Ryerson University

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Ryerson University
MottoMente et Artificio
Motto in EnglishWith mind and Skill
EndowmentC$ 106.3 million (2013-14)[1]
ChancellorLawrence Bloomberg
PresidentSheldon Levy
ProvostMohamed Lachemi
Academic staff1,753
Admin. staff1,656
LocationToronto, Ontario, Canada
CampusUrban, (21 acres or 8.5 ha)[3]
Former namesRyerson Institute of Technology, Ryerson Polytechnic Institute
Sports teamRyerson Rams
MascotEggy the Ram
Ryerson University Logo.png
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Coordinates: 43°39′27.85″N 79°22′48.64″W / 43.6577361°N 79.3801778°W / 43.6577361; -79.3801778

Ryerson University
MottoMente et Artificio
Motto in EnglishWith mind and Skill
EndowmentC$ 106.3 million (2013-14)[1]
ChancellorLawrence Bloomberg
PresidentSheldon Levy
ProvostMohamed Lachemi
Academic staff1,753
Admin. staff1,656
LocationToronto, Ontario, Canada
CampusUrban, (21 acres or 8.5 ha)[3]
Former namesRyerson Institute of Technology, Ryerson Polytechnic Institute
Sports teamRyerson Rams
MascotEggy the Ram
Ryerson University Logo.png

Ryerson University is a public research university located in downtown Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Its urban campus surrounds the Yonge-Dundas Square, located at the busiest intersection in downtown Toronto. The university has a focus on applied, career-oriented education. The majority of its buildings are in the blocks northeast of the Yonge-Dundas Square in Toronto's Garden District. Ryerson's business school, Ted Rogers School of Management is on the southwest end of the Yonge-Dundas Square, located on Bay Street, slightly north of Toronto's Financial District and is attached to the Toronto Eaton Centre. The university's most recent expansion, the Mattamy Athletic Centre, is located in the historical Maple Leaf Gardens hockey arena, the original home of the Toronto Maple Leafs. The university is composed of 36,000+ undergraduate students, 2,300+ graduate students, and 65,000+ yearly certificate and continuing education enrollments.[4] The university is ranked 4th in Ontario and 10th in Canada by student enrollment.[5]

Ryerson University is home to Canada's largest undergraduate business school, the Ted Rogers School of Management,[6] and Canada's third largest undergraduate engineering school, the Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science, as well as the Faculty of Arts, Faculty of Communication & Design, Faculty of Community Services, and the Faculty of Science.

In addition to offering full-time and part-time undergraduate and graduate programs leading to Bachelor's, Master's and Doctoral degrees, the university also offers part-time degrees, distance education and certificates through the G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education.[7]


The Normal School on Gould St. 1856
The Normal School Today 2009
Egerton Ryerson (1803-1882)

In 1852 at the core of the present main campus, the historic St. James Square, Egerton Ryerson founded Ontario's first teacher training facility, the Toronto Normal School.[8] It also housed the Department of Education and the Museum of Natural History and Fine Arts, which became the Royal Ontario Museum. An agricultural laboratory on the site led to the later founding of the Ontario Agricultural College and the University of Guelph. St. James Square went through various other educational uses before housing a namesake of its original founder.

Egerton Ryerson was a leading educator, politician, and Methodist minister.[9] He is known as the father of Ontario's public school system.[10] He is also a founder of the first publishing company in Canada in 1829, The Methodist Book and Publishing House, which was renamed The Ryerson Press in 1919 and today is part of McGraw-Hill Ryerson, Canadian publisher of educational and professional books, which still bears Egerton Ryerson's name for its Canadian operations.

The Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute was created in 1945 on the former site of the Toronto Normal School at St James Square, bounded by Gerrard, Church, Yonge and Gould. The Gothic-Romanesque building was designed by architects Thomas Ridout and Frederick William Cumberland in 1852.[11] The site had been used as a Royal Canadian Air Force training facility during World War II.[8] The institute was a joint venture of the federal and provincial government to train ex-servicemen and women for re-entry into civilian life.

