From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Negeri Di Bawah Bayu
(Land Below The Wind)
Flag of Sabah
Coat of arms of Sabah
Coat of arms
Motto: Sabah Maju Jaya
Anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku
(Sabah My Homeland)
   Sabah in    Malaysia
   Sabah in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 5°15′N 117°0′E / 5.250°N 117.000°E / 5.250; 117.000Coordinates: 5°15′N 117°0′E / 5.250°N 117.000°E / 5.250; 117.000
CapitalKota Kinabalu
 • Yang di-Pertua NegeriJuhar Mahiruddin
 • Chief MinisterMusa Aman (BN)
 • Total73,631 km2 (28,429 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total3,117,405
 • Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010)0.643 (medium) (14th)
Time zoneMYT (UTC+8)
Postal code88xxx to 91xxx
Calling code087 (Inner District)
088 (Kota Kinabalu & Kudat)
089 (Lahad Datu, Sandakan & Tawau)
Vehicle registrationSA,SAA,SAB (Kota Kinabalu & Kota Belud)
SB (Beaufort)
SD (Lahad Datu)
SK (Kudat)
SS (Sandakan)
ST (Tawau)
SU (Keningau)
Former nameNorth Borneo
Brunei Sultanate15th century[2]
Sulu Sultanate (Eastern Part)1658
British North Borneo1882
Japanese occupation1941–1945
British Crown Colony1946
Self-government31 August 1963[3][4]
Accession with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia[5]16 September 1963[6]
Jump to: navigation, search
Negeri Di Bawah Bayu
(Land Below The Wind)
Flag of Sabah
Coat of arms of Sabah
Coat of arms
Motto: Sabah Maju Jaya
Anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku
(Sabah My Homeland)
   Sabah in    Malaysia
   Sabah in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 5°15′N 117°0′E / 5.250°N 117.000°E / 5.250; 117.000Coordinates: 5°15′N 117°0′E / 5.250°N 117.000°E / 5.250; 117.000
CapitalKota Kinabalu
 • Yang di-Pertua NegeriJuhar Mahiruddin
 • Chief MinisterMusa Aman (BN)
 • Total73,631 km2 (28,429 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 • Total3,117,405
 • Density42/km2 (110/sq mi)
Human Development Index
 • HDI (2010)0.643 (medium) (14th)
Time zoneMYT (UTC+8)
Postal code88xxx to 91xxx
Calling code087 (Inner District)
088 (Kota Kinabalu & Kudat)
089 (Lahad Datu, Sandakan & Tawau)
Vehicle registrationSA,SAA,SAB (Kota Kinabalu & Kota Belud)
SB (Beaufort)
SD (Lahad Datu)
SK (Kudat)
SS (Sandakan)
ST (Tawau)
SU (Keningau)
Former nameNorth Borneo
Brunei Sultanate15th century[2]
Sulu Sultanate (Eastern Part)1658
British North Borneo1882
Japanese occupation1941–1945
British Crown Colony1946
Self-government31 August 1963[3][4]
Accession with the Federation of Malaya to form Malaysia[5]16 September 1963[6]

Sabah is one of the 13 member states of Malaysia, and is its easternmost state. It is located on the northern portion of the island of Borneo. It is the second largest state in the country after Sarawak, which it borders on its southwest. It also shares a border with the province of North Kalimantan of Indonesia in the south. The capital of Sabah is Kota Kinabalu, formerly known as Jesselton. Sabah is often referred to as the "Land Below The Wind", a phrase used by seafarers in the past to describe lands south of the typhoon belt.


The origin of the name Sabah is uncertain, and there are many theories that have arisen. One theory is that during the time it was part of the Bruneian Sultanate, it was referred to as Saba because of the presence of pisang saba, a type of banana, found on the coasts of the region. Due to the location of Sabah in relation to Brunei, it has been suggested that Sabah was a Bruneian Malay word meaning upstream[7] or the northern side of the river.[8] Another theory suggests that it came from the Malay word sabak which means a place where palm sugar is extracted. Sabah is also an Arabic word which means sunrise. The presence of multiple theories makes it difficult to pinpoint the true origin of the name.[9]

It has been said that Sabah was once referred to as Seludang in a 1365 Javanese text known as Nagarakretagama written by Mpu Prapanca.[10]


Mount Kinabalu, the highest mountain in Malay Archipelago.

The western part of Sabah is generally mountainous, containing the three highest mountains in Malaysia. The most prominent range is the Crocker Range which houses several mountains of varying height from about 1,000 metres to 4,000 metres. At the height of 4,095 metres, Mount Kinabalu is the highest mountain in Malay Archipelago (excluding New Guinea) and the 10th highest mountain in political Southeast Asia. The jungles of Sabah are classified as tropical rainforests and host a diverse array of plant and animal species. Kinabalu National Park was inscribed as a World Heritage Site in 2000 because of its richness in plant diversity combined with its unique geological, topographical, and climatic conditions.[11]

Lying nearby Mount Kinabalu is Mount Tambuyukon. With a height of 2,579 metres, it is the third highest peak in the country. Adjacent to the Crocker Range is the Trus Madi Range which houses the second highest peak in the country, Mount Trus Madi, with a height of 2,642 metres. There are lower ranges of hills extending towards the western coasts, southern plains, and the interior or central part of Sabah. These mountains and hills are traversed by an extensive network of river valleys and are in most cases covered with dense rainforest.

The central and eastern portion of Sabah are generally lower mountain ranges and plains with occasional hills. Kinabatangan River begins from the western ranges and snakes its way through the central region towards the east coast out into the Sulu Sea. It is the second longest river in Malaysia after Rajang River at a length of 560 kilometres. The forests surrounding the river valley also contains an array of wildlife habitats, and is the largest forest-covered floodplain in Malaysia.[12]

The northern tip of Borneo at Tanjung Simpang Mengayau.

Other important wildlife regions in Sabah include Maliau Basin, Danum Valley, Tabin, Imbak Canyon and Sepilok. These places are either designated as national parks, wildlife reserves, virgin jungle reserves, or protection forest reserve.

Over three-quarters of the human population inhabit the coastal plains. Major towns and urban centres have sprouted along the coasts of Sabah. The interior region remains sparsely populated with only villages, and the occasional small towns or townships.

