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|Running of the Bulls (encierro)|
The bull run in Pamplona
|Location(s)||Pamplona and other|
|Running of the Bulls (encierro)|
The bull run in Pamplona
|Location(s)||Pamplona and other|
The Running of the Bulls (in Spanish encierro, from the verb encerrar, to corral, to enclose) is a practice that involves running in front of a small group of cattle, typically six, of the toro bravo breed that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town's streets.
The most famous running of the bulls is that of the eight-day festival of Sanfermines in honour of Saint Fermin in Pamplona, although they are held in towns and villages across Spain, Portugal, in some cities in Mexico, in San José Festival held in Trujillo, Peru, Mesquite, Nevada, southern France during the summer.
The origin of this event comes from the need to transport the bulls from the off-site corrals where they had spent the night, to the bullring where they would be killed in the evening. Youngsters would jump among them to show off their bravado. In Pamplona and other places, the six bulls in the event are still those that will feature in the afternoon bullfight of the same day.
Spanish tradition says the true origin of the run began in northeastern Spain during the early 14th century. While transporting cattle in order to sell them at the market, men would try to speed the process by hurrying their cattle using tactics of fear and excitement. After years of this practice, the transportation and hurrying began to turn into a competition, as young adults would attempt to race in front of the bulls and make it safely to their pens without being overtaken. When the popularity of this practice increased and was noticed more and more by the expanding population of Spanish cities, a tradition was created and stands to this day.
Before the running of the bulls, a set of wooden or iron barricades is erected to direct the bulls along the route and to block off side streets. There may be a double row of barricades along the route to allow runners to quickly exit in case of danger. The gaps in the barricades are wide enough for a human to slip through, but narrow enough to block a bull.
The Pamplona encierro is the most popular in Spain and has been broadcast live by RTVE, the public Spanish national television channel, for over 30 years. It is the highest profile event of the San Fermin festival, which is held every year from July 6–14. The first bull running is on July 7, followed by one on each of the following mornings of the festival, beginning every day at 8 am. Among the rules to take part in the event are that participants must be at least 18 years old, run in the same direction as the bulls, not incite the bulls, and not be under the influence of alcohol.
In Pamplona a double wooden fence is used in those houses where there is enough space for it, while in other parts the buildings of the street act as barriers. It is composed of around three thousand separate pieces and while some parts are left for the duration of the fiesta others are mounted and dismounted every morning.
The encierro begins with runners singing a benediction. It is sung three times, each time being sung both in Spanish and Basque. The Spanish version is as follows: "A San Fermín pedimos, por ser nuestro patrón, nos guíe en el encierro dándonos su bendición" and the Basque version as follows: " Entzun arren San Fermin, zu zaitugu patroi, zuzuendu gure oinak, entziero hontan otoi" ("We ask Saint Fermin, as our Patron, to guide us through the encierro and give us his blessing"). The benediction is a prayer given at a statue of Saint Fermin, patron of the festival and the city, to ask the saint's protection. The singers finish by shouting “Viva San Fermín!, Gora San Fermin!” ("Long live Saint Fermin", in Spanish and Basque). Most runners dress in the traditional clothing of the festival which consists of a white shirt and trousers with a red waistband and neckerchief. Also some of them hold the day's newspaper rolled to draw the bulls' attention from them if necessary.
A first rocket is set off at 8 a.m. to alert the runners that the corral gate is open. A second rocket signals that all six bulls have been released. The third and fourth rockets are signals that all of the herd has entered the bullring and its corral respectively, marking the end of the event. The average duration between the first rocket and the end of the encierro is four minutes.
The herd is composed of the six bulls to be fought in the afternoon, six steers (castrated bulls) that run with the bulls, and three more steers that leave the corral two minutes later. The function of the oxen is to guide the herd. The average speed of the herd is 24 km/h (15 mph).
The length of the run is 826 metres (903 yards). It goes through four streets of the old part of the city (Santo Domingo, Town Hall Square, Mercaderes and Estafeta) and a section called Telefónica before entering into the bullring. The fastest part of the route is up Santo Domingo and across the Town Hall Square, but in the past the bulls often became separated at the entrance to Estafeta Street as they slowed down. One or more would slip going into the turn at Estafeta, but, with the use of the new anti-slip surfacing, most of the bulls negotiate the turn onto Estafeta and are often ahead of the steers. This has resulted in a quicker run.
