Rubin Carter

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Rubin Carter
Rubin Carter 4.jpg
Carter in 2011
Statistics
Nickname(s)Hurricane
Rated atMiddleweight
Height1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1937-05-06) May 6, 1937 (age 76)
Clifton, New Jersey
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights40
Wins27
Wins by KO19
Losses12
Draws1
No contests

0

Rubin "The Hurricane" Carter
 
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Rubin Carter
Rubin Carter 4.jpg
Carter in 2011
Statistics
Nickname(s)Hurricane
Rated atMiddleweight
Height1.73 m (5 ft 8 in)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1937-05-06) May 6, 1937 (age 76)
Clifton, New Jersey
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights40
Wins27
Wins by KO19
Losses12
Draws1
No contests

0

Rubin "The Hurricane" Carter

Rubin "Hurricane" Carter (born May 6, 1937) is an American retired middleweight boxer.

In 1966, police arrested Carter for a triple homicide in the Lafayette Bar and Grill in Paterson, New Jersey. Police stopped Carter's car and brought him and another occupant, John Artis, to the scene of the crime. There was little physical evidence. Police took no fingerprints at the crime scene and lacked the facilities to conduct a paraffin test for gunshot residue. None of the eyewitnesses identified Carter or Artis as the shooters. Carter and Artis were tried and convicted twice (1967 and 1976) for the murders, but after the second conviction was overturned in 1985, prosecutors chose not to try the case for a third time.

Carter's autobiography, titled "The Sixteenth Round", was published in 1975 by Warner Books. The story inspired the 1975 Bob Dylan song Hurricane.

From 1993 to 2005, Carter served as executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted.

Early life[edit]

Carter was born in Clifton, New Jersey, the fourth of seven children.[1] He acquired a criminal record and was sentenced to a juvenile reformatory for assault shortly after his 14th birthday. Carter escaped from the reformatory in 1954 and joined the Army.[2] A few months after completing infantry basic training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, he was sent to West Germany.[3] While in Germany Carter began to box for the United States Army.[4]

In May 1956, he received an "Undesirable" discharge, having failed to complete his three-year term of enlistment.[5] He was arrested less than a month later for his escape from the Jamesburg Home for Boys. After his return to New Jersey, Carter was picked up by authorities and sentenced to an additional nine months, five of which he served in Annandale prison. Shortly after being released, Carter committed a series of muggings, including assault and robbery of a middle-aged black woman. He pleaded guilty to the charges and was imprisoned in East Jersey State Prison (formerly Rahway State Prison) in Avenel, New Jersey, a maximum-security facility, where he remained for the next four years,[5] and spent time in the Rahway and Trenton state prisons.

Boxing career[edit]

Rubin Carter

After his release from prison in September 1961, Carter became a professional boxer .[6] At 5 ft 8 in (1.7 m), Carter was shorter than the average middleweight, but he fought all of his professional career at 155–160 lb (70–72.6 kg). His aggressive style and punching power (resulting in many early-round knockouts) drew attention, establishing him as a crowd favorite and earning him the nickname "Hurricane." After he defeated a number of middleweight contenders—such as Florentino Fernandez, Holley Mims, Gomeo Brennan, and George Benton—the boxing world took notice. The Ring first listed him as one of its "Top 10" middleweight contenders in July 1963.

He fought six times in 1963, winning four bouts and losing two.[6] He remained ranked in the lower part of the top 10 until December 20, when he surprised the boxing world by flooring past and future world champion Emile Griffith twice in the first round and scoring a technical knockout.

That win resulted in The Ring' ranking Carter as the number three contender for Joey Giardello's world middleweight title. Carter won two more fights (one a decision over future heavyweight champion Jimmy Ellis) in 1964, before meeting Giardello in Philadelphia for a 15-round championship match on December 14. Carter fought well in the early rounds, landing a few solid rights to the head and staggering Giardello in the fourth—but failed to follow them up, and Giardello took control of the fight in the fifth round. The judges awarded Giardello a unanimous decision.

Carter felt in retrospect that he lost by not bringing the fight to the champion.[7]

After that fight, Carter's standing as a contender—as reflected by his ranking in The Ring—began to decline. He fought nine times in 1965, but lost three of four fights against top contenders (Luis Manuel Rodríguez, Dick Tiger, and Harry Scott).[6] Tiger, in particular, floored Carter three times in their match. "It was," Carter said, "the worst beating that I took in my life—inside or outside the ring."[8] During his visit to London (to fight Scott) Carter was involved in an incident in which a shot was fired in his hotel room.[9]

Carter's career record in boxing was 27 wins, 12 losses, and one draw in 40 fights, with 19 total knockouts (8 KOs and 11 TKOs).[10]

He received an honorary championship title belt from the World Boxing Council in 1993 (as did Joey Giardello at the same banquet) and was later inducted into the New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame.[6]

Homicides[edit]

On June 17, 1966, at approximately 2:30 a.m., two males entered the Lafayette Bar and Grill at East 18th Street at Lafayette Street in Paterson, New Jersey and started shooting.[11] The bartender, James Oliver, and a male customer, Fred Nauyoks, were killed instantly. A severely wounded female customer, Hazel Tanis, died almost a month later, having been shot in the throat, stomach, intestine, spleen and left lung, and having her arm shattered by shotgun pellets. A third customer, Willie Marins, survived the attack, despite a gunshot wound to the head that cost him the sight in one eye. During questioning, both Marins and Tanis told police that the shooters had been black males, though neither identified Carter or John Artis.