Beyond the coasts of Sabah lie a number of islands and coral reefs, including the largest island in Malaysia, Pulau Banggi. Other large islands include, Pulau Jambongan, Pulau Balambangan, Pulau Timbun Mata, Pulau Bumbun, and Pulau Sebatik. Other popular islands mainly for tourism are, Pulau Sipadan, Pulau Selingan, Pulau Gaya, Pulau Tiga, and Pulau Layang-Layang.


National or state park areas in Sabah are under the protection of Sabah Parks. Other reserves or protected areas are under the governance of the Sabah Forestry Department and Sabah Foundation.


Earliest human migration and settlement into the region is believed to have dated back about 20,000–30,000 years ago. These early humans are believed to be Australoid or Negrito people. The next wave of human migration, believed to be Austronesian Mongoloids, occurred around 3000 BC.

Flag of the Bruneian Empire.

During the 7th century CE, a settled community known as Vijayapura, a tributary to the Srivijaya empire, was thought to have been the earliest beneficiary to the Bruneian Empire existing around the northeast coast of Borneo.[13] Another kingdom which suspected to have existed beginning the 9th century was P'o-ni. It was believed that Po-ni existed at the mouth of Brunei River and was the predecessor to the Sultanate of Brunei.[14] The Sultanate of Brunei began after the ruler of Brunei embraced Islam. During the reign of the fifth sultan known as Bolkiah between 1473–1524, the Sultanate's thalassocracy extended over Sabah, Sulu Archipelago and Manila in the north, and Sarawak until Banjarmasin in the south.[15] In 1658, the Sultan of Brunei ceded the northern and eastern portion of Borneo to the Sultan of Sulu in compensation for the latter's help in settling a civil war in the Brunei Sultanate, but many sources stated that the Brunei did not cede any parts of Sabah to the Sultanate of Sulu.[16]

Alexander Dalrymple, an officer of the British East India Company who concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to set a trading post in the Sulu area, eastern North Borneo.

In 1761, Alexander Dalrymple, an officer of the British East India Company, concluded an agreement with the Sultan of Sulu to allow him to set up a trading post in the Sulu area, although it proved to be a failure.[17] In 1846, the island of Labuan on the west coast of Sabah was grant to Britain by the Sultan of Brunei and in 1848 it became the British Crown Colony of North Borneo with a new cession from the Sultan of Brunei been renewed on 1877, while the eastern part of Sabah were ceded by the Sultanate of Sulu on 1878.[18][19][20] Following a series of transfers, the rights to North Borneo were transferred to Alfred Dent, whom in 1881 formed the British North Borneo Provisional Association Ltd (predecessor to British North Borneo Company).[21] In the following year, the British North Borneo Company was formed and Kudat was made its capital. In 1883, the capital was moved to Sandakan and in 1885, the United Kingdom, Spain, and Germany signed the Madrid Protocol, which recognised the sovereignty of Spain in the Sulu Archipelago in return for the relinquishment of all Spanish claims over North Borneo.[22] North Borneo became a protectorate of the United Kingdom in 1888.

The Japanese forces landed at the West Coast Division of North Borneo.

As part of the Second World War, Japanese forces landed in Labuan on 1 January 1942, and continued to invade the rest of North Borneo. From 1942 to 1945, Japanese forces occupied North Borneo, along with most of the island. Bombings by the allied forces devastated of most towns including Sandakan, which was razed to the ground. In Sandakan, there was once a brutal POW camp run by the Japanese for British and Australian POWs from North Borneo. The prisoners suffered under notoriously inhuman conditions, and Allied bombardments caused the Japanese to relocate the POW camp to inland Ranau, 260 km away. All the prisoners, then were reduced to 2,504 in number, were forced to march the infamous Sandakan Death March. Except for six Australians, all of the prisoners died. The war ended on 10 September 1945. After the surrender, North Borneo was administered by the British Military Administration and in 1946 it became a British Crown Colony. Jesselton replaced Sandakan as the capital and the Crown continued to rule North Borneo until 1963.

The signing of the Cobbold Report of the Commission of Enquiry, North Borneo and Sarawak at Knebworth House, London on 21 June 1962.
Tun Fuad Stephens (left) declaring the joining of Sabah to the Federation of Malaysia at Padang Merdeka, Jesselton on 16 September 1963. Together with him is the Deputy Minister of Malaya Tun Abdul Razak (right) and Tun Mustapha (second right).

On 31 August 1963, North Borneo attained self-government.[4] The Cobbold Commission was set up on 1962 to determine whether the people of Sabah and Sarawak favoured the proposed union, and found that the union was generally favoured by the people. Most ethnic community leaders of Sabah, namely, Tun Mustapha representing the Muslims, Tun Fuad Stephens representing the non-Muslim natives, and Khoo Siak Chew representing the Chinese, would eventually support the union. After discussion culminating in the Malaysia Agreement and 20-point agreement, on 16 September 1963 North Borneo, as Sabah, was united with Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore, to form the independent Federation of Malaysia.[23][24][25]

From before the formation of Malaysia till 1966, Indonesia adopted a hostile policy towards the British backed Malaya, and after union to Malaysia. This undeclared war stems from what Indonesian President Sukarno perceive as an expansion of British influence in the region and his intention to wrest control over the whole of Borneo under the Indonesian republic. Tun Fuad Stephens became the first chief minister of Sabah. The first Governor (Yang di-Pertuan Negeri) was Tun Mustapha. Sabah held its first state election in 1967. Until 2008, a total of 11 state elections has been held. Sabah has had 13 different chief ministers and 9 different Yang di-Pertua Negeri as of 2009. Beginning 1970, Filipino refugees from the Mindanao began arriving in Sabah as a result of the Moro insurgency taking place in that region.[26] On 14 June 1976 the government of Sabah signed an agreement with Petronas, the federal government-owned oil and gas company, granting it the right to extract and earn revenue from petroleum found in the territorial waters of Sabah in exchange for 5% in annual revenue as royalties.[27]