Every year, between 200 and 300 people are injured during the run although most injuries are contusions due to falls and are not serious. Not all of the injuries require taking the patients to the hospital: in 2013 50 people were taken by ambulance to Pamplona's hospital, with this number nearly doubling that of 2012.
Goring is much less common but potentially life threatening. In 2013 for example, 6 participants were gored along the festival, in 2012 only 4 runners were injured by the horns of the bulls with exactly the same number of gored people in 2011, 9 in 2010 and 10 in 2009; with one of the latter killed. As most of the runners are male, only 5 women have been gored since 1974. Previously to that date running was prohibited for women.
Another major risk is runners falling and piling up at the entrance of the bullring, which acts as a funnel as it is much narrower than the previous street. In such cases injuries come both from asphyxia and contusions to those in the pile and from goring if the bulls crush into the pile. This kind of blocking of the entrance has occurred at least ten times in the history of the run, the last occurring in 2013 and the first dating back to 1878. A runner died of suffocation in one such pile up in 1977.
Overall, since record-keeping began in 1910, 15 people have been killed in the bull running of Pamplona, most of them due to being gored. To minimize the impact of injuries every day 200 people collaborate in the medical attention. They are deployed in 16 sanitary posts (every 50 metres on average), each one with at least a physician and a nurse among their personnel. Most of these 200 people are volunteers, mainly from the Red Cross. In addition to the medical posts, there are around 20 ambulances. This organization makes it possible to have a gored person stabilized and taken to a hospital in less than 10 minutes.
|Year||Name||Age||Origin||Location||Cause of death|
|1924||Esteban Domeño||22||Navarre, Spain||Telefónica||Goring |
|1927||Santiago Zufía||34||Navarre, Spain||Bullring||Goring |
|1935||Gonzalo Bustinduy||29||San Luis Potosí, Mexico||Bullring||Goring |
|1947||Casimiro Heredia||37||Navarre, Spain||Estafeta||Goring |
|1947||Julián Zabalza||23||Navarre, Spain||Bullring||Goring |
|1961||Vicente Urrizola||32||Navarre, Spain||Santo Domingo||Goring |
|1969||Hilario Pardo||45||Navarre, Spain||Santo Domingo||Goring |
|1974||Juan Ignacio Eraso||18||Navarre, Spain||Telefónica||Goring |
|1975||Gregorio Gorriz||41||Navarre, Spain||Bullring||Goring |
|1977||José Joaquín Esparza||17||Navarre, Spain||Bullring||Suffocated in a pile-up.|
|1980||José Antonio Sánchez||26||Navarre, Spain||Town Hall Square||Goring |
|1980||Vicente Risco||29||Badajoz, Spain||Bullring||Goring |
|1995||Matthew Peter Tassio||22||Glen Ellyn, Illinois, USA||Town Hall Square||Goring|
|2003||Fermín Etxeberria||63||Navarre, Spain||Mercaderes||Hit by a horn|
|2009||Daniel Jimeno Romero||27||Alcalá de Henares, Spain||Telefónica||Goring|
The encierro of Pamplona has been depicted many times in literature, television or advertising, but became known world wide partly due to the descriptions of Ernest Hemingway in The Sun Also Rises and Death in the Afternoon. The cinema pioneer Louis Lumière filmed the run in 1899.
The run appears in the 2011 Bollywood movie Zindagi Na Milegi Dobara, directed by Zoya Akhtar, as the final dare in the bucket list of the three bachelors who have to overcome their ultimate fear; death. At first, the trio run part of the route. They stop at the square, but then recover their nerve, and continue to the end. The completion of the run depicts their freedom as they learn that surviving a mortal danger can bring joy.
Running with the Bulls, a 2012 documentary of the festival filmed by Construct Creatives and presented by Jason Farrel, depicts the pros and cons of the controversial tradition.
In 2014, the writer, bullfighter and bull-runner Alexander Fiske-Harrison co-authored and edited the book Fiesta: How To Survive The Bulls Of Pamplona. Including a foreword by the Mayor of Pamplona and contributions from famous aficionados of the festival like John Hemingway, grandson of Ernest Hemingway and Beatrice Welles, daughter of Orson Welles, it sets out advice from the most experienced American and Spanish bull-runners such as Joe Distler, Julen Madina, Miguel Ángel Eguiluz and Jokin Zuasti. It caused headlines around the world when one of the contributors was gored by a bull soon after publication and his chapter was subsequently replaced.