The Ryerson Institute of Technology was founded in 1948, inheriting the staff and facilities of the Toronto Training and Re-establishment Institute. In 1966, its name was changed to Ryerson Polytechnical Institute.

Ryerson became a university-degree granting institution in 1971 accredited by both provincial government legislation and by the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC).[12] That year, it also became a member of the Council of Ontario Universities (COU).[13] In 1992, Ryerson became Toronto’s second school of engineering following accreditation from the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).[14]

In 1993 Ryerson received approval to also grant graduate degrees (master's and doctorates). The same year it changed its name to Ryerson Polytechnic University, reflecting a stronger emphasis on research associated with graduate programs and its expansion from being a university offering undergraduate degrees. Students occupied the university's administration offices in March 1997, protesting escalating tuition hikes.[11]

In June 2001, the school assumed its present name as Ryerson University. Today, Ryerson University offers programs in chemical, civil, mechanical, industrial, electrical, biomedical and computer engineering. The B.Eng biomedical engineering program is the first standalone undergraduate biomedical engineering program in Canada. The university is also one of only two Canadian universities to offer a program in aerospace engineering accredited by the Canadian Engineering Accreditation Board (CEAB).


Faculties of Ryerson University
  • Faculty of Arts
  • Faculty of Communication & Design
  • Faculty of Community Services
  • Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science
  • Faculty of Science
  • Ted Rogers School of Management
  • The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education
  • Yeates School of Graduate Studies

Ted Rogers School of Management[edit]

The Ted Rogers School of Management (TRSM) is an AACSB accredited business school at Ryerson University. Located on Bay Street near Toronto's financial district, the TRSM offers various programs in a variety of business disciplines. The school houses Canada's largest undergraduate management program, along with several graduate programs.[15][16][17] The school's undergraduate Bachelor of Commerce (BComm) programs are grouped into:

The Ted Rogers School of Management is a recognized leader in entrepreneurship education in Canada and houses the Ryerson University Entrepreneurship Program, one of the largest entrepreneurship programs in North America.[18]

Graduate studies consist of an MBA with a global focus, and an MBA in the Management of Technology and Innovation. The school also offers a Master of Management Science (MMSc) in the Management of Technology and Innovation.

The acceptance rate of Ted Rogers School of Management's MBA program is 25%, the second lowest of 39 Canadian MBA programs ranked by Financial Post in March 2012.[19]

In the 2009-2010 academic year, Ryerson introduced two new majors to the Business Management program: Law & Business, and Global Management Studies. The Global Management Studies major is a successor of the Management major, which was last offered in 2010-2011.[20]

In the fall of 2013, Ted Rogers School of Management is expected to launch the new School of Accounting and Finance. The design of the new school reflects TRSM’s on-going commitment to providing high quality programs with a rigorous curriculum, entry standards, and a supportive staff and faculty.[21] Accounting and Finance majors continue to be offered through the Ted Rogers School of Business Management, and are set to expand in 2013.

The business programs previously housed on campus in the "Business Building", moved into its new facilities after a $15 million donation from Ted Rogers. The school is located within a new wing of the Toronto Eaton Centre at the southeast corner of Bay and Dundas Streets. The school occupies three floors of the nine-floor wing (two floors are occupied by retail uses, with an above-grade parking garage occupying the remaining three storeys). The integration of the Ryerson faculty with commercial uses in the same building has been praised as an innovative solution for the downtown university.[22]

The school received national notoriety when one of its professors (James Norrie) insulted the cast of the Dragons' Den during the final negotiations stage of a successful pitch by students of the school. The deal ultimately fell through because of the professor's actions. The same professor would later be banned from campus and would sue the university as well.[23]

Faculty of Arts[edit]

Ryerson Image Centre with Devonian pond

The Faculty of Arts comprises ten humanities and social science departments and plays a unique dual role in the university. The faculty offers:

Departments in the Faculty of Arts
  • Arts and Contemporary Studies
  • Criminology
  • Economics
  • English
  • Geography
  • History
  • Languages, Literatures, and Cultures
  • Philosophy
  • Politics and Public Administration
  • Psychology
  • Sociology

Faculty of Communication & Design[edit]

The Faculty of Communication & Design is composed of eight schools, offering undergraduate and/or graduate degrees of major study.