The state government of Sabah ceded Labuan to the Malaysian federal government, and Labuan became a federal territory on 16 April 1984. In 2000, the state capital Kota Kinabalu was granted city status, making it the 6th city in Malaysia and the first city in the state. Also this year, Kinabalu National Park was officially designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, making it the first site in the country to be given such designation. In 2002, the International Court of Justice ruled that the islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, claimed by Indonesia, are part of Sabah and Malaysia.[28]

In February 2013, the Sabah village of Tanduo in the Lahad Datu region was occupied by several armed Filipino supporters of the Sultanate of Sulu, calling themselves the Royal Security Forces of the Sultanate of Sulu and North Borneo. They were sent by Jamalul Kiram III, a claimant to the throne of the sultanate. His stated goal is to assert the Philippine territorial claim to eastern Sabah as part of the North Borneo dispute.[29][30][31] In response, Malaysian security forces surrounded the village. Attempts by the Malaysian and the Philippine governments to reach a peaceful solution with the Sultan's supporters were unsuccessful and the standoff escalated into an armed conflict on 1 March 2013.[32][33]



Population in North Borneo – 1960 Census[34]
(now Sabah and Labuan)
Brunei Malay
Other Muslim groups
Sources: British North Borneo (1961)

Sabah’s population numbered 651,304 in 1970 and grew to 929,299 a decade later. But in the two decades following 1980, the state’s population rose significantly by a staggering 1.5 million people, reaching 2,468,246 by 2000. As of 2010, this number had grown further to 3,117,405, with foreigners making up 27% of the total [35] The population of Sabah is 3,117,405 as of the last census in 2010 which showed more than a 400 percent increase from the census of 1970 (from 651,304 in 1970 to 3,117,405 in 2010).[36] and is the third most populous state in Malaysia after Selangor and Johor.

Sabah has one of the highest population growth rates in the country as a result of legal and purportedly state-sponsored illegal immigration and naturalization from elsewhere in Malaysia, Indonesia and particularly from the Muslim-dominated southern provinces of the Philippines who were awarded Malay stock and granted citizenship.[37][38] As a result, the Bornean Sabahan, most of whom are Christian, have become minorities in their own homeland,[34][39] therefore, on 1 June 2012, Prime Minister Najib Razak of the Malaysia announced that the federal government has agreed to set up the Royal Commission of Inquiry on illegal immigrants in Sabah to investigate.[40]

Population in Sabah – 2010 Census[41]
Brunei Malay
Other bumiputra[42]
Other non-bumiputra
Non-Malaysian citizen
Sources: Department of Statistics, Malaysia.

Language and ethnicity[edit]

Malay language is the national language spoken across ethnicities, although Sabahan dialect called Baku is different from West Malaysian dialect of Johor-Riau.[43] Sabah also has its own slang for many words in Malay, mostly originated from indigenous or Indonesian words. In addition, indigenous languages such as Kadazan, Dusun, Bajau and Murut have their own segments on state radio broadcast as well as English.

The people of Sabah are divided into 32 officially recognised ethnic groups, in which 28 are recognised as Bumiputra, or indigenous people.[3] The largest non-bumiputra ethnic group is the Chinese (13.2%). The predominant Chinese dialect group in Sabah is Hakka, followed by Cantonese and Hokkien. Most Chinese people in Sabah are concentrated in the major cities and towns, namely Kota Kinabalu, Sandakan and Tawau. The largest indigenous ethnic group is Kadazan-Dusun, followed by Bajau, and Murut. There is a much smaller proportion of Indians and other South Asians in Sabah compared to other parts of Malaysia. Cocos people is a minority ethnic residing in Sabah especially at the Tawau Division. Collectively, all persons coming from Sabah are known as Sabahans and identify themselves as such.

Sabah demography consists of many ethnic groups, for example:

Other inhabitants:


Since independence in 1963, Sabah has undergone a significant change in its religious composition, particularly in the percentage of its population professing Islam. In 1960, the percentage of Muslims is 37.9%, Christians - 16.6%, while about one-third remained animist.[46] In 2010, the percentage of Muslims has increased to 65.4%, while people professing Christianity at 26.6% and Buddhism at 6.1%.

Religion in North Borneo - 1960 Census[46]
(now Sabah and Labuan)

In 1973, USNO amended the Sabah Constitution to make Islam the religion of State of Sabah. USIA vigorously promote conversion of Sabahans natives to Islam by offering rewards and office position, and also through migration of Muslim immigrants from the Philippines and Indonesia. Expulsion of Christian missionaries from the state were also performed to reduce Christian proselytisation of Sabahan natives.[47] Filipino Muslims and other Muslim immigrants from Indonesia and even Pakistan were brought into the state with instruction from the USNO chief at the time Tun Mustapha and been giving identity cards in the early 1990s to help topple the PBS state government and to make him appointed as the state governor, however his plan to become the state governor were unsuccessful but many illegal immigrants has changed the demography of Sabah.[48]

These policies were continued when Sabah was under the BERJAYA's administration headed by Datuk Harris, in which he openly exhorted to Muslims of the need to have a Muslim majority, to control the Christian Kadazans (without the help of the Chinese minority).[49]

Religion in Sabah - 2010 Census[39]
No religion

As of 2010 the population of Sabah follows:


Sabah economy relies on three key development sectors; agriculture, tourism and manufacturing. Petroleum and palm oil remained the two most exported commodities. Sabah imports mainly automobiles and machinery, petroleum products and fertilizers, food and manufactured goods.[50]


Sabah was traditionally heavily dependent on lumber based on export of tropical timber, but with increasing depletion at an alarming rate of the natural forests, ecological efforts to save the remaining natural rainforest areas were made in early 1982 through forest conservation methods by collecting seeds of different species particularly acacia mangium and planting it to pilot project areas pioneered by the Sandakan Forest Research Institute researchers, however, palm oil has emerged as a choice of farmers to plant as crops. Other agricultural products important in the Sabah economy include rubber and cacao. America's lobster breeding company Darden will start a huge investment to breed lobsters in Sabah waters for export to the United States in the coming years. Agriculture sector is supported by Department of Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture & Food Industry and Palm Oil Industrial Cluster.


