Russian alphabet

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Russian alphabet in capital letters
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The Russian alphabet (Russian: русский алфавит, tr. rússkij alfavít; IPA: [ˈruskʲɪj ɐlfɐˈvʲit]) uses letters from the Cyrillic script. The modern Russian alphabet consists of 33 letters.

Alphabet[edit]

The Russian alphabet is as follows:

LetterHandwritingNameOld nameIPAApproximate English
example
Russian example, romanization, meaningUnicode (Hex)
Аа01-Russian alphabet-А а.svgа
[a]
азъ
[as]
/a/fatherдва dva
"two"
1U+0410 / U+0430
Бб02-Russian alphabet-Б б.svgбэ
[bɛ]
буки
[ˈbukʲɪ]
/b/ or /bʲ/badбез byez
"without"
U+0411 / U+0431
Вв03-Russian alphabet-В в.svgвэ
[vɛ]
вѣди
[ˈvʲedʲɪ]
/v/ or /vʲ/vineвот vot
"here"
2U+0412 / U+0432
Гг04-Russian alphabet-Г г.svgгэ
[ɡɛ]
глаголь
[ɡlɐˈɡolʲ]
/ɡ/goгод god
"year"
3U+0413 / U+0433
Дд05-Russian alphabet-Д д.svgдэ
[dɛ]
добро
[dɐˈbro]
/d/ or /dʲ/doда da
"yes"
4U+0414 / U+0434
Ее06-Russian alphabet-Е е.svgе
[je]
есть
[jesʲtʲ]
/je/, / ʲe/ or /e/yesне ne
"not"
5U+0415 / U+0435
Ёё07-Russian alphabet-Ё ё.svgё
[jo]
/jo/ or / ʲɵ/yo-yoсвоё svoyó
"one's own, my, our"
U+0401 / U+0451
Жж08-Russian alphabet-Ж ж.svgжэ
[ʐɛ]
живѣте
[ʐɨˈvʲetʲɪ][a]
/ʐ/pleasureжук zhuk
"bug"
U+0416 / U+0436
Зз09-Russian alphabet-З з.svgзэ
[zɛ]
земля
[zʲɪˈmlʲæ]
/z/ or /zʲ/zooза za
"behind"
7U+0417 / U+0437
Ии10-Russian alphabet-И и.svgи
[i]
иже
[ˈiʐɨ]
/i/ or / ʲi/meили íli
"or"
8U+0418 / U+0438
Йй11-Russian alphabet-Й й.svgи краткое
[i ˈkratkəɪ]
и съ краткой
[ɪ s ˈkratkəj]
/j/toyмой moy
"my"
U+0419 / U+0439
Кк12-Russian alphabet-К к.svgка
[ka]
како
[ˈkakə]
/k/ or /kʲ/kissкто kto
"who"
20U+041A / U+043A
Лл13-Russian alphabet-Л л.svgэл or эль
[ɛl] or [ɛlʲ]
люди
[ˈlʲʉdʲɪ]
/l/ or /lʲ/lampли li
"whether"
30U+041B / U+043B
Мм14-Russian alphabet-М м.svgэм
[ɛm]
мыслѣте
[mɨˈsʲlʲetʲɪ][2]
/m/ or /mʲ/mapчем chem
"than"
40U+041C / U+043C
Нн15-Russian alphabet-Н н.svgэн
[ɛn]
нашъ
[naʂ]
/n/ or /ɲ/notно no
"but"
50U+041D / U+043D
Оо16-Russian alphabet-О о.svgо
[о]
онъ
[on]
/o/moreон on
"he"
70U+041E / U+043E
Пп17-Russian alphabet-П п.svgпэ
[pɛ]
покой
[pɐˈkoj]
/p/ or /pʲ/petпод pod
"under"
80U+041F / U+043F
Рр18-Russian alphabet-Р р.svgэр
[ɛr]
рцы
[rt͡sɨ]
/r/ or /rʲ/rolled rпри pri
"attached to"
100U+0420 / U+0440
Сс19-Russian alphabet-С с.svgэс
[ɛs]
слово
[ˈslovə]
/s/ or /sʲ/seeесли yésli
"if"
200U+0421 / U+0441
Тт20-Russian alphabet-Т т.svgтэ
[tɛ]
твердо
[ˈtvʲerdə]
/t/ or /tʲ/toolтот tot
"that"
300U+0422 / U+0442
Уу21-Russian alphabet-У у.svgу
[u]
укъ
[uk]
/u/bootуже uzhé
"already"
400U+0423 / U+0443
Фф22-Russian alphabet-Ф ф.svgэф
[ɛf]
