S-400 (SAM)

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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf SAM.png
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
TypeMobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service28 April 2007[1]
Used by Russia
Production history
DesignerAlmaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
ManufacturerFakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Specifications

Operational
range
400 km (40N6 missile)

250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96 missile)

 
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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 Triumf SAM.png
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
TypeMobile surface-to-air missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service28 April 2007[1]
Used by Russia
Production history
DesignerAlmaz/Antei Concern of Air Defence (PVO Kontsern)
ManufacturerFakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Specifications

Operational
range
400 km (40N6 missile)

250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96 missile)

9M96
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Place of origin Russia
Production history
Variants9M96, 9M96E and 9M96E2
Specifications (9M96[2])

Propellantsolid propellant rocket motor
Operational
range
40 kilometres (25 mi)[2]
Flight ceiling30 km
Boost timecold launch ejection system
SpeedMach 5.0
Guidance
system
inertial guidance with radio command corrections
Steering
system
gas dynamic flight control system
40N6
TypeSurface-to-air missile
Place of origin Russia
Production history
Variants40N6
Specifications (40N6[2])

Propellantsolid propellant rocket motor
Operational
range
400 kilometres (250 mi)
Flight ceiling185 km[3]
Boost timecold launch ejection system
SpeedMach 12.0
Guidance
system
inertial guidance with radio command corrections
Steering
system
gas dynamic flight control system

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 «Триумф»; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as S-300PMU-3, is a new generation anti-aircraft weapon system developed by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It is currently in limited service with the Russian Armed Forces.

The S-400 uses three different missiles to cover its entire performance envelope. These are the extremely long range 40N6, long range 48N6 and medium range 9M96 missile. Each one has different capabilities.

Development[edit source | edit]

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1990s. The system was formally announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1999. On 12 February 1999, the first tests were performed at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan which were reported successful. As a result of this, the S-400 was scheduled for deployment in the Russian army in 2001.[4]

In 2003 it first became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment, but in August two high-ranking military officials expressed concerns that the S-400 was being tested using 'obsolete' interceptors from the S-300P and concluded that it was not ready for production.[4]

Finally the completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM interceptor missile.[5][6]

Structure[edit source | edit]

Missiles[edit source | edit]

Deployment[edit source | edit]

A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[12] On May 21, 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by July 1, 2007[13] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[14]

On August 6, 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast' near the town of Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[15]

On February 8, 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia will be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the more technologically advanced S-400. Russian military experts expect that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020.[16]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–2015. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400's.[17]

On March 17, 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems has been put into combat service.[18]

On August 26, 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling on Russian territory.[12]

In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defence Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles.[19] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[20]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems in February 2012 and these went into operational status in April 2012.[21][22] One S-400 division is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka.[23]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) is operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[24] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in Eastern Military district.[25]

Foreign interest[edit source | edit]

On August 23, 2007 RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Russia will not export the S-400 for the next few years.[26]

During the 2009 International Defence Industry Fair in Istanbul Turkey expressed interest in buying the system.[27]

Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran.[28]

On August 24, 2009, RIA Novosti reported that their sources indicated that Belarus had submitted a formal request for two battalions of S-400 systems.[29]

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 system is part of a two billion dollar arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. As of March 2010, this was still under negotiation. The Saudis want to buy twelve systems, each of eight launchers. The Saudis were trying to buy the more modern S-400, but the Russians reportedly only wanted to sell the older S-300.[30][31]

South Korea is developing a simplified version of the S-400 called M-SAM Cheolmae-2 with the help of Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales.[32] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[33] and fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[34] LIG Nex1 will provide the missiles.[35]

The Russian Ministry of Defence has stated that the S-400 is for the Russian Armed Forces only; it will not be exported.[24]

Operators[edit source | edit]

Current:

Potential:

See also[edit source | edit]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ http://www.s400.ru/
  2. ^ a b c "S-400 Triumf (SA-21 'Growler') (Russian Federation), Defensive weapons". Jane's Information Group. February 11, 2010. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  3. ^ http://armstass.su/?page=article&aid=84164&cid=25
  4. ^ a b "S-400 (SA-20 Triumf)". MissileThreat.com. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  5. ^ "Russia: New S-400 Air Defense System Coming Soon". Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules. April 4, 2001. 
  6. ^ "Russia Trumpets New S-400 Missile System". BBC Monitoring. March 23, 2001. 
  7. ^ http://www.dtig.org/docs/SA-21.pdf
  8. ^ http://nvo.ng.ru/armament/2008-02-29/4_chastokol.html
  9. ^ http://topwar.ru/11220-raketu-dalnego-radiusa-deystviya-dlya-s-400-sozdadut-v-2012-godu.html
  10. ^ http://indrus.in/articles/2012/12/18/russia_to_roll_out_new_hypersonic_missiles_21107.html
  11. ^ http://missilethreat.com/defense-systems/s-500/
  12. ^ a b Denisov, Anton (August 26, 2008). "Russia deploys S-400 air defense systems in Far East". RIA Novosti (Moscow, Russia). Retrieved December 9, 20102009-08-26. "A regular S-400 battalion comprises at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post." 
  13. ^ "S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1". RIA Novosti. Moscow, Russia. May 21, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  14. ^ "Systém S-400 připraven k obraně Moskvy" [The S-400 is ready to defend Moscow]. RIA Novosti (in Czech). Moscow, Russia: The Internet Archive Wayback Machine. May 31, 2007. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "...S-400 will be given to full combat readiness to defend Moscow and central Russia (near the town of Elektrostal in the Moscow region) on 1 July 2007." 
  15. ^ "Russia to Belarus fearing of Ukraine". Charter97.org. April 15, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "...sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command" 
  16. ^ "Russia moves to longer-range interceptors". United Press International. February 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "Russian military experts expect the S-400 to be the backbone of the country's missile defenses through at least 2020." 
  17. ^ "Оружия не хватит – Для переоснащения армии нет средств" [The Army cannot afford enough weapons for retooling]. Vedomosti (in Russian). August 8, 2008. Retrieved December 9, 2010. "LG-2015 provides for... the purchase of... 18 anti-aircraft missile battalions of S-400" 
  18. ^ "Second S-400 air defense regiment put into service in Russia". RIA Novosti. March 17, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  19. ^ Rian.ru Defense Russia's second S-400 missile unit enters service, 16 February 2011.
  20. ^ Rian.ru Russia to deploy modern missile defense systems on disputed Kuril Islands, 15 February 2011
  21. ^ http://rusnavy.com/news/navy/index.php?ELEMENT_ID=14816
  22. ^ Lenta.ru Балтийский флот заменит ЗРК С-200 на "Триумфы" (The Baltic fleet will replace the S-200 with the "Triumf"). 11 December 2011
  23. ^ http://warfare.be/?lang=&linkid=1699&catid=264
  24. ^ a b "Russia to induct three S-400 battalions in 2012". Industry News. Air Force Technology. 19 March 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  25. ^ http://www.en.rian.ru/mlitary_news/20120609/173939294.html
  26. ^ "Russia unlikely to export S-400 SAM systems any time soon". RIA Novosti. August 23, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Turkey hopes to buy S-400 air defense systems from Russia". RIA Novosti. April 27, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2010. 
  28. ^ "Iran's army to be equipped with S-400". PressTV. September 5, 2007. Retrieved December 10, 2010. "Vice Chairman of Russia's State Duma Vladimir Zhirinovsky has urged the fast delivery of the magnificent S-400 anti-aircraft missile systems to Iran." 
  29. ^ Belarus asks Russia for S-400 SAM systems by 2010 – source
  30. ^ Defpro.Daily Saudi Arabia signs 2 billion dollar weapons deal with Russia, 1 Sep 2009.
  31. ^ upi.com Riyadh mulls big Russian missile buy, 22 March 2010.
  32. ^ New Contract: ALMAZ Corp. creates Multi-functional radar for South Korea
  33. ^ http://www.janes.com/articles/Janes-Missiles-And-Rockets-2007/Samsung-Thales-begins-M-SAM-radar-production.html
  34. ^ http://www.doosan.com/doosanmottrol/en/products/defence/protection.page?
  35. ^ http://www.lignex1.com:8001/eng/business/business02_03_04.jsp
  36. ^ http://warfare.be/?lang=&linkid=1699&catid=264
  37. ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2012/02/21/s400/
  38. ^ a b c http://ng.by/ru/issues?art_id=54579
  39. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20091126/195628071.html
  40. ^ http://lenta.ru/news/2011/02/18/rockets/
  41. ^ http://tvzvezda.ru/news/forces/content/201212221329-i9ct.htm
  42. ^ http://www.defaiya.com/defaiyaonline/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=121&Itemid=2&lang=en
  43. ^ a b http://en.tengrinews.kz/military/7244/
  44. ^ http://vntime.vn/QuocTe-QuanSu/KhiTai-QuanSu/2012/2/1/Viet-Nam-co-the-mua-S-400-cua-Nga-731a8414.html
  45. ^ http://quocphong.baodatviet.vn/Home/QPCN/Viet-Nam-co-the-mua-S400-cua-Nga/20122/189216.datviet
  46. ^ http://www.azatutyun.am/content/article/24314049.html
  47. ^ a b http://www.armyrecognition.com/january_2012_army_military_defense_industry_news/china_wants_to_buy_s-400_ground_to_air_defence_missile_system_from_russia_1901121.html
  48. ^ [1]

External links[edit source | edit]