Tourism, particularly eco-tourism, is a major contributor to the economy of Sabah. In 2006, 2,000,000 tourists visited Sabah[51] and it is estimated that the number will continue to rise following vigorous promotional activities by the state and national tourism boards and also increased stability and security in the region. Sabah currently has six national parks. One of these, the Kinabalu National Park, was designated as a World Heritage Site in 2000. It is the first[52] of two sites in Malaysia to obtain this status, the other being the Gunung Mulu National Park in Sarawak. These parks are maintained and controlled by Sabah Parks under the Parks Enactment 1984. The Sabah Wildlife Department also has conservation, utilisation, and management responsibilities.[53] Tourism sector is supported by Ministry of Tourism, Culture & Environment and Sabah Tourism Board. Sri Pelancongan Sabah, a wholly owned subsidiary of Sabah Tourism Board, organises the annual Sunset Music Fest at the Tip of Borneo, which is Sabah's largest outdoor concert. The venue is in Tanjung Simpang Mengayau, Kudat, and has been held annually since 2009, attracting both local and international acts.[54]


There are hundreds of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and industries (SMIs) in Sabah[55] and some companies have become a household name such as Gardenia. Sabah government is seriously pursuing industrialisation with the Sabah Development Corridor plan specifically in Sepanggar area where KKIP Industrial Park and Sepanggar Container Port Terminal located. Sabah manufacturing are supported by Ministry of Industrial Development and Department of Industrial Development & Research.

Urban centres and ports[edit]

Kota Kinabalu City.
Sandakan City.

There are currently 7 ports in Sabah: Kota Kinabalu Port, Sepanggar Bay Container Port, Sandakan Port, Tawau Port, Kudat Port, Kunak Port, and Lahad Datu Port. These ports are operated and maintained by Sabah Ports Authority.[56] The major towns and city are:

1Kota Kinabalu700,999
5Lahad Datu378,900


In the 1970s, Sabah was ranked second behind Selangor including Kuala Lumpur as the richest state in Malaysia.[58] As of 2010, Sabah is the poorest state in Malaysia. GDP growth was 2.4%, the lowest in Malaysia behind Kelantan.[59] Proportion of population living below US$1 per day declined from 30% in 1990 to 20% in 2009 but still lag behind other states that have lowered poverty rate significantly from 17% in 1990 to 4% in 2009.[60] Slum is nonexistent in Malaysia but the highest number of squatter settlements is in Sabah with households between 20,000 to 40,000. After Kuala Lumpur, most low-cost public housing units under the People's Housing Program were built in Sabah.

Cabotage policy imposed on Sabah and Sarawak is one of the reason behind the higher price of goods. The rules set in early 1980s made sure that all domestic transport of foreign goods between peninsula and Sabah ports are only for Malaysian company vessels. This leads to shipping cartel charging excessive costs and ultimately a higher cost of living in East Malaysia.[61]

Cabotage rules also affected the industry sector. Tan Chong Motor is planning to build a Nissan 4WD factory in KKIP but higher cost of shipping stalled the plan that could provide new jobs.[62] Lack of industry providing jobs for professional and highly skilled workers forced large numbers of Sabahans to seek opportunities in Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Australia and United States.

The 5% fixed oil royalty Sabah currently receives from Petronas according to Petroleum Development Act 1974 is also an issue of contention.[63] The three oil producing states namely Sabah, Sarawak and Terengganu demanded Petronas to review the agreement and increase royalty to no avail.


Sabah is a representative democracy with universal suffrage for all citizens above 21 years of age. However, legislation regarding state elections are within the powers of the federal government and not the state.


The Yang di-Pertua Negeri sits at the top of the hierarchy followed by the state legislative assembly and the state cabinet. The Yang di-Pertuan Negeri is officially the head of state however its functions are largely ceremonial. The chief minister is the head of government and is also the leader of the state cabinet. The legislature is based on the Westminster system and therefore the chief minister is appointed based on his or her ability to command the majority of the state assembly. A general election representatives in the state assembly must be held every five years. This is the only elected government body in the state, with local authorities being fully appointed by the state government owing to the suspension of local elections by the federal government. The assembly meets at the state capital, Kota Kinabalu.

#Chief MinisterTook officeLeft officeParty
1Tun Fuad Stephens (1st term)September 16, 1963December 31, 1964Alliance (UNKO)
2Peter Lo Sui YinJanuary 1, 1965May 12, 1967Alliance (SCA)
3Mustapha HarunMay 12, 1967November 1, 1975Alliance (USNO)
4Mohamad Said KeruakNovember 1, 1975April 18, 1976Barisan Nasional (USNO)
5Tun Fuad Stephens (2nd term)April 18, 1976June 6, 1976Barisan Nasional (BERJAYA)
6Harris SallehJune 6, 1976April 22, 1985Barisan Nasional (BERJAYA)
7Joseph Pairin KitinganApril 22, 1985March 17, 1994Parti Bersatu Sabah
Barisan Nasional (PBS)
Parti Bersatu Sabah
8Sakaran DandaiMarch 17, 1994December 27, 1994Barisan Nasional (UMNO)
9Salleh Said KeruakDecember 27, 1994May 28, 1996Barisan Nasional (UMNO)
10Yong Teck LeeMay 28, 1996May 28, 1998Barisan Nasional (SAPP)
11Bernard DompokMay 28, 1998March 14, 1999Barisan Nasional (UPKO)
12Osu SukamMarch 14, 1999March 27, 2001Barisan Nasional (UMNO)
13Chong Kah KiatMarch 27, 2001March 27, 2003Barisan Nasional (LDP)
14Musa AmanMarch 27, 2003presentBarisan Nasional (UMNO)


Composition of Sabah State Legislative
Source: Suruhanjaya Pilihanraya

Members of the state assembly are elected from 60 constituencies which are delineated by the Election Commission of Malaysia and may not necessarily result in constituencies of same voter population sizes. Sabah is also represented in the federal parliament by 25 members elected from the same number of constituencies.