фертъ
[fʲert]
/f/ or /fʲ/faceформа fórma
"form"
500U+0424 / U+0444
Хх23-Russian alphabet-Х х.svgха
[xa]
хѣръ
[xʲer]
/x/Scots lochхорошо horoshó+
"well"
600U+0425 / U+0445
Цц24-Russian alphabet-Ц ц.svgце
[tsɛ]
цы
[t͡sɨ]
/t͡s/sitsконец konéts
"end"
900U+0426 / U+0446
Чч25-Russian alphabet-Ч ч.svgче
[tɕe]
червь
[t͡ɕerfʲ]
/t͡ɕ/chipчетыре chetýre
"four"
90U+0427 / U+0447
Шш26-Russian alphabet-Ш ш.svgша
[ʂa]
ша
[ʂa]
/ʂ/sharpваш vash
"yours"
U+0428 / U+0448
Щщ27-Russian alphabet-Щ щ.svgща
[ɕɕæ]
ща
[ɕt͡ɕæ]
/ɕɕ/sheer (sometimes instead pronounced
as in fresh-cheese)
ещё yeshchó
"yet, still"
U+0429 / U+0449
Ъъ28-Russian alphabet-ъ.svgтвёрдый знак
[ˈtvʲɵrdɨj znak]
еръ
[jer]
silent, prevents palatalization of the preceding consonantобъект obyékt
"object"
U+042A / U+044A
Ыы29-Russian alphabet-ы.svgы
[ɨ]
еры
[jɪˈrɨ]
[ɨ]rosesты ty
"you"
U+042B / U+044B
Ьь30-Russian alphabet-ь.svgмягкий знак
[ˈmʲæxʲkʲɪj znak]
ерь
[jerʲ]
/ ʲ/silent, palatalizes the preceding consonant (if it is phonologically possible"весь vyes
"all"
U+042C / U+044C
Ээ31-Russian alphabet-Э э.svgэ
[ɛ]
э оборотное
[ˈɛ əbɐˈrotnəɪ]
/ɛ/metэто éto
"this, that"
U+042D / U+044D
Юю32-Russian alphabet-Ю ю.svgю
[ju]
ю
[ju]
/ju/ or / ʲʉ/useюг yug
"south"
U+042E / U+044E
Яя33-Russian alphabet-Я я.svgя
[ja]
я
[ja]
/ja/ or / ʲæ/yardсебя sebyá
"myself"
U+042F / U+044F
letters eliminated in 1917–18
Ііі десятеричное
[i]
/i/ or / ʲi/ or /j/Like и or йстихотворенія (now стихотворения) stihotvoréniya
"poem"
10
Ѳѳѳита
[fʲɪˈta]
/f/ or /fʲ/Like форѳографія (now орфография) orfográfiya
"spelling"
9
Ѣѣять
[jætʲ]
/e/ or / ʲe/Like еАлексѣй (now Алексeй) Alekséy
Alexey
Ѵѵижица
[ˈiʐɨtsə]
/i/ or / ʲi/Usually like и, see belowмѵро (now миро) míro
"chrism"
letters eliminated before 1750
Ѕѕзѣло
[zʲɪˈlo][3]
/z/ or /zʲ/Like зn/a6
Ѯѯкси
[ksʲi]
/ks/ or /ksʲ/Like ксn/a60
Ѱѱпси
[psʲi]
/ps/ or /psʲ/Like псn/a700
Ѡѡомега
[ɐˈmʲeɡə]
/o/Like оn/a800
Ѫѫюсъ большой
[jus bɐlʲˈʂoj]
/u/, /ju/ or / ʲu/Like у or юn/a
Ѧѧюсъ малый
[jus ˈmɑlɨj]
/ja/ or / ʲa/Like яn/a
Ѭѭюсъ большой іотированный
[jus bɐlʲˈʂoj jɪˈtʲirəvənnɨj]
/ju/ or / ʲu/Like юn/a
Ѩѩюсъ малый іотированный
[jus ˈmɑlɨj jɪˈtʲirəvən.nɨj]
/ja/ or / ʲa/Like яn/a

The consonant letters represent both as "soft" (palatalized, represented in the IPA with a ʲ) and "hard" consonant phonemes. If a consonant letter is followed by a vowel letter, then the soft/hard quality of the consonant depends on whether the vowel is meant to follow "hard" consonants а, о, э, у, ы or "soft" ones я, ё, е, ю, и; see below. A handful of consonant phonemes do not have phonemically distinct "soft" and "hard" variants. See Russian phonology for details.

