Russian ruble

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Russian ruble
Российский рубль (Russian)[1]
Banknote 5000 rubles (1997) front.jpgRouble coins.png
5,000 rubles (1997)Coins
ISO 4217 codeRUB
Central bankBank of Russia
 Websitewww.cbr.ru
Official user(s) Russia
Abkhazia Abkhazia
South Ossetia South Ossetia
Unofficial user(s) Belarus[2][3][4][5]
Inflation6.5%, 2013
 Source[1]
 MethodCPI
Subunit
 1/100kopeyka (копейка[6])
SymbolRUB
 kopeyka (копейка[6])коп. / к.
PluralThe language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Coins
 Freq. used10, 50 kopeks, 1, 2, 5, 10 rubles
 Rarely used1, 5 kopeks
Banknotes
 Freq. used50, 100, 500, 1000 rubles
 Rarely used5, 10, 5000 rubles
PrinterGoznak
 Websitewww.goznak.ru
MintMoscow Mint and Saint Petersburg Mint
 
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Russian ruble
Российский рубль (Russian)[1]
Banknote 5000 rubles (1997) front.jpgRouble coins.png
5,000 rubles (1997)Coins
ISO 4217 codeRUB
Central bankBank of Russia
 Websitewww.cbr.ru
Official user(s) Russia
Abkhazia Abkhazia
South Ossetia South Ossetia
Unofficial user(s) Belarus[2][3][4][5]
Inflation6.5%, 2013
 Source[1]
 MethodCPI
Subunit
 1/100kopeyka (копейка[6])
SymbolRUB
 kopeyka (копейка[6])коп. / к.
PluralThe language(s) of this currency belong(s) to the Slavic languages. There is more than one way to construct plural forms.
Coins
 Freq. used10, 50 kopeks, 1, 2, 5, 10 rubles
 Rarely used1, 5 kopeks
Banknotes
 Freq. used50, 100, 500, 1000 rubles
 Rarely used5, 10, 5000 rubles
PrinterGoznak
 Websitewww.goznak.ru
MintMoscow Mint and Saint Petersburg Mint

The ruble or rouble (Russian: рубль rublʹ, plural рубли rubli; see note on English spelling) (code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation and the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Formerly, the ruble was also the currency of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union before their dissolution. Belarus and Transnistria use currencies with the same name. The ruble is subdivided into 100 kopeks (sometimes transliterated kopecks, or copecks; Russian: копейка, kopéyka; plural: копейки, kopéyki). The ISO 4217 code is RUB or 643; the former code, RUR or 810, refers to the Russian ruble before the 1998 redenomination (1 RUB = 1000 RUR).

On December 11, 2013, the official symbol for the ruble became RUB, a Cyrillic letter er with a single added horizontal stroke,[7][8] though the abbreviation руб. is in wide use.

Etymology[edit]

According to the most popular version, the word "rouble" is derived from the Russian verb руби́ть (rubit'), meaning to chop.

Names of different denominations[edit]

In the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, several coins had individual names:

The amount of 10 roubles (in either bill or coin) is sometimes informally referred to as a chervonets. Historically, it was the name for the first Russian three-rouble gold coin issued for general circulation in 1701. The current meaning comes from the Soviet golden chervonets (сове́тский золото́й черво́нец), issued in 1923. It was equivalent to the pre-revolution 10 gold roubles. All these names are no longer in use, however. The practice of using the old kopek coin names for amounts in roubles is not very common today. In modern Russian slang only these names are used:

The sixth term derived from "пять кать" (five Catherines). Katya (Катя, Catherina), having been a slang name for the 100 rouble note in tsarist Russia, was used as the note had a picture of Catherine II on it.

The biggest denomination note, as of September 2009, is 5000 roubles, so all the higher amount nicknames refer to amount and not the coin or banknote.

Some of these definitions (chirik, poltos, pyatikatka, and kosar) come from Russian jail slang (Fenya), and are considered vulgar in daily speech.[citation needed]

Currency symbol[edit]

The "ruble" symbol used throughout the 17th century, composed of the Russian letters "Р" and "У".