Schools in the Faculty of Communication & Design
  • RTA School of Media
  • School of Image Arts
  • School of Interior Design
  • School of Fashion
  • School of Graphic Communications Management
  • School of Journalism
  • School of Professional Communication
  • Theatre School

Additional graduate programs of study are available in documentary media, journalism, media production, photographic preservation and collections management and professional communications. The faculty also houses the Rogers Communications Centre, which provides an innovative and technical environment to study and research different aspects of media and society.

The Ryerson Theatre School is located at Gerrard and Victoria Streets.

This also includes a new gallery and museum, the Ryerson Image Centre, which also houses the School of Image Arts.

Faculty of Community Services[edit]

Ryerson’s Faculty of Community Services offers multi-disciplinary programs in health, early childhood studies, social justice and community development.

The faculty incorporates health and safety programs under the School of Occupational and Public Health. The School of Occupational and Public Health (SOPHe) is considered to be a well-known leader in injury and disease prevention education. Ryerson University is the only school that offers a degree program in occupational health and safety in the province of Ontario. Certificate programs in health and safety can be completed through the Chang School of continuing education.

The faculty also houses the Midwifery Education Program (MEP), which will celebrate its 20th anniversary in 2013. The Ryerson MEP site is part of the longest-running consortium of its kind in Canada (with sister-sites at Laurentian University and McMaster University).

In keeping with Ryerson's brand of a career-focused education, students partner with various mentors, supervisors, practitioners and professionals to ensure a career-relevant experience is provided, in addition to the theoretical instructions commonly offered in a classroom setting.

The University also hosts a large nursing faculty, Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, named after a World War II nurse.

Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science[edit]

The George Vari Engineering and Computing Centre on Church St.

The Ryerson Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science (formerly Faculty of Engineering, Architecture & Science) is one of the largest engineering faculties in Canada, with 4,100 undergraduate students enrolled in 13 bachelor programs, and 480 graduate students in six master’s and four doctoral programs. In September 2006, FEAS will introduce two new master’s programs, and by 2007, there will be ten master’s programs in all. Ryerson’s Aerospace Computational Laboratory is a node for the High Performance Computational Virtual Laboratory for the Greater Toronto Area. The HPCVL is an interuniversity high-speed computation network which acts as a virtual supercomputer, providing the intensive computation power needed in the solution of complex problems in engineering and other disciplines.

The Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science grants Bachelor of Architectural Science, Bachelor of Engineering degrees in 17 programs. Students can choose to specialize in the following disciplines: aerospace engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, architecture, project management and building science.[24]

The Faculty of Engineering and Architectural Science offers graduate programs in aerospace engineering, biomedical engineering, architecture, building science, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer networks, computer science, electrical engineering, molecular physics, environmental applied science and mechanical engineering.

Ryerson University’s Department of Architectural Science is housed in a building located at 325 Church Street designed by the prominent Canadian architect Ronald Thom (Ryersonian). It offers a program in architecture accredited by the Canadian Architectural Certification Board at both the bachelor level (B.Arch.) and the master's level (M.Arch.).[25]

The Centre for Computing and Engineering opened in September 2004. It is a state-of-the-art science, technology, and research facility spanning almost an entire city block in downtown Toronto. The building was renamed the George Vari Engineering and Computing Centre in November 2005. Ryerson researchers in the engineering and science disciplines have earned prestigious Premier’s Research Excellence Awards (PREA), Canada Research Chairs, NSERC Industrial Research Chair. A biomedical engineering program started at Ryerson in fall 2008 is the first such program in Canada.

The faculty hosts the Centre for Urban Energy. CUE is co-sponsored by Hydro One, Ontario Power Authority and Toronto Hydro. The centre focuses on energy research and urban energy challenges.