^† An alternate form of the letter El closely resembles the Greek letter for lambda (Л л).
^+ The letter ‹х› is romanized as ‹h› when appearing at the beginning or end of words and names. Otherwise, it is romanized as ‹kh›.

Frequency[edit]

The frequency of characters in a corpus of written Russian was found to be as follows:[4]

LetterFrequencyOther information
О11.07%The most common letter in the Russian alphabet.
E8.50%Foreign words sometimes use E rather than Э, even if it is pronounced "e" instead of "ye". In addition, Ё is often replaced by Е. This makes E even more common. For more information, see Vowels.
A7.50%
И7.09%
H6.70%The most common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
T5.97%
C4.97%
Л4.96%
B4.33%
P4.33%
К3.30%
M3.10%
Д3.09%
П2.47%
Ы2.36%
У2.22%
Б2.01%
Я1.96%
Ь1.84%
Г1.72%
З1.48%
Ч1.40%
Й1.21%
Ж1.01%
X0.95%
Ш0.72%
Ю0.47%
Ц0.39%
Э0.36%Foreign words sometimes use E rather than Э, even if it is pronounced "e" instead of "ye". This makes Э even less common. For more information, see Vowels.
Щ0.30%
Ф0.21%The least common consonant in the Russian alphabet.
Ё0.20%In written Russian, Ё is often replaced by E. For more information, see Vowels.
Ъ0.02%Ъ used to be a very common letter in the Russian alphabet. This was because before the 1918 reform, no word could end with a consonant - they had to end in either a vowel, Й, Ь or Ъ.[clarify] However, the reform greatly reduced the use of Ъ, making it the least common letter in the alphabet. For more information, see Non-vocalized letters.

Non-vocalized letters[edit]

Vowels[edit]

The vowels е, ё, и, ю, я indicate a preceding palatalized consonant and with the exception of и are iotated (pronounced with a preceding /j/) when written at the beginning of a word or following another vowel (initial и was iotated until the nineteenth century). The IPA vowels shown are a guideline only and sometimes are realized as different sounds, particularly when unstressed. However, е may be used in words of foreign origin without palatalization (/e/), and я is often realized as [æ] between soft consonants, such as in мяч ("toy ball").

ы is an old Common Slavonic tense intermediate vowel, thought to have been preserved better in modern Russian than in other Slavic languages. It was originally nasalized in certain positions: камы [ˈka.mɨ̃]; камень [ˈka.mʲɪnʲ] ("rock"). Its written form developed as follows: ъ + іъıы.

э was introduced in 1708 to distinguish the non-iotated/non-palatalizing /e/ from the iotated/palatalizing one. The original usage had been е for the uniotated /e/, ѥ or ѣ for the iotated, but ѥ had dropped out of use by the sixteenth century. In native Russian words, э is found only at the beginnings of words or in compound words (e.g. поэтому "therefore" = по + этому). In words that come from foreign languages in which the use of iotated /e/ in uncommon or non-existing (such as English, for example), э is usually written in the beginning of words and after vowels except и (e.g. поэт, poet), and е after и and consonants. However, the pronunciation is inconsistent. Many words, especially monosyllables, words ending in е and many words where е follows т, д, н, с, з or р are pronounced with /e/ without palatalization or iotation: секс (seks — "sex"), проект (proekt — "project") (in this example, the spelling is etymological but the pronunciation is counteretymological). But many other words are pronounced with /ʲe/: секта (syekta — "sect"), дебют (dyebut — "debut"). Proper names are usually not concerned by the rule (Сэм — "Sam", Пэмела — "Pamela", Мао Цзэдун — "Mao Zedong"); the use э after consonants is common in Oriental names and in English names with the sounds /æ/ and /ɛə/, with some exceptions such as Джек ("Jack") or Шепард ("Shepard"), since both э and е are not palatalized in cases of же ("che") or ше ("she"), yet in writing е usually prevails.

ё, introduced by Karamzin in 1797 and made official in 1943 by the Soviet Ministry of Education,[5] marks a /jo/ sound that has historically developed from /je/ under stress, a process that continues today. The letter ё is optional (in writing, not in pronunciation): it is formally correct to write e for both /je/ and /jo/. None of the several attempts in the twentieth century to mandate the use of ё have stuck.

