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Blackberries on bush.jpg
Rubus fruticosus
Scientific classification
Type species
Rubus fruticosus

See text.


Batidaea (Dumort.) Greene
Comarobatia Greene[1]

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Blackberries on bush.jpg
Rubus fruticosus
Scientific classification
Type species
Rubus fruticosus

See text.


Batidaea (Dumort.) Greene
Comarobatia Greene[1]

R. hirsutus

Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are also common in the genus. The Rubus fruit, sometimes called a bramble fruit, is an aggregate of drupelets. The term "cane fruit" (or "cane-fruit") applies to any Rubus species or hybrid which is commonly grown with supports such as wires or canes, including raspberries, blackberries, and hybrids such as loganberry, boysenberry and tayberry.[3]


Most species are hermaphrodites, Rubus chamaemorus being an exception.

The blackberries, as well as various other Rubus species with mounding or rambling growth habits, are often called brambles. However, this name is not used for those like the raspberry that grow as upright canes, or for trailing or prostrate species, such as most dewberries, or various low-growing boreal, arctic, or alpine species.

The generic name means blackberry in Latin and was derived from the word ruber, meaning "red".[4]

The scientific study of brambles is known as "batology".

Examples of the hundreds, if not thousands, of species of Rubus include:

The British National Collection of Rubus is held by Barry Clark at Houghton, Hampshire. His collection stands at over 200 species and, although not within the scope of the National Collection, he also grows many cultivars.[5][6]

Hybrid berries[edit]

The term "hybrid berry" is often used collectively for those fruits in the genus Rubus which have been developed mainly in the USA and UK in the last 130 years. As Rubus species readily interbreed and are apomicts (able to set seed without fertilisation), the parentage of these plants is often highly complex, but is generally agreed to include cultivars of blackberries, (Rubus ursinus, R. fruticosus) and raspberries (R. idaeus).

The hybrid berries include:-[7]

Scientific classification[edit]

The genus Rubus is a very complex one, particularly the blackberry/dewberry subgenus (Rubus), with polyploidy, hybridization, and facultative apomixis apparently all frequently occurring, making species classification of the great variation in the subgenus one of the grand challenges of systematic botany.

Rubus species have a basic chromosome number of seven. Polyploidy from the diploid (14 chromosomes) to the tetradecaploid (98 chromosomes) is exhibited.

Some treatments have recognized dozens of species each for what other, comparably qualified botanists have considered single, more variable species. On the other hand, species in the other Rubus subgenera (such as the raspberries) are generally distinct, or else involved in more routine one-or-a-few taxonomic debates, such as whether the European and American red raspberries are better treated as one species or two. (In this case, the two-species view is followed here, with Rubus idaeus and R. strigosus both recognized; if these species are combined, then the older name R. idaeus has priority for the broader species.)

Molecular data have backed up classifications based on geography and chromosome number, but following morphological data, such as the structure of the leaves and stems, do not appear to produce a phylogenetic classification.[8]

The classification presented below[citation needed] recognizes 13 subgenera within Rubus, with the largest subgenus (Rubus) in turn divided into 12 sections. Representative examples are presented, but many more species are not mentioned here.