Faculty of Science[edit]

On June 29, 2011 it was announced that the Faculty of Science had been approved by the Ryerson University Senate, and is the newest faculty at Ryerson University in about 40 years. The Faculty of Science will consist of the four founding departments - Chemistry & Biology, Physics, Mathematics, and Computer Science.[26]

Ryerson University's Faculty of Science offers a Bachelor of Science (BSc) degree in areas of applied mathematics, biology, biomedical science, chemistry, computer science, financial mathematics, and medical physics. Graduate studies consist of areas in biomolecular, biomedical, computational and mathematical studies.

Continuing Education[edit]

Heaslip House

The G. Raymond Chang School of Continuing Education is the school responsible for continuing education within Ryerson University. It offers certificate programs, degree credit courses, and certificate and interest courses. It is one of Canada’s largest providers of university-based adult education, with approximately 70,000 annual enrollments.[27]

Digital Media Zone[edit]

Although not a faculty in the traditional sense, the DMZ is an incubator for startups from Ryerson and around the world. Since its inception in 2010, the DMZ has incubated over a 100 startups. It also has a Digital Specialization Programme and a Fellowship programme where skills are imparted.[28]

Campus expansion[edit]

Recently, the university has been undertaking the largest campus expansion in its history, with six new buildings constructed since 2000 and two additional constructions announced.[29][30] In January 2008, Ryerson acquired $40 million worth of real-estate as part of its expansion efforts. The most notable acquisition being three properties on Yonge Street, including the former Sam the Record Man store, Future Shop and World of Posters for the new home of the Student Learning Centre.[31] On February 2013, Ryerson announced two parking lots acquisition from Infrastructure Ontario for $32 million to meet future growth. The first is located at 202 Jarvis, a 5,400 square metre lot at the corner of Jarvis and Dundas Streets. The smaller lot is a 750 square-metre plot located at 136 Dundas Street East and Mutual Streets. The two sites will operate as a parking lot until capital funding is available. There has been a strong desire among students, faculty, and administrators alike to have Gould Street closed between Yonge and Church in order to provide greater safety for pedestrians on campus. Ryerson Theatre, which is one of the largest theatres in downtown Toronto with over 1200 seats has also had extensive renovations completed in the past five years. The theatre is home to several red carpet premieres as part of the Toronto International Film Festival.

Mattamy Athletic Centre[edit]

On December 1, 2009, Ryerson University's President Sheldon Levy announced that the school would acquire and renovate the historic Maple Leaf Gardens for use as a university athletic facility, at an estimated cost of $60 million. The cost was split three ways between the Canadian federal government, Ryerson University and Loblaws.[32][33] Known as the Mattamy Athletic Centre, the facility includes sports venues and classrooms. Beneath it is a Loblaws supermaket, a Joe Fresh store, an LCBO store, and parking. Ryerson and Loblaws each own their own space.[34]


In November 2005, Professor Arne Kislenko won TVOntario's first Best Lecturer Series. In 2006, Ryerson University had two professors in the semi-finals for TVO's second Best Lecturer Competition. Philosophy professor Dr. James Cunningham, and radio and television arts professor Dana Lee were semi-finalists. In 2006, Greg Inwood, professor in the department of Politics and Public Administration, was awarded the prestigious Donald Smiley Prize for his book Continentalizing Canada: The Politics and Legacy of the Macdonald Royal Commission. Criminal justice history and international relations professor Peter Vronsky published a bestselling history of serial homicide Serial Killers: The Method and Madness of Monsters and more recently a controversial history of Canada's first modern battle, Ridgeway: The American Fenian Invasion and the 1866 Battle That Made Canada.

Elizabeth Wyn Wood's Bas-relief at Ryerson University in Toronto
Elizabeth Wyn Wood's Bas-relief of a Goalie at Ryerson University in Toronto


Ryerson University Library

The Ryerson Library collection consists of over 500,000 books, 3,700 print journal titles and over $2 million of electronic resources, including approximately 23,000 e-journals, approximately over 90,000 e-books, databases and indexes, geospatial data, and catalogued websites or electronic documents. Most of the electronic resources can be accessed remotely by Ryerson community members with internet access, although authentication of Ryerson Library registration is required for access to all commercial resources. The library acquires materials to support the curriculum taught at the university and to support the research needs of faculty. All hard copy materials are housed in the library building at Gould and Victoria Streets.