A currency symbol was used for the ruble between the 16th century and the 18th century. The symbol consisted of the Russian letters "Р" (rotated by 90° counter-clockwise) and "У" (written on top of it). The symbol was placed over the amount number it belonged to.[9] This symbol, however, fell into disuse during the 19th century and onward.

The eventual winning Rouble sign design

No official symbol was used during the final years of the Empire, nor was one introduced in the Soviet Union. The characters R[10][11] and руб. were used and remain in use today, though they are not official.[12]

In July 2007, the Central Bank of Russia announced that it would decide on a symbol for the ruble and would test 13 symbols. This included the symbol РР (the initials of России Рубль "Russian ruble"), which has received preliminary approval from the Central Bank.[13] However, one more symbol, a Р with a horizontal stroke below the top similar to the Philippine peso sign, was proposed unofficially.[13] Proponents of the new sign claim that it is simple, recognizable and similar to other currency signs.[14][15][16] This symbol is also similar to the Armenian letter ք.

On December 11, 2013, the Central Bank of Russia approved the winner of the competition for the new ruble sign. The winning symbol, RUB, is now the official ruble sign.[17] As of 2/8/14, the Unicode Technical committee accepted 20BD as the Unicode code point for "RUBLE SIGN".

History[edit]

Five hundred rubles featuring Peter the Great and a personification of Mother Russia, 1912

First ruble, antiquity–31 December 1921[edit]

1898 Russian Empire one ruble bill, obverse

The ruble has been the Russian unit of currency for about 500 years. From 1710, the ruble was divided into 100 kopeks.

The amount of precious metal in a ruble varied over time. In a 1704 currency reform, Peter I standardized the ruble to 28 grams of silver. While ruble coins were silver, there were higher denominations minted of gold and platinum. By the end of the 18th century, the ruble was set to 4 zolotnik 21 dolya (almost exactly equal to 18 grams) of pure silver or 27 dolya (almost exactly equal to 1.2 grams) of pure gold, with a ratio of 15:1 for the values of the two metals. In 1828, platinum coins were introduced with 1 ruble equal to 77⅔ dolya (3.451 grams).

On 17 December 1885, a new standard was adopted which did not change the silver ruble but reduced the gold content to 1.161 grams, pegging the gold ruble to the French franc at a rate of 1 ruble = 4 francs. This rate was revised in 1897 to 1 ruble = 2⅔ francs (0.774 grams gold).

With the outbreak of the First World War, the gold standard peg was dropped and the ruble fell in value, suffering from hyperinflation in the early 1920s. With the founding of the Soviet Union in 1922, the Russian ruble was replaced by the Soviet ruble.

Soviet ruble in Russia, 1991–31 December 1997[edit]

Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, the ruble remained the currency of the Russian Federation. A new set of banknotes was issued in the name of Bank of Russia in 1993. During the period of hyperinflation of the early 1990s, the ruble was significantly devalued.

New ruble, 1 January 1998–[edit]

The ruble was redenominated on 1 January 1998, with one new ruble equaling 1000 old rubles. The redenomination was a purely psychological step that did not solve the fundamental economic problems faced by the Russian economy at the time, and the currency was devalued in August 1998 following the 1998 Russian financial crisis. The ruble lost 70% of its value against the U.S. dollar in the six months following this financial crisis.

By calculating the product of all six redenominations, it is seen that a pre-1921 ruble is equal to 2×10−16 current rubles.

In November 2004, the authorities of Dimitrovgrad (Ulyanovsk Oblast) erected a five-meter monument to the ruble.

On 23 November 2010, at a meeting of the Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and the Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, it was announced that Russia and China have decided to use their own national currencies for bilateral trade, instead of the U.S. dollar. The move is aimed to further improve relations between Beijing and Moscow and to protect their domestic economies during the Great Recession. The trading of the Chinese yuan against the ruble has started in the Chinese interbank market, while the yuan's trading against the ruble was set to start on the Russian foreign exchange market in December 2010.[18][19]

Coins[edit]

First ruble[edit]