  • Subgenus Comaropsis
    • Rubus geoides
  • Subgenus Diemenicus
    • Rubus gunnianus
  • Subgenus Dalibardastrum
  • Subgenus Lampobatus
    • Rubus acanthophyllos
    • Rubus adenothallus
    • Rubus adenotrichos
    • Rubus betonicifolius
    • Rubus bogotensis
    • Rubus briareus
    • Rubus bullatus
    • Rubus choachiensis
    • Rubus coriaceus
    • Rubus costaricanus
    • Rubus eggersii
    • Rubus eriocarpus
    • Rubus fagifolius
    • Rubus florulentus
    • Rubus gachetensis
    • Rubus giganteus
    • Rubus glabratus
    • Rubus glaucus
    • Rubus hondurensis
    • Rubus imperialis
    • Rubus irasuensis
    • Rubus macvaughianus
    • Rubus megalococcus
    • Rubus nubigenus
    • Rubus peruvianus
    • Rubus roseus
    • Rubus sapidus
    • Rubus shankii
    • Rubus trichomallus
    • Rubus turquinensis
  • Subgenus Malachobatus
    • Rubus acuminatus
    • Rubus alceifolius
    • Rubus assamensis
    • Rubus bambusarum
    • Rubus buergeri
    • Rubus chroosepalus
    • Rubus chrysophyllus
    • Rubus elongatus
    • Rubus fairholmianus
    • Rubus flagelliflorus
    • Rubus fockei
    • Rubus formosensis
    • Rubus gardnerianus
    • Rubus glomeratus
    • Rubus henryi
    • Rubus hunanensis
    • Rubus ichangensis
    • Rubus irenaeus
    • Rubus kawakamii
    • Rubus lambertianus
    • Rubus lineatus
    • Rubus moluccanus
    • Rubus multibracteatus
    • Rubus paniculatus
    • Rubus parkeri
    • Rubus pseudosieboldii
    • Rubus pyrifolius
    • Rubus rolfei
    • Rubus rugosus
    • Rubus setchuenensis
    • Rubus sieboldii
    • Rubus splendidissimus
    • Rubus swinhoei
    • Rubus tephrodes
    • Rubus tiliaceus
    • Rubus wardii
    • Rubus xanthoneurus
  • Subgenus Orobatus
    • Rubus loxensis
  • Subgenus Rubus (formerly known as subgenus Eubatus)
    • Sections
      • Sect. Allegheniensis
      • Sect. Arguti
      • Sect. Caesii
      • Sect. Canadenses
      • Sect. Corylifolii
        • Rubus adenoleucus
        • Rubus aureolus
        • Rubus babingtonianus
        • Rubus britannicus
        • Rubus camptostachys
        • Rubus conjungens
        • Rubus cyclomorphus
        • Rubus dissimulans
        • Rubus dumetorum
        • Rubus eluxatus
        • Rubus fabrimontanus
        • Rubus fioniae
        • Rubus gothicus
        • Rubus lamprocaulos
        • Rubus mortensenii
        • Rubus nemorosus
        • Rubus seebergensis
        • Rubus tuberculatus
        • Rubus wahlbergii
      • Sect. Cuneifolii
        • Rubus cuneifolius
      • Sect. Flagellares
      • Sect. Hispidi
      • Sect. Rubus (also known as Rubus fruticosus agg.)
        • Rubus acheruntinus
        • Rubus adornatus
        • Rubus adspersus
        • Rubus ahenifolius
        • Rubus alterniflorus
        • Rubus ammobius
        • Rubus amplificatus
        • Rubus anglocandicans
        • Rubus angustifrons
        • Rubus armeniacus (syn. R. discolor)
        • Rubus arrhenii
        • Rubus atrichantherus
        • Rubus axillaris
        • Rubus bakerianus
        • Rubus bavaricus
        • Rubus bayeri
        • Rubus bertramii
        • Rubus bifrons
        • Rubus bloxamianus
        • Rubus bloxamii
        • Rubus bollei
        • Rubus boraeanus
        • Rubus braeuckeri
        • Rubus bregutiensis
        • Rubus calvatus
        • Rubus canescens
        • Rubus cardiophyllus
        • Rubus caucasicus
        • Rubus chlorocladus
        • Rubus chlorothyrsos
        • Rubus chrysoxylon
        • Rubus cimbricus
        • Rubus cissburiensis
        • Rubus clusii
        • Rubus colemannii
        • Rubus concolor
        • Rubus conothyrsoides
        • Rubus cordifolius
        • Rubus cyri
        • Rubus dasyphyllus
        • Rubus divaricatus
        • Rubus diversus
        • Rubus drejeri
        • Rubus dumnoniensis
        • Rubus echinatoides
        • Rubus echinatus
        • Rubus egregius
        • Rubus eianus
        • Rubus ergii
        • Rubus errabundus
        • Rubus erythrops
        • Rubus fissus
        • Rubus foliosus
        • Rubus formidabilis
        • Rubus furvicolor
        • Rubus fuscoater
        • Rubus fuscus
        • Rubus gelertii
        • Rubus georgicus
        • Rubus glandithyrsos
        • Rubus glanduliger
        • Rubus glandulosus
        • Rubus godronii
        • Rubus grabowskii
        • Rubus gratus
        • Rubus gremlii
        • Rubus hartmanii
        • Rubus hirtus
        • Rubus hylophilus
        • Rubus ieri
        • Rubus inermis
        • Rubus infestus
        • Rubus insularis
        • Rubus laciniatus
        • Rubus lamprophyllus
        • Rubus lespinassei
        • Rubus leucostachys
        • Rubus linkianus
        • Rubus macrophyllus
        • Rubus micans
        • Rubus miszczenkoi
        • Rubus montanus
        • Rubus moschus
        • Rubus mucronulatus
        • Rubus mulleri
        • Rubus nessensis
        • Rubus nitidioides
        • Rubus pedatifolius
        • Rubus pedemontanus
        • Rubus piceetorum
        • Rubus plicatus
        • Rubus polyanthemus
        • Rubus praecox
        • Rubus promachonicus
        • Rubus pyramidalis
        • Rubus radula
        • Rubus rhamnifolius
        • Rubus rhombifolius
        • Rubus rosaceus
        • Rubus rubritinctus
        • Rubus rudis
        • Rubus sanctus
        • Rubus scheutzii
        • Rubus schlechtendalii
        • Rubus schleicheri
        • Rubus senticosus
        • Rubus separinus
        • Rubus septentrionalis
        • Rubus slesvicensis
        • Rubus sprengelii
        • Rubus sulcatus
        • Rubus thyrsiflorus
        • Rubus ulmifolius
        • Rubus vestitus
        • Rubus vigorosus
        • Rubus vulgaris
      • Sect. Setosi
        • Rubus glandicaulis
        • Rubus missouricus
        • Rubus notatus
        • Rubus semisetosus
        • Rubus setosus
        • Rubus stipulatus
        • Rubus vermontanus
      • Sect. Ursini
      • Sect. Verotriviales
        • Rubus lucidus
        • Rubus riograndis
        • Rubus trivialis

See also[edit]

List of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus


  1. ^ a b "Rubus L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  2. ^ "Rubus L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-06-27. 
  3. ^ Klein, Carol (2009). Grow your own fruit. United Kingdom: Mitchell Beazley. p. 224. ISBN 9781845334345. 
  4. ^ Quattrocchi, Umberto (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2345. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. 
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ "Plant Heritage - National Collections Scheme, UK Garden Plants". Retrieved 20 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Ardle, John (July 2013). "Hybris vigour". The Garden. 
  8. ^ Lawrence A. Alice and Christopher S. Campbell (1999). "Phylogeny of Rubus (rosaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America) 86 (1): 81–97. doi:10.2307/2656957. JSTOR 2656957. PMID 21680348. 

External links[edit]