The 11-storey tower was built in 1974, and is a classic example of Brutalist architecture. The library buildings also holds administrative office, the Nursing Collaborative and until 2007 the urban and regional planning program. Urban and regional planning vacated the building in 2007, leaving more space for the existing library.

As part of the Ryerson University Master Plan, the library is expected to either relocate or be the subject of extensive renovations in the next several years. On January 18, 2008 the university announced the acquisition of properties including the former site of Sam the Record Man which will allow expansion of the library to a prime Yonge Street location. To improve study space, the entire fourth floor of the library underwent construction during the 2008 academic year. The renovation included the addition of lounges, a graduate reading room, and LCD panels.[35]

Reputation and rankings[edit]

University rankings
Canadian rankings
Maclean's Comprehensive[36]10

In 2009, the university ranked second in Ontario for first-choice applications from graduating high school students, receiving 11 percent of Ontario's total 84,300 admission requests.[37][38]

Maclean's In Macleans 2014 university rankings Ryerson placed 10 out of 15 in the "Comprehensive" category.[39] Ryerson placed 5th in the comprehensive category on the National Reputational Ranking.[40]

Research Infosource ranks Ryerson in the 27th position in its list of Canada's Top 50 Research Universities 2012.[41] Ryerson ranked second best in the "Undergraduate" category.[42] The Globe and Mail newspaper's Canadian University Report 2013 classifies Ryerson as a Large University (over 22,000 students) where it was graded "A-" in the "Quality of Teaching and Learning" category.[43]

Ryerson ranked first in the undergraduate category for research publication intensity by Research Infosource 2011.[44]

The University Ranking by Academic Performance[45] ranked Ryerson 28th overall in Canada for 2011, and 15th in Canada in "Engineering, Computing, & Technology".

Student life[edit]

Ryerson has 36,200 undergraduate students and 2,360 students in the masters and Ph.D programs.[2] A large number of students who attend the university are from within the Greater Toronto Area, but it also draws students from other countries.[46] The university provides on-campus housing for 850 students living in three residence buildings: 137 Bond Street; 240 Jarvis Street and Pitman Hall at 160 Mutual Street.[47]

Student media at the university include the campus radio station CKLN-FM and the student newspaper The Eyeopener. Students in the university's journalism program produce a second newspaper, The Ryersonian, and a biannual magazine, the Ryerson Review of Journalism.

Ryerson has the following Greek Letter Organization affiliations:

Noted alumni[edit]


  • Library Building
  • O'Keefe House
  • Formerly the Business Building - Victoria Building (VIC)
  • Ted Rogers School of Management (TRS)
  • Student Campus Centre (SCC)
  • Projects Office (PRO)
  • Research and Graduate Studies (GER)
  • University Advancement, Office of, University Scheduling
  • Campus Book Store (BKS)
  • Kerr Hall (KHN, KHE, KHS, KHW)
  • Sally Horsfall Eaton Centre for Studies in Community Health (SHE)
  • Monetary Times - Civil Engineering Building (MON)
  • Theatre School (THR)
  • Ryerson Athletic Centre (RAC)
  • Pitman Hall - Residence (PIT)
  • International Living/Learning Centre (ILC)
  • Jorgenson Hall (JOR)
  • School of Image Arts (IMA)
  • School of Interior Design (SID)
  • Architecture Building (ARC)
  • Eric Palin Hall (EPH)
  • Podium building (POD)
  • Co-operative Education (COP)
  • Campus Planning and Facilities (CPF)

As of fall 2008, Ryerson is the first university to use the AMC facilities (in 10 Dundas East) during the day for lectures.


