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SQL*Plus is the most basic Oracle Database utility, with a basic command-line interface, commonly used by users, administrators, and programmers.

Command types[edit]

SQL*Plus understands five categories of text:[1]

  1. SQL statements
  2. PL/SQL blocks
  3. SQL*Plus internal commands, for example:
    1. environment control commands such as SET
    2. environment monitoring commands such as SHOW
  5. External commands prefixed by the ! char

Scripts can include all of these components.

An Oracle programmer in the appropriately configured software environment can launch SQL*Plus, for example, by entering:

 $ sqlplus scott/tiger 

where the Oracle user scott has the password tiger. SQL*Plus then presents a prompt with the default form of:


Interactive use can then start by entering a SQL statement (terminated by a semicolon), a PL/SQL block, or another command. For example:

 SQL> SELECT 'Hello world' AS example FROM dual;  EXAMPLE -------------------------------- Hello world 


The first version of SQL*Plus was called UFI ("User Friendly Interface"). UFI appeared in Oracle database releases up to Version 4.

After Oracle programmers had added new features to UFI, its name became Advanced UFI. The name "Advanced UFI" changed to "SQL*Plus" with the release of the version 5 of Oracle.[2]

As of August 2013, the product continues to bear the name SQL*Plus.


Graphical interfaces from Oracle or third parties have diminished the proportion of Oracle database end-users who depend on the SQL*Plus environment. Oracle shops typically continue to use SQL*Plus scripts for batch updating or simple reports.[citation needed]

Oracle Corporation's wrappers/gui-fications/replacements for SQL*Plus include:

Oracle 11g[edit]

Starting from Oracle database 11g, iSqlplus (web based) and sqlplus graphical GUI no longer ship with Oracle database software.[7] The command-line SQL*Plus interface continues in use, mostly[citation needed] for non-interactive scripting or for administrative purposes. The Server Manager Command Line -a replacement of SQL*DBA- is obsolete and SQL*plus 8i and later allows the user to issue statements like STARTUP and SHUTDOWN when connected as SYSDBA. Server Manager 7.1 introduced the command CONNECT / AS SYSDBA to replace CONNECT INTERNAL.[8] SQL*plus 8i and later allows the use of CONNECT / AS SYSDBA


Other vendors have made their software somewhat compatible with SQL*Plus script commands or offer a SQL*Plus mode of operation. Relevant products include TOAD from Quest Software.[citation needed]



SQL*Plus-internal variables, accessible within an SQL*Plus session, include:

Supplementary software[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "SQL*Plus at orafaq.com". Archived from the original on 2007-11-09. Retrieved 2007-11-26. 
  2. ^ Oracle Insights (1st ed.). 2004. p. 35. ISBN 978-1590593875. Retrieved March 18, 2014. 
  3. ^ Evans, Robert (2008-10-01). "The SQL*Plus Worksheet". Cardiff University. Retrieved 2008-11-21. "Oracle's SQL*Plus Worksheet is a straight-forward, easy-to-use, graphical user interface for SQL." 
  4. ^ "ISQLPlus". Oracle FAQ. 2008-02-29. Retrieved 2008-11-21. "iSQLPlus (iSQL*Plus) is a web-based utility similar to the SQL*Plus command line utility for executing SQL and PL/SQL commands (available up to Oracle 10gR2)." 
  5. ^ "Oracle SQL Developer 1.5: Feature List". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2008-11-21. "The SQL*Plus commands supported by Oracle SQL Developer SQL Worksheet are listed [...]" 
  6. ^ "Oracle Application Express". Oracle Corporation. Retrieved 2008-11-21. "SQL Workshop provides tools to enable you to view and manage database objects from a Web browser. Use SQL Commands to run SQL and PL/SQL statements. ..." 
  7. ^ Deprecated Components in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), retrieve by 25-Jun-2009
  8. ^ [1] Oracle 7 doc, 1994
  9. ^ Alapati, Sam R. (2008). "4". Expert Oracle Database 11g Administration. Apress. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-1-4302-1015-3. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
  10. ^ Roshak, Natalka (2005-11-06). "Spice up your SQL Scripts with Variables". Oracle FAQ. Retrieved 2009-07-29. "& and && indicate substitution variables in SQL*Plus scripts or commands." 
  11. ^ Nyffenegger, René. "Using bind variables in SQL*Plus". René Nyffenegger's collection of things on the web. Retrieved 2009-07-29. "In SQL*Plus, a bind variable is declared with variable [...] The value of the bind variable can then be printed with print" 

External links[edit]