At the beginning of the 19th century, copper coins were issued for ¼, ½, 1, 2 and 5 kopeks, with silver 5, 10, 25 and 50 kopeks and 1 ruble and gold 5 although production of the 10 ruble coin ceased in 1806. Silver 20 kopeks were introduced in 1820, followed by copper 10 kopeks minted between 1830 and 1839, and copper 3 kopeks introduced in 1840. Between 1828 and 1845, platinum 3, 6 and 12 rubles were issued. In 1860, silver 15 kopecs were introduced, due to the use of this denomination (equal to 1 złoty) in Poland, whilst, in 1869, gold 3 rubles were introduced.[20] In 1886, a new gold coinage was introduced consisting of 5 and 10 ruble coins. This was followed by another in 1897. In addition to smaller 5 and 10 ruble coins, 7½ and 15 ruble coins were issued for a single year, as these were equal in size to the previous 5 and 10 ruble coins. The gold coinage was suspended in 1911, with the other denominations produced until the First World War.

Constantine ruble[edit]

The Constantine ruble (Russian: константиновский рубль, pronounced "konstantinovsky rubl'") is a rare silver coin of the Russian Empire bearing the profile of Constantine, the brother of emperors Alexander I and Nicholas I. Its manufacture was being prepared at the Saint Petersburg Mint during the brief Interregnum of 1825, but it was never minted in numbers, and never circulated in public. The fact of its existence became known in 1857 in foreign publications.[21]

Last Soviet ruble[edit]

After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Federation introduced new coins in 1992 in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rubles. The coins depict the double headed eagle above the legend "Банк России." The 1 and 5 rubles were minted in brass-clad steel, the 10 and 20 rubles in cupro-nickel and the 50 and 100 rubles were bimetallic (aluminium-bronze and cupro-nickel-zinc). In 1993, aluminium-bronze 50 rubles and cupro-nickel-zinc 100 rubles were issued, and the material of 10 and 20 rubles was changed to nickel-plated steel. In 1995 the material of 50 rubles was changed to brass-plated steel, but the coins were minted with the old date 1993. As high inflation persisted, the lowest denominations disappeared from circulation and the other denominations became rarely used.

During this period the commemorative one-ruble coin is regularly issued. It's practically identical in size and weight to a 5 Swiss franc coin (worth approx. €3 / US$4). For this reason, there have been several instances of (now worthless) ruble coins being used on a large scale to defraud automated vending machines in Switzerland.[22]

(New) ruble (1998)[edit]

In 1998, the ruble was once again revalued and the following coins were introduced:

Currently Circulating Coins[23]
ValueTechnical parametersDescriptionDate of first minting
DiameterMassCompositionEdgeObverseReverse
1 kopek15.5 mm1.5 g[24]Cupronickel-steelPlainSaint GeorgeValue1997
5 kopeks18.5 mm2.6 g[25]
10 kopeks17.5 mm1,95 g[26]Brass 1997–2006
Brass plated steel 2006–
Milled for brass and plain for platedSaint GeorgeValue1997
50 kopeks19.5 mm2.9 g[27]
1 ruble20.5 mm3.25 gCupronickel 1997–2009
Nickel plated steel 2009–
Milled2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of RussiaValue1997
2 rubles23 mm5.1~5.2 gBroken reeding
5 rubles25 mm6.45 gCupronickelclad-copper 1997–2009
Nickel plated steel 2009–
1997
10 rubles22 mm5.63 gBrass plated steelBroken reeding2-headed eagle emblem of the Bank of RussiaValue2009
1 ruble 1998
ValueEmblem of the Bank of Russia

1 and 5 kopeck coins are rarely used (especially the 1 kopek coin) due to their low value and in some cases may not be accepted by stores or individuals. In some cases, the 10 kopeck coin is disregarded (refused by individuals but is accepted by vendors and is mandatory for offer in exchange).[citation needed]

All these coins began being issued in 1998, despite the fact that some of them bear the year 1997. Kopeck denominations all depict St. George and the Dragon, and all ruble denominations (with the exception of bimetallic commemorative pieces) depict the double headed eagle. Mint marks are denoted by "Л" or "M" on kopecks and the logos of either the Leningrad or Moscow mints on rubles. Since 2000, many bimetallic 10 ruble circulating commemorative coins have been issued. These coins have a unique holographic security feature inside the "0" of the denomination 10.

In 2008, it was proposed by the Bank of Russia to withdraw 1 and 5 kopeck coins from circulation and to round all the prices to 10 kopecks, although the proposal hasn't been realized yet (though characteristic "x.99" prices are treated as rounded in exchange).