The history of the running in front of bulls is not completely clear. It started when bullfighting became a popular pastime, and many bullrings were built. The only way to get the bulls from the corral to the bullring was by running them through the streets to the ring. Eventually, people started running with the bulls. As every year passed, this became more and more popular, and has grown into this extremely important festival.
Although the most famous running of the bulls is that of San Fermín, they are held in towns and villages across Spain, Portugal, and in some cities in southern France during the summer. Examples are the bull run of San Sebastián de los Reyes, near Madrid, at the end of August which is the most popular of Spain after Pamplona, the bull run of Cuéllar, considered as the oldest of Spain since there are documents of its existence dating back to 1215, the Highland Capeias of the Raia in Sabugal, Portugal, with horses leading the herd crossing old border passes out of Spain and using the medieval 'Forcåo', or the bull run of Navalcarnero held at night.
Other encierros have also caused fatalities.
The English town of Stamford, Lincolnshire was host to the Stamford Bull Run for almost 700 years until it was abandoned in 1837. According to local tradition, the custom dated from the time of King John when William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey, saw two bulls fighting in the meadow beneath. Some butchers came to part the combatants and one of the bulls ran into the town, causing a great uproar. The earl, mounting his horse, rode after the animal, and enjoyed the sport so much, that he gave the meadow in which the fight began, to the butchers of Stamford, on condition that they should provide a bull, to be run in the town every 13 November, for ever after. As of 2013 the bull run had been revived as a ceremonial, festival-style community event.
A variation is the nightly "fire bull" where balls of flammable material are placed on the horns. Currently the bull is often replaced by a runner carrying a frame on which fireworks are placed and dodgers, usually children, run to avoid the sparks.
In 2008 Red Bull Racing driver David Coulthard and Scuderia Toro Rosso driver Sébastien Bourdais performed a version of 'bull running' event in Pamplona, Spain, with the Formula One cars chasing 500 runners through the actual Pamplona route.
The Big Easy Rollergirls roller derby team has performed a version of annual bull run in New Orleans, Louisiana since 2007. The team, dressed as bulls, skates after runners through the French Quarter. In 2012 there were 14,000 runners and over 400 "bulls" from all over the country, with huge before- and after-parties.
In Dewey Beach, Delaware, the Starboard bar sponsors an annual Running of the Bull [sic], in which hundreds of red and white-clad beachgoers are chased down the shore by a single “bull” (two people in a costume).
In Rangiora, New Zealand, an annual "Running of the Sheep" is held. Where 1000-2000 sheep are released down the main street of the small farming town.
The Running of the Bulls UK is a pub crawl event that takes place on London's Hampstead Heath and uses fast runners in place of bulls.
Many animal rights activists oppose the event. PETA activists created the "running of the nudes", a demonstration the day before the beginning of San Fermín in Pamplona. By marching naked, they protested the festival and the following bullfight, arguing the bulls are tortured for entertainment.
The city of San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, cancelled its Sanmiguelada running of the bulls after 2006, citing public disorder associated with the event. After the event was cancelled in San Miguel, the city of Salvatierra, also in the state of Guanajuato, picked up the event. It is now called La Marquesada and the three-day event is held during the last weekend of the month of September or first weekend of October.
The running of the bulls in Mexico has in recent years had much opposition. For instance, Animal Politico estimates that nearly 7 in 10 Mexicans today are against the running of the bulls, suggesting that if bullfighting in Mexico solely depended upon public opinion that it would be outlawed.
...Matthew Tassio...22 years old and came from Chicago...The...bull...hit him in the abdomen, severed a main artery, sliced through his kidney and punctured his liver
The 27-year-old was gored in the neck on Friday, during the fourth bull run of the week-long San Fermin festival. Daniel Jimeno Romero, from Madrid, had emergency surgery in hospital but died of his injuries. Earlier reports had described the dead man as British....a veteran Spanish bull-runner died after a fall in 2003
A runner died in today’s running of the bulls in the northern spanish city of Pamplona, the bull running held during the famous San Fermin festivities. The man died after being gored in the neck and lung by a bull of the Jandilla ranch, named “Capuchino”.The runner, Daniel Jimeno Romero from Alcalá de Henares (Madrid) was at the end of the street run
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