayal of premarital sex "negative and unhealthy", especially for omitting other dangers of promiscuity, like sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS.[60] Gregory Wakeman from Screen Junkies called Sam one of the worst boyfriends on television for his promiscuity.[61] Mark LaFlamme of Sun Journal from Lewiston, Maine, called Sam's relationship with Rebecca Howe "mundane" and flirtation with her "bawdy".[62]

Sam Malone has been compared to a few later roles whom Ted Danson portrayed. In 1998, David Bianculli from New York Daily News metaphorized Danson's guest role, the plumber, in Veronica's Closet as Sam Malone's "close cousin: a confident womanizer, and not the brightest guy in the room".[63] In 1999, Danson remarked that Sam and John Becker (Becker) are in common "very lonely men".[64]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ The margin of error in the survey was ±3, according to the polls.[29]
Primary sources

From Cheers:

  1. ^ "Teacher's Pet". 1985. Cheers: Season 3: The Complete Third Season on DVD. Paramount, 2004. DVD.
  2. ^ "Give Me a Ring Sometime." Cheers: Season 1: The Complete First Season on DVD. Paramount, 2003. DVD.
  3. ^ "Sam at Eleven." 1982. Cheers: Season 1: The Complete First Season on DVD. Writ. Glen Charles and Les Charles. Paramount, 2003. DVD.

From others:

  1. ^ a b "Fear of Flying". The Simpsons. 1994. Fox Broadcasting Company. KTTV.
  2. ^ Super Bowl XVII Pregame. NBC. January 30, 1983. Television.
  3. ^ "Mickey's 60th Birthday". The Magical World of Disney. NBC. November 13, 1988. Television.
Non-primary sources
  1. ^ O'Connor, John J. "Critic's Notebook; 'Cheers' Is Dead, but There's Always the Wake..." The New York Times May 21, 1993. Web. January 4, 2012.
  2. ^ Bjorklund e-Book, p. 141
  3. ^ Gliatto, Tom; John Griffiths (December 3, 1990). "At Last, Ed O'Neill Knows...Sort Of...What It's Like to Be Ryan O'Neal". People. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  4. ^ Buck, Jerry (April 27, 1986). "He could have been a star of Cheers". Observer-Reporter (Washington, Pennsylvania). Associated Press. p. F5. 
  5. ^ a b c Meade, Peter. "We'll Cry In Our Beers As Sam, Diane Split." Spartanburg Herald-Journal TV Update [Spartanburg, NC] April 29, 1984: 14. Google News. Web. January 21, 2012.
  6. ^ a b Carter, Bill (May 9, 1993). "Why 'Cheers' Proved So Intoxicating". The New York Times. p. 6. 
  7. ^ Balk, Quentin, and Ben Falk. Television's Strangest Moments: Extraordinary but True Tales from the History of Television. London: Robson–Chrysalis, 2005. 166. Google Books. Web. February 10, 2012.
  8. ^ Kerr, Peter (November 29, 1983). "NBC COMEDY 'CHEERS' TURNS INTO A SUCCESS". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Danson, Ted (September 17, 2009). Interview with David Bianculli. "Ted Danson, On Life (And 'Death') After Cheers". NPR. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=112884242. Retrieved January 11, 2012.
  10. ^ a b Zurawik, David. "Last Call for Cheers. The Boston Bar is just a Sitcom Set, but for Viewers It Has Become a Real Place, Where Friends Hang Out." The Baltimore Sun May 16, 1993. Web. January 17, 2012.
  11. ^ Lippman, John. "Future of `Cheers' uncertain." Los Angeles Times February 7, 1991: 1D. Rpt. in The Gainesville Sun [Gainesville, FL] February 10, 1991: 7D. Google News. Web. January 17, 2012.
  12. ^ a b c Phil Rosenthal from Los Angeles Daily News (November 18, 1990). "Barkeep Sam holds Cheers together". Daytona Beach News-Journal. TV Journal, p. 12. 
  13. ^ Bjorklund, p. 141.
  14. ^ Davis, Walter T., Jr., et al. Watching What We Watch: Prime-Time Television Through the Lens of Faith. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2001. Web. February 11, 2012. ISBN 0-664-22696-5.
  15. ^ a b c d Craig, Steve. p. 15
  16. ^ a b Hundley, p. 219
  17. ^ Piccalo, Gina. "Ted Danson is hip again." Los Angeles Times October 18, 2009. Web. January 4, 2012.
  18. ^ a b Hecht, 235. Google Books. Web. February 11, 2012 [1].
  19. ^ Blake, Marc. How Not to Write a Sitcom: 100 Mistakes to Avoid If You Ever Want to Get Produced''. London: A & C Black, 2011. Google Books. Web. January 31, 2011.
  20. ^ Saunders, Dusty (July 31, 1987). "Many changes in store for 'Cheers'". The Vindicator. p. 12. 
  21. ^ "Crowd at 'Cheers' toasts new season with new boss". The Register-Guard (TV Week). p. 13. 
  22. ^ Baker, Kathryn (September 5, 1987). "Long's departure has 'Cheers' cast on edge". Times-News (Hendersonville, North Carolina). 
  23. ^ Hundley, p. 217
  24. ^ Carter, Bill. "TELEVISION; The Tonic That Keeps 'Cheers' Bubbling Along". The New York Times April 29, 1990. Web. January 4, 2012.
  25. ^ Brooks, Tim, and Earle Marsh. The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows: 1946 – present. Paperback ed. New York: Ballantine-Random House, 2007. Google News. Web. January 31, 2012.
  26. ^ Bykofsky, Stuart D. (April 29, 1984). "Sam and Diane end their 'cheery' affair". Calgary Herald (Canada). Knight-Ridder Newspapers. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  27. ^ Harmetz, Alijean (September 23, 1987). "Changes on tap at 'Cheers'". The Ledger. p. 1C+. 
  28. ^ Herman, Valli. "Actor Wins Praise for Appearing Without Hair Piece." Los Angeles Daily News. Rpt. in Sarasota Herald-Tribune September 24, 1990: 5E. Google News. Web. January 31, 2012.
  29. ^ a b Mills, Kim I. "TV viewers glad Sam stayed single." The Sunday Gazette [Schenectady, NY] May 2, 1993: A3. Google News. Web. January 21, 2012. In this web source, scroll down to see its headline.
  30. ^ a b Leefler, Pete. "Show Piles Up Viewer Cheers." The Morning Call [Allentown, NY] May 2, 1993: A01. Web. January 17, 2012. (subscription required)
  31. ^ "Mixed Reaction to Post-Seinfeld Era." Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. Pew Research Center May 10, 1998. Web. February 10, 2012.
  32. ^ Lipton, Michael A. (May 24, 1993). "Lights Out at Sam's Place". People. 
  33. ^ "TV's Best Finales Ever". TV Guide, 2010. Web. 1 June 2012.
  34. ^ Liner, Elaine (May 21–22, 1993). "TV's favorite bar turns off the tap". Corpus Christi Caller-Times (Texas). p. A1.  Record no at NewsBank: 113001A60C3FB35B (registration required).
  35. ^ "Cast of Cheers with special material about the Super Bowl". Los Angeles Times. February 2, 1983. Part VI (Calendar), page 7.  Microfilm.
  36. ^ a b Rosen, Karen (October 25, 1986). "TV-Radio - NBC could use some more of `the rat stuff' in Series coverage". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Section D (Sports), page 12.  At NewsBank: (registration required). At official website: (subscription required). Record no. 861005579.
  37. ^ Apikian, Nevart (November 11, 1988). "Mickey approaching 60th birthday". The Post-Standard (Syracuse, New York: The Herald Company). p. D13.  NewsBank: (registration required). Syracuse.com: (subscription required). Record no. 8811110139.
  38. ^ Hecht, 236. Amazon.com Web. February 11, 2012 [2]. Use search term "cheers sam" for results there.
  39. ^ O'Connor, John J. "TELEVISION REVIEW; Road Paved by Power and Reunions." The New York Times February 21, 1995. Web. January 4, 2012.
  40. ^ Law, Glenn W. "Measurements of Ocular Counterrolling during Linear Accelerations Using an Electromagnetic Scleral Search Coil System." Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1991): 5. DSpace@MIT. Web. January 14, 2012. This PDF file is non-printable. For printable access (purchase required): [3].
  41. ^ McKechnie, A-J. (1994). "Baseball, Magic, and Performance". Totem: The University of Western Ontario Journal of Anthropology 1 (1): 20. Retrieved January 14, 2012. 
  42. ^ Simmons, Bill (February 21, 2002). "Page 2: Dear Sports Guy...". ESPN. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  43. ^ John Steve, and Carey Rossi. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Starting and Running a Bar. New York: Alpha, 2008. Google Books. Web. January 14, 2012.
  44. ^ "The Top 10 Coolest Bartenders of All Time (Part 2)." The Shark Guys February 29, 2008. Web. May 21, 2012 [4].
  45. ^ Bjorklund e-Book, p. 461.
  46. ^ Bjorklund e-Book, p. 463.
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