Letters eliminated in 1918[edit]

GraphemeNameDescription
іDecimal Iidentical in pronunciation to и, was used exclusively immediately in front of other vowels and the й ("Short I") (for example, патріархъ [pətrʲɪˈarx], 'patriarch') and in the word міръ [mʲir] ('world') and its derivatives, to distinguish it from the word миръ [mʲir] ('peace') (the two words are actually etymologically cognate[6][7] and not arbitrarily homonyms).[8]
ѳFitafrom the Greek theta, was identical to ф in pronunciation, but was used etymologically (for example, Ѳёдоръ "Theodore").
ѣYatoriginally had a distinct sound, but by the middle of the eighteenth century had become identical in pronunciation to е in the standard language. Since its elimination in 1918, it has remained a political symbol of the old orthography.
ѵIzhitsafrom the Greek upsilon, usually identical to и in pronunciation, as in Byzantine Greek, was used etymologically for Greek loanwords, like Latin Y (as in synod, myrrh); by 1918, it had become very rare. In spellings of the eighteenth century, it was also used after some vowels that have since been replaced with в. For example, a Greek prefix originally spelled аѵто is now spelled авто.

Letters in disuse by 1750[edit]

ѯ and ѱ derived from Greek letters xi and psi, used etymologically though inconsistently in secular writing until the eighteenth century, and more consistently to the present day in Church Slavonic.

ѡ is the Greek letter omega, identical in pronunciation to о, used in secular writing until the eighteenth century, but to the present day in Church Slavonic, mostly to distinguish inflexional forms otherwise written identically.

ѕ corresponded to a more archaic /dz/ pronunciation, already absent in East Slavic at the start of the historical period, but kept by tradition in certain words until the eighteenth century in secular writing, and in Church Slavonic and Macedonian to the present day.

The yuses ѫ and ѧ, letters that originally used to stand for nasalized vowels /õ/ and /ẽ/, had become, according to linguistic reconstruction, irrelevant for East Slavic phonology already at the beginning of the historical period, but were introduced along with the rest of the Cyrillic script. The letters ѭ and ѩ had largely vanished by the twelfth century. The uniotated ѫ continued to be used, etymologically, until the sixteenth century. Thereafter it was restricted to being a dominical letter in the Paschal tables. The seventeenth-century usage of ѫ and ѧ (see next note) survives in contemporary Church Slavonic, and the sounds (but not the letters) in Polish.

The letter ѧ was adapted to represent the iotated /ja/ я in the middle or end of a word; the modern letter я is an adaptation of its cursive form of the seventeenth century, enshrined by the typographical reform of 1708.

Until 1708, the iotated /ja/ was written ıa at the beginning of a word. This distinction between ѧ and ıa survives in Church Slavonic.

Although it is usually stated that the letters labelled "fallen into disuse by the eighteenth century" in the table above were eliminated in the typographical reform of 1708, reality is somewhat more complex. The letters were indeed originally omitted from the sample alphabet, printed in a western-style serif font, presented in Peter's edict, along with the letters з, и, and ф (the diacriticized letter й was also removed), but were reinstated except ѱ and ѡ under pressure from the Russian Orthodox Church in a later variant of the modern typeface. Nonetheless, since 1735 the Russian Academy of Sciences began to use fonts without ѕ, ѯ, and ѵ; however, ѵ was sometimes used again since 1758.

Treatment of foreign sounds[edit]

Because Russian borrows terms from other languages, there are various conventions in dealing with sounds not present in Russian. For example, while Russian has no [h], there are a number of common words (particularly proper nouns) borrowed from languages like English and German that contain such a sound in the original language. In well-established terms, such as галлюцинация [ɡəlʲutsɨˈnatsɨjə] ('hallucination'), this is written with г and pronounced with /ɡ/ while newer terms use х, pronounced with /x/, such as хобби [ˈxobʲɪ] ('hobby').[9]

Similarly, words originally with [θ] in their source language are either pronounced with /t(ʲ)/), as in the name Тельма ('Thelma') or, if borrowed early enough, with /f(ʲ)/ or /v(ʲ)/, as in the names Фёдор ('Theodore') and Матве́й ('Matthew').

Numeric values[edit]

The numerical values correspond to the Greek numerals, with ѕ being used for digamma, ч for koppa, and ц for sampi. The system was abandoned for secular purposes in 1708, after a transitional period of a century or so; it continues to be used in Church Slavonic.