The present elected state and federal government posts are held by Barisan Nasional (BN), a coalition of parties which includes United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), Sabah Progressive Party (SAPP), United Pasokmomogun Kadazandusun Murut Organisation (UPKO), Parti Bersatu Rakyat Sabah (PBRS), Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS), Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), and Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA).[64]

Politics of Sabah[edit]

Prior to the formation of Malaysia in 1963, the then North Borneo interim government submitted a 20-point agreement to the Malayan government as conditions before Sabah would join the Federation. Subsequently, North Borneo legislative assembly agreed on the formation of Malaysia on the conditions that these state rights were safeguarded. Sabah hence entered Malaysia as an autonomous state. However, there is a prevailing view amongst Sabahan that beginning from the second tenure of BERJAYA's administration under Datuk Harris, this autonomy has been gradually eroded under the federal influence and hegemony.[65] Amongst political contention often raised by Sabahans are the cession of Labuan island to Federal government and unequal sharing and exploitation of Sabah's resources of petroleum. This has resulted in strong anti-federal sentiments and even occasional call for secession from the Federation amongst the people of Sabah.

Until the Malaysian general election, 2008, Sabah, along with the states of Kelantan and Terengganu, are the only three states in Malaysia that had ever been ruled by opposition parties not part of the ruling BN coalition. Led by Datuk Seri Joseph Pairin Kitingan, PBS formed government after winning the 1985 elections and ruled Sabah until 1994. In 1994 Sabah state election, despite PBS winning the elections, subsequent cross-overs of PBS assembly members to the BN component party resulted in BN having majority of seats and hence took over the helm of the state government.[66]

A unique feature of Sabah politics was a policy initiated by then Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad in 1994 whereby the chief minister's post is rotated among the coalition parties every 2 years regardless of the party in power at the time, thus theoretically giving an equal amount of time for each major ethnic group to rule the state. However, in practice this system was problematic as it is too short for any leader to carry-out long term plan.[67] This practice has since stopped with power now held by majority in the state assembly by the UMNO party, which also holds a majority in the national parliament.

Direct political intervention by the federal, for example, introduction and later convenient [for UMNO] abolition of the chief minister's post and earlier PBS-BERJAYA conflict in 1985, along with co-opting rival factions in East Malaysia, is sometimes seen as a political tactic by the UMNO-led federal government to control and manage the autonomous power of the Borneo states.[68] The federal government however tend to view that these actions are justifiable as the display of parochialism amongst East Malaysians is not in harmony with nation building. This complicated Federal-State relations hence become a source of major contention in Sabah politics.

Administrative districts[edit]

Sabah consists of five administrative divisions, which are in turn divided into 25 districts.

These administrative divisions are, for all purposes, just for reference. During the British rule until the transition period when Malaysia was formed, a Resident was appointed to govern each division and provided with a palace (Istana). This means that the British considered each of these divisions equivalent to a Malayan state. The post of the Resident was abolished in favour of district officers for each of the district.

Division NameDistrictsArea (km²)Population (2010)[69]
1West Coast DivisionKota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Penampang, Putatan, Ranau, Tuaran7,5881,067,589
2Interior DivisionBeaufort, Nabawan, Keningau, Kuala Penyu, Sipitang, Tambunan, Tenom18,298424,534
3Kudat DivisionKota Marudu, Kudat, Pitas4,623192,457
4Sandakan DivisionBeluran, Kinabatangan, Sandakan, Tongod28,205702,207
5Tawau DivisionKunak, Lahad Datu, Semporna, Tawau14,905819,955

As in the rest of Malaysia, local government comes under the purview of state governments.[70] However, ever since the suspension of local government elections in the midst of the Malaysian Emergency, which was much less intense in Sabah than it was in the rest of the country, there have been no local elections. Local authorities have their officials appointed by the executive council of the state government.[71][72]

Education and culture[edit]


Panorama of UMS.
Official Name in MalayName in EnglishAcronym
Kolej Universiti Tunku Abdul RahmanTunku Abdul Rahman University CollegeTARC
Universiti Malaysia SabahMalaysia Sabah UniversityUMS
Universiti Teknologi MARAMARA Technology UniversityUiTM
Universiti Terbuka MalaysiaOpen University MalaysiaOUM


Official Name in MalayName in EnglishAcronymWebsite
Kolej KinabaluKinabalu College[2]
Institut Seni SabahSabah Institute of ArtSIA[3]
Kolej Yayasan SabahSabah Foundation CollegeKYS[4]
Kolej SIDMA SabahSIDMA College SabahSIDMA[5]
Kolej Pelancongan Asia AntarabangsaAsian Tourism International CollegeATIC[6]
Sekolah Perniagaan AMCAdvanced Management CollegeAMC[7]
Politeknik Kota KinabaluKota Kinabalu PolytechnicPOLITEKNIK[8]
Kolej Pentadbiran Dinamik Antarabangsa SabahSabah International Dynamic Management CollegeSIDMA[9]
Institut SinaranSinaran InstituteSINARAN[10]
Kolej Antarabangsa AlmaCrestAlmaCrest International CollegeACIC[11]
Kolej EasternEastern CollegeEASTERN[12]
Institut Prima BestariPrima Bestari InstituteIPB[13]
Kolej InformaticsInformatics CollegeINFORMATICS
Kolej INTIINTI CollegeINTI[14]
Pusat Teknologi dan Pengurusan LanjutanAdvanced Management and Technology CentrePTPL[15]
Kolej Teknologi CosmopointCosmopoint Kota KinabaluCOSMOPOINT[16]
Kolej MultimediaMultimedia CollegeMMC
Institut Teknologi SabahSabah Institute of TechnologySIT[17]
Institut Perguruan Kampus GayaGaya Teachers Training InstituteIPGKG[18]
Institut Perguruan Kampus KeningauKeningau Teachers Training InstituteIPGKK[19]
Institut Perguruan Kampus TawauTawau Teachers Training InstituteIPGKT[20]
Institut Perguruan Kampus KentKent Teachers Training Institute[21]
Kolej MasterskillMasterskill CollegeMASTERSKILL[22]


Radio Televisyen Malaysia operates 2 statewide free-to-air terrestrial radio channels, Sabah FM and Sabah VFM as well as district specific channels such as Keningau FM. A local television channel is due to be launched called TV Sabah, also under RTM. KK FM is run by Universiti Malaysia Sabah. Bayu FM is only available through Astro satellite feed. Recently KL based AMP Radio Networks and Suria FM set up base to tap the emerging market. Sabahan DJs were hired and the content caters to Sabahan listeners.