The material of 1, 2 and 5 ruble coins was switched from copper-nickel-zinc and copper nickel clad to nickel plated steel in the second quarter of 2009. 10 and 50 kopeks were also changed from aluminum-bronze to brass steel clad.

In October 2009, a new 10 ruble coin made of brass plated steel was issued, featuring optical security features.[28] The 10 ruble banknote would have been withdrawn in 2012, but a shortage of 10-ruble coins prompted the Central Bank to delay this and put new ones in circulation.[29] Bimetallic commemorative 10 ruble coins will continue to be issued.

A series of circulating Olympic commemorative 25 ruble coins will start in 2011. The new coins will be made of cupronickel.[citation needed] A number of commemorative smaller denominations of these coins exist in circulation as well, depicting national historic events and anniversaries.

The Bank of Russia issues other commemorative non-circulating coins ranging from 1–50,000 rubles. See[30] for listing.

Banknotes[edit]

For banknotes issued between 1918 and 1992 see: Soviet ruble

Imperial issues[edit]

25 Assignation rubles of 1769
1898 Russian Empire one ruble bill, reverse

In 1768, during the reign of Catherine the Great, the Assignation Bank was instituted to issue the government paper money. It opened in St. Petersburg and in Moscow in 1769.

In 1769, Assignation rubles were introduced for 25, 50, 75 and 100 rubles, with 5 and 10 rubles added in 1787 and 200 ruble in 1819. The value of the Assignation rubles fell relative to the coins until, in 1839, the relationship was fixed at 1 coin ruble = 3½ assignat rubles. In 1840, the State Commercial Bank issued 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles notes, followed by 50 ruble credit notes of the Custody Treasury and State Loan Bank.

In 1843, the Assignation Bank ceased operations, and state credit notes (Russian: государственные кредитные билеты) were introduced in denominations of 1, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. These circulated, in various types, until the revolution, with 500 rubles notes added in 1898 and 250 and 1000 rubles notes added in 1917. In 1915, two kinds of small change notes were issued. One, issued by the Treasury, consisted of regular style (if small) notes for 1, 2, 3, 5 and 50 kopeks. The other consisted of the designs of stamps printed onto card with text and the imperial eagle printed on the reverse. These were in denominations of 1, 2, 3, 10, 15 and 20 kopeks.

Provisional Government issues[edit]

In 1917, the Provisional Government issued treasury notes for 20 and 40 rubles. These notes are known as "Kerenski" or "Kerensky rubles". The provisional government also had 25 and 100 rubles state credit notes printed in the U.S.A. but most were not issued.

Last Soviet ruble[edit]

In 1961, new State Treasury notes were introduced for 1, 3 and 5 rubles, along with new State Bank notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rubles. In 1991, the State Bank took over production of 1, 3 and 5 ruble notes and also introduced 200, 500 and 1,000 ruble notes, although the 25 ruble note was no longer issued. In 1992, a final issue of notes was made bearing the name of the U.S.S.R. before the Russian Federation introduced notes for 5,000 and 10,000 rubles. These were followed by 50,000 ruble notes in 1993, 100,000 rubles in 1995 and finally 500,000 rubles in 1997 (dated 1995). Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russian ruble banknotes and coins have been notable for their lack of portraits, which traditionally were included under both the Tsarist and Communist regimes. With the issue of the 500 ruble note depicting a statue of Peter I and then the 1000 ruble note depicting a statue of Yaroslav, the lack of recognizable faces on the currency has been partially alleviated.

Banknote Series of the Sixth Ruble
SeriesValueObverseReverseIssuerLanguages
19611, 3, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100 rublesVladimir Lenin or views of the Moscow KremlinValue, and views of the Moscow Kremlin for 50 rubles or higherUSSR15
19911, 3, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 rublesRussian3
199250, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 rublesUSSR for 1000 rubles and lower
Bank of Russia for 5000 and 10,000 rubles
Russian
1993100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000 rublesMoscow Kremlin with the tri-color Russian flagBank of Russia
19951,000, 5,000, 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000 rublesSame design as today's banknotes, where 1 new ruble = 1000 old rubles. See below.4, 5

The 1000 ruble note did not continue as a 1 new ruble note.