A view of Ryerson University - note that only the buildings in the extreme foreground are part of the university

See also[edit]


  1. ^ http://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/about/governors/documents/Budget/AnnualBudget2013-14.pdf
  2. ^ a b c "Enrolment by university". Aucc.ca. 2014-02-26. Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  3. ^ "Ryerson University At a Glance". Retrieved 26 Feb 2014. 
  4. ^ "2011-2012 Figures". Aucc.ca. 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  5. ^ "The Directory of Canadian Universities - Ryerson University". Aucc.ca. 2011-02-25. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  6. ^ "Ryerson Undergraduate programs". Canadian Business Schools. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  7. ^ "Quick Facts". Retrieved 2007-05-06. 
  8. ^ a b "Archives & Special Collections". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  9. ^ "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online". Biographi.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  10. ^ Goldwin French. "The Father of Canadian Public Education - Egerton Ryerson". Ccheritage.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  11. ^ a b Pound, Richard W. (2005). 'Fitzhenry and Whiteside Book of Canadian Facts and Dates'. Fitzhenry and Whiteside. 
  12. ^ "Founding Year and Joining Year of AUCC Member Institutions" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  13. ^ B. Beaton (1948-09-16). "Ryerson University". Thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  14. ^ "Engineers Canada". Engineerscanada.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  15. ^ "Profile of Ryerson University Faculty of Business". Canadian Business Schools. 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  16. ^ "TED ROGERS SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT AT RYERSON UNIVERSITY | Media Advisory - Economic Confidence Being Rebuilt at the Spring 2009 Co-Investment Summit". Newswire.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  17. ^ "Ted Rogers School of Management - Ryerson University". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  18. ^ The Ryerson University Entrepreneurship Program is the largest undergraduate entrepreneurship program in Canada and
  19. ^ "Canadian MBA programs by the numbers". Financial Post. 2012-03-12. Retrieved 2013-12-13. 
  20. ^ "Ryerson University : 3rd SEMESTER". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  21. ^ "School of Accounting and Finance - Ryerson University". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2012-04-10. 
  22. ^ Hume, Christopher (2007-06-07). "Gardiner is belle of the ball". The Star (Toronto). Retrieved 2010-04-10. 
  23. ^ "Banned from campus, Prof. sues Ryerson". The Star (Toronto). 2011-05-19. 
  24. ^ Canadian Engineering Memorial Foundation - University List[dead link]
  25. ^ http://www.raic.org/architecture_architects/becoming_an_architect/education_e.htm Architecture Canada
  26. ^ [1][[{{{2}}}]] ([[:{{{1}}}:{{{2}}}|{{{1}}}]])
  27. ^ http://www.ryerson.ca/upo/statistics/ced-2012.html
  28. ^ http://digitalmediazone.ryerson.ca/
  29. ^ "News & Events - Ryerson University". Ryerson.ca. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  30. ^ "Pages 1 to 77 of 2008 03 31 Ryerson MP final-w cover-lll" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  31. ^ The Star (Toronto) http://www.thestar.com/printArticle/295281 |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 2010-04-10. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Maple Leaf Gardens deal means renewal". CBC News. 2009-12-01. [dead link]
  34. ^ "BBB Architects & Stadium Consultants International selected for the Ryerson University Sports and Recreation Centre at Maple Leaf Gardens". Ryerson University. 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-04-30. 
  35. ^ Ryerson Library - News[dead link]
  36. ^ "2014 Primarily Undergraduate University Ranking". Maclean's. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  37. ^ name="media.www.mcgilltribune.com"/
  38. ^ [2][dead link]
  39. ^ "2013 Comprehensive University Rankings – - Macleans OnCampus". Oncampus.macleans.ca. 2013-10-31. Retrieved 2014-02-01. 
  40. ^ http://oncampus.macleans.ca/education/tag/rankings/
  41. ^ http://www.researchinfosource.com/pdf/2013Top%2050%20RU.pdf
  42. ^ http://www.researchinfosource.com/media/2010ResearchUniversityofYearTable.pdf
  43. ^ "Canadian University Report 2013: Quality of teaching and learning". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 2012-10-23. 
  44. ^ http://www.newswire.ca/en/story/868983/canada-s-top-50-research-universities-raise-6-5-billion-in-total-research-income
  45. ^ http://www.urapcenter.org/2011/index.php
  46. ^ "The McGill Tribune - EDUCATION: Ont. applications up". Media.www.mcgilltribune.com. Retrieved 2011-03-09. 
  47. ^ http://www.rev.gov.on.ca/en/lists/itrp/6921.html Ontario University Residences list

External links[edit]