Sabah's first established newspaper was the Sabah Times. The newspaper was founded by Tun Fuad Stephens, who later became the first Chief Minister of Sabah. Today the main newspapers are New Sabah Times, Daily Express and Borneo Post.

Movies and TV[edit]

The earliest known footage of Sabah is from two movies by Martin and Osa Johnson titled Jungle Depths of Borneo and Borneo filmed at Abai, Kinabatangan.[73] Three Came Home was a 1950 Hollywood movie based on the memoir of the same name by Agnes Newton Keith depicting the Second World War in Sandakan.

Bat*21 was a 1988 Vietnam War film directed by Peter Markle and shot at various locations in West Sabah such as Menggatal, Telipok, Kayumadang and Lapasan.

Sabah's first homegrown film was Orang Kita, starring Abu Bakar Ellah. Sabah-produced TV programs such as dramas or documentaries are usually aired on TV1 while musicals aired through special Sabah slots in Muzik Aktif.

Foreign films and TV shows filmed in Sabah include the reality show Survivor: Borneo, The Amazing Race, Eco-Challenge Borneo as well as a number of Hong Kong production films such as Born Rich. Sabah was featured in Sacred Planet, a documentary hosted by Robert Redford.


Sabah FA won the FA Cup in 1995 then become the Premier League champion in 1996.

Matlan Marjan is a former football player for Malaysia. He scored two goals against England in an international friendly on 12 June 1991. The English team included Stuart Pearce, David Batty, David Platt, Nigel Clough, Gary Lineker, was captained by Bryan Robson and coached by Bobby Robson.[74] He again made history for Sabah when he was named the captain of the national team in the 1995 match against Brazilian football club, Flamengo XI, in which the team famously held their opponent to a 1-1 draw.[75] In 1995, he along with six other Sabah players, were arrested on suspicion of match-fixing. Although the charges were dropped, he was prevented from playing professional football and was banished to another district.[76][77] He was banished under the Restricted Residence Act.[78]

Martin Guntali was a weightlifter who won the Commonwealth Games bronze medal. Lim Keng Liat was a swimmer who won the Asian Games gold medal in 2006. Arrico Jumiti is a weightlifter who won the Asian Games gold medal at Guangzhou in 2010.


Australian author Wendy Law Suart lived in Jesselton between 1949–1953 and wrote The Lingering Eye – Recollections of North Borneo about her experiences.[79]

American author Agnes Newton Keith lived in Sandakan between 1934–1952 and wrote four books about Sabah, Land Below the Wind, Three Came Home, White Man Returns and Beloved Exiles. The second book was made into a Hollywood motion picture.

In the Earl Mac Rauch novelisation of Buckaroo Banzai (Pocket Books, 1984; repr. 2001), and in the DVD commentary, Buckaroo's archenemy Hanoi Xan is said to have his secret base in Sabah, in a "relic city of caves."

Ethnic dances[edit]

There are many types of traditional dances in Sabah, most notably:

Notable residents[edit]

Statue of Antanom in Tenom.

Mat Salleh was a Bajau leader who led a rebellion against British North Borneo Company administration in North Borneo. Under his leadership, the rebellion which lasted from 1894 to 1900 razed the British Administration Centre on Pulau Gaya and exercised control over Menggatal, Inanam, Ranau and Tambunan. The rebellion was by Bajaus, Dusuns and Muruts.[80]

Antanum or Antanom (full name Ontoros Antonom) (1885–1915) was a famous and influential Murut warrior who led the chiefs and villagers from Keningau, Tenom, Pensiangan and Rundum to start the Rundum uprising against the British North Borneo Company but was killed during fighting with the company army in Sungai Selangit near Pensiangan.

Another notable Sabahan is Donald Stephens who helped form the state of Sabah under the UN appointed Cobbold commission. He was an initial opponent of Malaysia but later converted to the support of it.[81] He was also the first Huguan Siou or paramount leader of the Kadazan-dusun and Murut people.

Tun Datu Mustapha was a Bajau-Kagayan-Suluk Muslim political leader in Sabah through the United Sabah National Organisation (USNO) party.[82] He was a vocal supporter of Malaysia but fell out of favour with Malayan leaders despite forming UMNO branches in Sabah and deregistering USNO. Efforts to reregister USNO have not been allowed, unlike UMNO that was allowed to be reregistered under the same name.[83]

Former Chief Minister Joseph Pairin Kitingan is the current Huguan Siou and the President of Parti Bersatu Sabah (PBS). Pairin, the longest serving chief minister of the state and one of the first Kadazandusun lawyers, was known for his defiance of the federal government in the 1980s and 1990s in promoting the rights of Sabah and speaking out against the illegal immigration problems. Sabah was at the time one of only two states with opposition governments in power, the other being Kelantan. PBS has since rejoined BN and Datuk Pairin is currently the Deputy Chief Minister of Sabah.

The 8th and current Attorney General of Malaysia, Abdul Gani Patail, comes from Sabah.

In 2006, Penampang-born Richard Malanjum was appointed Chief Judge of Sabah and Sarawak and became the first Kadazandusun to hold such a post.

Datuk Hj. Railey bin Hj. Jeffery was the first and well-known Cocos political leader. He was the Deputy Information Minister and the JKR Deputy Minister in the 1990s.

Penny Wong, born in Kota Kinabalu in 1968, moved to Australia at age 5. She became the first Minister for Climate Change and Energy Efficiency and the Minister for Finance and Deregulation in Australia.[84][85] She was the first Asian-born member of the Australian cabinet.[86] She is currently the Leader of the Opposition in the Senate in Australia. [87][88]

Philip Lee Tau Sang (died 1959) was one of the most prominent Sabahan Chinese politicians in the 1950s. Of Hakka descent, he was greatly favoured by the British, whose colonisation Sabah was still under then, and was Member of the Advisory Council of North Borneo (1947–1950), Legislative Council of North Borneo (1950–1958) and Executive Council of North Borneo (1950–1953, 1956–1957).[89] He has been posthumously honoured with a road named after him in the town of Tanjung Aru, near the Kota Kinabalu International Airport.