Seventh ruble[edit]

On 1 January 1998 a new series of notes dated 1997 was released. Modifications to the series were made in 2001, 2004, 2010 and 2014.

1997 Series[31]
ImageValueDimensionsDescriptionDate of
ObverseReverseObverseReverseWatermarkprinting*issuewitdrawallapse
Banknote 5 rubles (1997) front.jpgBanknote 5 rubles (1997) back.jpg5 rubles137 × 61 mmThe Millennium of Russia monument on background of Saint Sophia Cathedral in Veliky NovgorodFortress wall of the Novgorod Kremlin"5", Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod19971 January 1998Current, but no longer issued and rarely seen in ciruculation.
Banknote 10 rubles 2004 front.jpgBanknote 10 rubles 2004 back.jpg10 rubles150 × 65 mmKommunalny Bridge across the Yenisei River in Krasnoyarsk and Paraskeva Pyatnitsa ChapelKrasnoyarsk hydroelectric plant"10", Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel1997
2001
2004
Current, but no longer issued since January 2010. Still in use, but less common than the 10 ruble-coin.
Banknote 50 rubles 2004 front.jpgBanknote 50 rubles 2004 back.jpg50 rublesA Rostral Column sculpture on background of Petropavlosk Fortress in Saint PetersburgOld Saint Petersburg Stock Exchange and Rostral Columns"50", Peter and Paul CathedralCurrent
Russia100rubles04front.jpgRussia100rubles04back.jpg100 rublesQuadriga on the portico of the Bolshoi Theatre in MoscowThe Bolshoi Theatre"100", The Bolshoi Theatre1997
2001
2004
2014
Banknote 500 rubles 2010 front.jpgBanknote 500 rubles 2010 back.jpg500 rublesMonument to Peter the Great, Sedov sailing ship and sea terminal in ArkhangelskSolovetsky Monastery"500", Monument to Peter the Great1997
2001
2004
2010
Banknote 1000 rubles 2010 front.jpgBanknote 1000 rubles 2010 back.jpg1,000 rubles157 × 69 mmMonument to Yaroslav I the Wise and the Lady of Kazan Chapel in YaroslavlJohn the Baptist Church in Yaroslavl"1000", Monument to Yaroslav I the Wise1997
2004
2010
1 January 2001
Banknote 5000 rubles 2010 front.jpgBanknote 5000 rubles 2010 back.jpg5,000 rublesMonument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky in KhabarovskKhabarovsk Bridge over the Amur"5000", Head of the monument to Muravyov-Amursky1997
2010
31 July 2006
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimeter.
  • Each new banknote series has enhanced security features, but no major design changes. Banknotes printed after 1997 bear the fine print "модификация 2001г." (or later date) meaning "modification of year 2001" on the left watermark area.

Commemorative banknotes[edit]

In 2013 a special banknote in honor of the Olympic Games in Sochi was issued.

A 100 Russian ruble banknote issued in 2013, printed in commemoration of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games in Sochi[32]

Printing[edit]

All Russian ruble banknotes are currently printed at the state-owned factory Goznak in Moscow, which was organized on 6 June 1919 and has continued to operate ever since. Coins are minted in Moscow and at the Saint Petersburg Mint, which has been operating since 1724.

Exchange rates[edit]

In January 2014, President Putin said there should be a sound balance on the ruble exchange rate, that regarding the national currency exchange rate, the Central Bank only regulated it when it went beyond the upper and lower limits of the floating exchange rate and that the freer the Russian national currency is, the better it is, adding that this would make the economy react more effectively and timely to processes taking place in it.[33] On January 29, 2014, the Ruble-euro rate has reached 48 rubles to 1 euro on the Moscow Exchange for the first time.[34]