Diacritics[edit]

Russian spelling uses fewer diacritics than those used for most European languages. The only diacritic, in the proper sense, is the acute accent ◌́  (Russian: знак ударения 'mark of stress'), which marks stress on a vowel, as it is done in Spanish. Although Russian word stress is often unpredictable and can fall on different syllables in different forms of the same word, this diacritic is only used in special cases: in dictionaries, children's books, or language-learning resources, on minimal pairs distinguished only by stress (for instance, за́мок 'castle' vs. замо́к 'lock'). Rarely, it is used to specify the stress in uncommon foreign words and in poems where unusual stress is used to fit the meter.

The letter ё is a special variant of the letter е, which is not always distinguished in written Russian, but the umlaut-like sign has no other uses. Stress on this letter is never marked, as it is always stressed, except in some loanwords.

Unlike the case of ё, the letter й has completely separated from и. It is used since the 16th century, was removed in 1708 but reinstated in 1735. Since then, its usage is mandatory. It was formerly considered a diacriticized letter, but in the 20th century it became to be considered a separate letter of the Russian alphabet. It was classified as a "semivowel" by 19th- and 20th-century grammarians but since the 1970s it is considered a consonant letter.

Keyboard layout[edit]

The standard Russian keyboard layout for PC computers is as follows:

Russian keyboard layout

However, there are several choices of so-called "phonetic keyboards" that one may use on a PC that are often used by non-Russians. For example, typing an English (Latin) letter on a keyboard will actually type a Russian letter with a similar sound (A-A,O-O,F-Ф,...). See virtual keyboard and Russian keyboard layout (Wikipedia).

Letter names[edit]

Until approximately 1900, mnemonic names inherited from Church Slavonic were used for the letters. They are given here in the pre-1918 orthography of the post-1708 civil alphabet.

The great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin wrote: "The letters constituting the Slavonic alphabet do not produce any sense. Аз, буки, веди, глаголь, добро etc. are separate words, chosen just for their initial sound". But since the names of the first letters of the Slavonic alphabet seem to form text, attempts were made to compose sensible text from all letters of the alphabet.[10][11]

Here is one such attempt to "decode" the message:

аз буки ведиI know letters[12]
глаголь добро есть"To speak is a beneficence" or "The word is property"[13]
живете зело, земля, и иже и како люди"Live, while working heartily, people of the Earth, in the manner people should obey"
мыслете наш он покой"try to understand the Universe (the world that is around)"
рцы слово твердо"be committed to your word"[14]
ук ферт хер"The knowledge is fertilized by the Creator, knowledge is the gift of God"
цы червь ша ер ять ю"Try harder, to understand the Light of the Creator"

In this attempt words only in two first lines and line 4 somewhat correspond to real meanings of the letters' names, while "translations" in other lines seem to be fabrications or fantasies. For example, "покой" ("rest" or "apartment") doesn't mean "the Universe", and "ферт" doesn't have any meaning in Russian or other Slavonic languages (there are no words of Slavonic origin beginning with "f" at all). The last line contains only one translatable word – "червь" ("worm"), which, however, was not included in the "translation".

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "живете", Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова [Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language] (article) (in Russian), RU: Yandex ; the dictionary makes difference between е and ё.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "ёлка", Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова (in Russian), RU: Yandex .
  2. ^ Ushakov, Dmitry, "мыслете", Толковый словарь русского языка Ушакова [Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language] (article) (in Russian), RU: Yandex .
  3. ^ ФЭБ, RU: Feb web .
  4. ^ Stefan Trost Media, Character Frequency: Russian. "Basis of this list were some Russian texts with together 1.351.370 characters (210.844 words), 1.086.255 characters were used for the counting. The texts consist of a good mix of different literary genres."
  5. ^ Benson 1960, p. 271.
  6. ^ Vasmer 1979.
  7. ^ Vasmer, "мир", Dictionary (etymology) (in Russian) (online ed.), retrieved 16 October 2005 .
  8. ^ Smirnovskiy 1915, p. 4.
  9. ^ Dunn & Khairov 2009, pp. 17–8.
  10. ^ Maksimovic M.A. (1839). История древней русской словесности. Киев: Университетская типография. p. 215. 
  11. ^ {{{заглавие}}}. — P. 35.
  12. ^ Р. Байбурова (2002). Как появилась письменность у древних славян (in Russian). Наука и Жизнь. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  13. ^ Vasilʹev A. (1838). О древнейшей истории северных славян до времён Рюрика. Главный штаб Его Императорского Величества по военно-учебным заведениям. p. 159. 
  14. ^ Толковый словарь живого великорусского языка 4. ОЛМА Медиа Групп. p. 91. ISBN 9785224024384. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]