Che'Nelle is a Sabahan-born Australian recording artist famous for her single I Feel in Love With the DJ. Cheryline Lim as her real name, was born 10 March 1983. She was born to a Bornean-born Chinese father, and a mother of a mixed of Indian and Dutch heritage. Born in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Lim and her family moved to Perth, Australia when she was 10 years old.

Territorial dispute[edit]

W. C. Cowie, managing director of the North Borneo Chartered Company with the Sultan of Sulu.

Sabah has seen several territorial disputes with Malaysia's neighbours Indonesia and the Philippines. In 2002 both Malaysia and Indonesia submitted to arbitration by the International Court of Justice on a territorial dispute over the Sipadan and Ligitan islands. There are also several overlapping claims over the Ambalat continental shelf in the Celebes (Sulawesi) Sea. Malaysia's claim over a portion of the Spratly Islands is also based on sharing a continental shelf with Sabah & Sarawak.

The Philippines has a territorial claim over much of the eastern part of Sabah, the former North Borneo. It claims that the territory, via the heritage of the Sultanate of Sulu, was only leased to the North Borneo Chartered Company in 1878 with the Sultanate's sovereignty never being relinquished. Malaysia however, considers this dispute as a "non-issue," as it interprets the 1878 agreement as that of cession and that it deems that the residents of Sabah had exercised their right to self-determination when they voted to join the Malaysian federation in 1963.[90][91]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Department of Statistics Malaysia. p. iv. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  2. ^ Rozan Yunos (21 September 2008). "How Brunei lost its northern province". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 28 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Oxford Business Group. The Report: Sabah 2011. Oxford Business Group. pp. 13–. ISBN 978-1-907065-36-1. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah. Booksmango. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-616-245-078-5. Retrieved 28 May 2013. 
  5. ^ Malaysia Act 1963. Retrieved on 12 August 2011.
  6. ^ Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore
  7. ^ Allen R. Maxwell (1981–1982). "The Origin of the name 'Sabah'". Sabah Society Journal. VII (No. 2) 
  8. ^ W. H. Treacher (1891). British Borneo: Sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan, and North Borneo. The Project Gutenberg eBook. p. 95. Retrieved 15 October 2009 
  9. ^ Kaur, Jaswinder (16 September 2008). "Getting to Root of the Name Sabah". New Straits Times. 
  10. ^ Origin of Place Names – Sabah. National Library of Malaysia. Retrieved 3 June 2010 
  11. ^ Kinabalu Park – Justification for inscription, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Accessed 24 June 2007.
  12. ^ About the Kinabatangan area, WWF. Accessed 4 August 2007.
  13. ^ Wendy Hutton (November 2000). Adventure Guides: East Malaysia. Tuttle Publishing. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-962-593-180-7. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Barbara Watson Andaya; Leonard Y. Andaya (15 September 1984). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 57–. ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  15. ^ Graham Saunders (2002). A history of Brunei. Routledge. pp. 40–. ISBN 978-0-7007-1698-2. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  16. ^ Rozan Yunos (7 March 2013). "Sabah and the Sulu claims". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 31 October 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2013. 
  17. ^ Howard T. Fry (1970). Alexander Dalrymple (1737-1808) and the Expansion of British Trade. Routledge. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-7146-2594-2. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  18. ^ Charles ALfred Fisher (1966). South-East Asia: A Social, Economic and Political Geography. Taylor & Francis. pp. 147–. GGKEY:NTL3Y9S0ACC. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  19. ^ Ooi Keat Gin (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to Timor. R-Z. volume three. ABC-CLIO. pp. 251–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  20. ^ Keat Gin Ooi (1 January 2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. pp. 265–. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. 
  21. ^ J. M. Gullick (1967). Malaysia and Its Neighbours, The World studies series. Taylor & Francis. pp. 148–149. ISBN 9780710041418. Retrieved 17 November 2012 
  22. ^ Protocol of 1885. Sabah State Attorney-General's Chambers. Retrieved 11 October 2009. 
  23. ^ United Nations Member States
  24. ^ "Sabah's Heritage: A Brief Introduction to Sabah's History", Muzium Sabah, Kota Kinabalu. 1992
  25. ^ Ramlah binti Adam, Abdul Hakim bin Samuri, Muslimin bin Fadzil: "Sejarah Tingkatan 3, Buku teks", published by Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (2005)
  26. ^ Riwanto Tirtosudarmo (2007). Mencari Indonesia: Demografi-Politik Pasca-Soeharto (in Indonesian). Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia. p. 122. ISBN 978-979-799-083-1. Retrieved 24 September 2009 
  27. ^ "More revenue from oil". Daily Express (UK). 19 June 2004. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  28. ^ Summaries of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders of the International Court of Justice: 1997-2002. United Nations Publications. 2003. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-92-1-133541-5. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  29. ^ "Heirs of Sultan of Sulu pursue Sabah claim on their own". Philippine Daily Inquirer. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013. 
  30. ^ Ubac, Michael Lim; Pazzibugan, Dona Z. (3 March 2013). "No surrender, we stay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 3 March 2013. 
  31. ^ Mullen, Jethro (15 February 2013). "Filipino group on Borneo claims to represent sultanate, Malaysia says". CNN. Retrieved 25 February 2013. 
  32. ^ Jegathesan, M. (5 March 2013). "Malaysia attacks Filipinos to end Sabah siege". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  33. ^ "Lahad Datu: Malaysian security forces in all out attack against Sulu gunmen". The Star. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2013. 
  34. ^ a b Sadiq, Kamal (2005). "When States Prefer Non-Citizens Over Citizens: Conflict Over Illegal Immigration into Malaysia" (PDF). International Studies Quarterly 49: 101–122. doi:10.1111/j.0020-8833.2005.00336.x. Retrieved 23 April 2008. 
  35. ^ Mahathir rejects Sabah Royal Commission of Inquiry (RCI) plan
  36. ^ Population Distribution by Local Authority Areas and Mukims, 2010 (Census 2010), Seite 369
  37. ^ "SPECIAL REPORT: Sabah's Project M" (fee required). Malaysiakini. 27 June 2006. Retrieved 23 April 2008.  - where "M" stood for Mahathir Mohamad