Russian rubles per USD 1998–2013
YearLowest ↓Highest ↑Average
DateRateDateRateRate
19981 January5.960029 December20.99009.7945
19991 January20.650029 December27.000024.6489
20006 January26.900023 February28.870028.1287
20014 January28.160018 December30.300029.1753
20021 January30.13727 December31.860031.3608
200320 December29.24509 January31.884630.6719
200430 December27.74871 January29.454528.8080
200518 March27.46116 December28.997827.1910
20066 December26.184012 January28.483427.1355
200724 November24.264913 January26.577025.5808
200816 July23.125531 December29.380424.8529
200913 November28.670119 February36.426731.7403
201016 April28.93108 June31.779830.3679
20116 May27.26255 October32.679929.3823
201228 March28.94685 June34.039531.0661
20135 February29.92515 September33.465631.9063
Source: USD exchange rates in RUB, Bank of Russia[35]
Current RUB exchange rates
From Google Finance:AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From Yahoo! Finance:AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From XE.com:AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From OANDA.com:AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR
From fxtop.com:AUD CAD CHF EUR GBP HKD JPY USD CNY INR

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Abkhaz: амааҭ; Bashkir: һум; Chuvash: тенкĕ; Komi: шайт; Lak: къуруш; Mari: теҥге; Ossetian: сом; Tatar: сум; Udmurt: манет; Sakha: солкуобай
  2. ^ "Belarus may switch to Russian ruble". The Voice of Russia. 15 June 2012. 
  3. ^ "Belarus may switch to Russian ruble". The American Resolution. 16 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Is the Russian Ruble Coming to Belarus?". Belarus Digest. 15 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Russian rouble to play a role in Belarus". The Voice of Russia. 6 May 2011. 
  6. ^ Tatar: тиен; Bashkir: тин; Chuvash: пус; Ossetian: капекк; Udmurt: коны; Mari: ыр; Sakha: харчы
  7. ^ "Экономика: Деньги: Банк России утвердил символ рубля". Lenta.ru. 2013-11-25. Retrieved 2013-12-11. 
  8. ^ 2013-12-11, Russian ruble gets graphic symbol, RT.com
  9. ^ "Забытый знак российского рубля" (in Russian). РИА Новости. Retrieved 6 May 2006. 
  10. ^ "Currencies of the World". The University of British Columbia Sauder School of Business. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  11. ^ "Russia". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  12. ^ Valeria Korchagina (15 June 2006). "'R' for Ruble Is Symbol of Pride". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  13. ^ a b Peter Finn (28 June 2006). "Russians Bet Ruble Will Rise To Status of Dollar, Euro, Yen". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 June 2007. 
  14. ^ "О знаке рубля". 1 August 2007. Retrieved 11 April 2008. 
  15. ^ "Знак рубля. Попытка анализа". Imadesign.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  16. ^ "Оюпюрюио Мнбнярх – Хмтнплюжхъ Н Мнбшу Цюпмхрспюу Х Н Пюгкхвмшу Ьпхтрнбшу Янашрхъу". Fonts.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  17. ^ "Банк России утвердил символ рубля (English: "The Bank of Russia adopted the symbol of the ruble")". lenta.ru. 2013-12-11. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  18. ^ China, Russia quit dollar China Daily
  19. ^ Chinese minister says China-Russia economic, trade co-op at new starting point Xinhua News
  20. ^ http://www.pjsymes.com.au/articles/three.htm
  21. ^ By 1880 Russian numismatists were well aware of the existence of Constantine rubles, but their first printed description was published only in 1886 – Kalinin, p.1.
  22. ^ (German) "Mit alten Rubelmünzen Automaten am Zürcher HB geplündert". Swissinfo. 15 November 2006. 
  23. ^ "Coins, Bank of Russia". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  24. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  25. ^ "Монеты , Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  26. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  27. ^ "Монеты, Банк России". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  28. ^ "News article about new 10-ruble coins being issued". Altapress.Ru. 22 September 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  29. ^ "ЦБ возвращает в оборот 10-рублевые банкноты". Rbc.Ru. 22 December 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2013. 
  30. ^ "Commemorative and Investment Coins database, Bank of Russia". Cbr.ru. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  31. ^ "Banknotes and Coins". Cbr.ru. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  32. ^ Video Demonstration of Olympic One Hundred-Ruble Banknote on YouTube
  33. ^ "Putin hopes Central Bank and government find balance in ruble exchange rate dynamics". ITAR-TASS. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014. 
  34. ^ "Ruble-euro rate reaches 48 rubles for the first time". ITAR-TASS. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  35. ^ USD exchange rates in RUB, Bank of Russia

External links[edit]