  38. ^ Mutalib M.D. "IC Projek Agenda Tersembunyi Mahathir?" (2006)
  39. ^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 17 June 2012.  p. 92
  40. ^ "Najib announces setting up of RCI to probe issue of illegal immigrants in Sabah". Borneo Post Online. 2 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012. 
  41. ^ "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia" (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 28 August 2012.  p. 71
  42. ^ a b Bumiputra in Sabah mean if one of the parents is a Muslim Malay or indigenous native of Sabah as stated in Article 160A (6)(a) Constitution of Malaysia; thus his child is considered as a Bumiputra
  43. ^ "Language And Social Context". 13 May 1969. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  44. ^ "Actually in Sabah, there were no Malays. You were either Bajau, or Murut, or Orang Sungai. The closest to Malays were the Brunei Malays because they were originally from Brunei before settling in Sabah". Not Malays full stop. The Nut Graph. 22 November 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  45. ^ Languages of Malaysia (Sabah). Ethnologue. Retrieved on 4 May 2007
  46. ^ a b Caldarola, Carlo (ed.) (1982). Religion and Societies: Asia and the Middle East. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-082353-0. 
  47. ^ Regina Lim (2008). Federal-State Relations in Sabah, Malaysia: The Berjaya Administration, 1976-85. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-981-230-812-2. Retrieved 14 December 2012. 
  48. ^ "'I processed thousands of ICs for Sabah illegals'". Malaysiakini. 28 February 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2014. 
  49. ^ "Asean Forecast Vol 5 No. 8: August 1985: Sabah - A New Story Elections And Its Aftermath". Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  50. ^ SABAH SELECTED FACTS AND FIGURES, Institute for Development Studies
  51. ^ Sabah: Visitors Arrival by Nationality 2006, Sabah Tourism Board. Accessed 4 August 2007.
  52. ^ "Kinabalu Park". Retrieved 11 August 2009. 
  53. ^ "About Sabah Wildlife Department". Retrieved 12 November 2007. 
  54. ^ "Sunset Music Fest on the Tip of Borneo". TTGmice. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  55. ^ "Federation of Sabah Manufacturers (FSM)". 11 September 1984. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  56. ^ Sabah Ports Authority
  57. ^ [1], Malaysia Census 2010 Report. 30 April 2011.
  58. ^ "Outline Perspective of Sabah", Institute for Development Studies (Sabah). URL accessed 7 May 2006
  59. ^ "Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2010 (Updated: 17/10/2011)". 17 October 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  60. ^ "Malaysia: The Millennium Development Goals at 2010". Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  61. ^ Mat, Nordin (26 July 2010). "No hidden agenda, says Masa". Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  62. ^ "Sabah: Of cars and cabotage | Industry | Sabah". Oxford Business Group. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  63. ^ "Sabah: Year in Review 2011 | Economy | Sabah". Oxford Business Group. Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  64. ^ Senarai ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri Sabah, Accessed 4 October 2008.
  65. ^ Regina Lim (2008). Federal-state Relations in Sabah, Malaysia: The Berjaya Administration, 1976-85. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-981-230-812-2. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  66. ^ Boon Kheng Cheah (2002). Malaysia: the making of a nation. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 63–. ISBN 978-981-230-175-8. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  67. ^ Daljit Singh; Kin Wah Chin; Institute of Southeast Asian Studies (2004). Southeast Asian Affairs. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-981-230-238-0. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  68. ^ Frederik Holst (23 April 2012). Ethnicization and Identity Construction in Malaysia. CRC Press. pp. 48–. ISBN 978-1-136-33059-9. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  69. ^ "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics, 2010". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  70. ^ Oxford Business Group. The Report: Sabah 2011. Oxford Business Group. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-1-907065-36-1. Retrieved 26 May 2013. 
  71. ^ Agreement concerning certain overseas officers serving in Sabah and Sarawak (1965)
  73. ^ "exhibition_details.htm". Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  74. ^ EnglandFC Match Data
  75. ^ Raymer, Robert (November 2011). "The Magic Rise and Tragic Fall of Matlan Marjan". Esquire Malaysia. Nov 2011 (The Against All Odds Issue): 127–130 
  76. ^ "No charges against Sabah six". Bernama. 14 July 1995. 
  77. ^ "Four Sabah soccer players banished to remote area". Bernama. 4 October 1995. 
  78. ^ Malaysian Business, Issues 1-6. University of California: New Straits Times Press (Malaysia). 1996. Retrieved 15 November 2012 
  79. ^ "Dingo Media The Lingering Eye". Retrieved 14 November 2012. 
  80. ^ C.Buckley: A School History of Sabah, London, Macmillan & Co. Ltd., 1968
  81. ^ Robert Oliver Tilman (1976). In Quest of Unity: The Centralization Theme in Malaysian Federal-State Relations, 1957-75. Issue 39 of Occasional paper. Institute of Southeast Asia. p. 46. Retrieved 17 November 2012 
  82. ^ Johan M. Padasian: Sabah History in pictures (1881–1981), Sabah State Government, 1981
  83. ^ "M.G.G. Pillai". URL last accessed on 13 January 2008
  84. ^ White, Cassie (11 September 2010). "Gillard unveils major frontbench shake-up". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 30 September 2010. 
  85. ^ Gillard, Julia MP (11 September 2010). "Prime Minister announces new Ministry" (Press release). Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  86. ^ Panellist: Penny Wong | Q&A | ABC TV. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  87. ^ Penny Wong - Australian Labor Party. Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  88. ^ Tanya Plibersek elected deputy Labor leader, Penny Wong re-elected to lead Labor in Senate - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation). (2013-10-14). Retrieved on 2014-04-12.
  89. ^ Tet Loi, Chong (2002), 'The Hakkas of Sabah: A Survey on Their Impact on the Modernization of the Bornean Malaysian State', Sabah Theological Seminary, pg. 237-pg.241, ISBN 983-40840-0-5
  90. ^ Ruben Sario; Julie S. Alipala; Ed General (17 September 2008). "Sulu sultan’s 'heirs' drop Sabah claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  91. ^ Aning, Jerome (23 April 2009). "Sabah legislature refuses to tackle RP claim". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 27 February 2013. 

External links[edit]