Petty criminal Alfred Bello, who had been near the Lafayette that night to burglarize a factory, was an eyewitness. Bello later testified that he was approaching the Lafayette when two black males—one carrying a shotgun, the other a pistol—came around the corner walking towards him.[12] He ran from them, and they got into a white car that was double-parked near the Lafayette.[11]

Bello was one of the first people on the scene of the shootings, as was Patricia Graham (later Patricia Valentine), a resident on the second floor (above the Lafayette Bar and Grill). Graham told the police that she saw two black males get into a white car and drive westbound.[citation needed] Another neighbor, Ronald Ruggiero, also heard the shots, and said that, from his window, he saw Alfred Bello running west on Lafayette Street toward 16th Street. He then heard the screech of tires and saw a white car shoot past, heading west, with two black males in the front seat.[citation needed] Both Bello and Valentine gave police a description of the car, which changed at the second court case: Valentine claimed that the lights lit up like butterflies, which Carter's car did not have; only the two end lights lit up.[13]

Investigation, indictment and first conviction[edit]

Carter was driving a white Dodge, matching the description of the car as white,[14] and police stopped it and brought Carter and another occupant, John Artis, to the scene about 31 minutes after the incident. There was little physical evidence; police took no fingerprints at the crime scene, and lacked the facilities to test Carter and Artis for gunshot residue. None of the eyewitnesses identified Carter or Artis as the shooters. Carter, in fact, was brought to the hospital the evening of the shooting at approximately 4 a.m., and victim Willie Marins identified Carter as not one of the shooters.[13] On searching the car about 45 minutes later, Detective Emil DiRobbio found a live .32 caliber pistol round under the front passenger seat and a 12-gauge shotgun shell in the trunk. Ballistics later established that the murder weapons had been a .32 caliber pistol and a 12-gauge shotgun.[12] The defense later raised questions about this evidence, as it was not logged with a property clerk until five days after the murders.[15]

Police took Carter and Artis to police headquarters and questioned them. Witnesses did not identify them as the killers, and they were released.[14]

Several months later, Bello disclosed to the police that he had an accomplice during the attempted burglary, one Arthur Dexter Bradley. On further questioning, Bello and Bradley both identified Carter as one of the two males they had seen carrying weapons outside the bar the night of the murders. Bello also identified Artis as the other. Based on this additional evidence, Carter and Artis were arrested and indicted.[16]

At the 1967 trial, Carter was represented by well-known attorney Raymond A. Brown.[17] Brown focused on inconsistencies in some of the descriptions given by eyewitnesses Marins and Bello.[18] The defense also produced a number of alibi witnesses who testified that Carter and Artis had been in the Nite Spot (another nearby bar) at about the time of the shootings.[12] Both men were convicted. Prosecutors sought the death penalty, but jurors recommended that each defendant receive a life sentence for each murder. Judge Samuel Larner imposed two consecutive and one concurrent life sentence on Carter, and three concurrent life sentences on Artis.

In 1974, Bello and Bradley recanted their identifications of Carter and Artis, and these recantations were used as the basis for a motion for a new trial. Judge Samuel Larner denied the motion on December 11, saying that the recantations "lacked the ring of truth."[19]

Despite Larner's ruling, Madison Avenue advertising guru George Lois organized a campaign on Carter's behalf, which led to increasing public support for a retrial or pardon. Muhammad Ali lent his support to the campaign, and Bob Dylan co-wrote (with Jacques Levy) and performed a song called "Hurricane" (1975), which declared that Carter was innocent. In 1975 Dylan performed the song at a concert at Trenton State Prison, where Carter was temporarily an inmate.

However, during the hearing on the recantations, defense attorneys also argued that Bello and Bradley had lied during the 1967 trial, telling the jurors that they had made only certain narrow, limited deals with prosecutors in exchange for their trial testimony. A detective taped one interrogation of Bello in 1966, and when it was played during the recantation hearing, defense attorneys argued that the tape revealed promises beyond what Bello had testified to. If so, prosecutors had either had a Brady obligation to disclose this additional exculpatory evidence, or a duty to disclose the fact that their witnesses had lied on the stand.

Larner denied this second argument as well, but the New Jersey Supreme Court unanimously held that the evidence of various deals made between the prosecution and witnesses Bello and Bradley should have been disclosed to the defense before or during the 1967 trial as this could have "affected the jury's evaluation of the credibility" of the eyewitnesses. "The defendants' right to a fair trial was substantially prejudiced," said Justice Mark Sullivan.[12] The court set aside the original convictions and granted Carter and Artis a new trial.

Despite the difficulties of prosecuting a ten-year-old case, Prosecutor Burrell Ives Humphreys decided to try Carter and Artis again. To ensure, as best he could, that he did not use perjured testimony to obtain a conviction, Humphreys had Bello polygraphed—once by Leonard H. Harrelson and a second time by Richard Arther, both well-known and respected experts in the field.[citation needed] Both men concluded that Bello was telling the truth when he said that he had seen Carter outside the Lafayette immediately after the murders.[citation needed]

However, Harrelson also reported orally that Bello had been inside the bar shortly before and at the time of the shooting, a conclusion that contradicted Bello's 1967 trial testimony.[20] Despite this oral report, Harrelson's subsequent written report stated that Bello's 1967 testimony had been truthful, the polygraphist apparently unaware that in 1967, Bello testified that he had been on the street at the time of the shooting.[20]

Second conviction and appeal[edit]

During the new trial, Alfred Bello repeated his 1967 testimony, identifying Carter and Artis as the two armed men he had seen outside the Lafayette Grill. Bradley refused to cooperate with prosecutors, and neither prosecution nor defense called him as a witness.

The defense responded with testimony from multiple witnesses who identified Carter at the locations he claimed to be at when the murders happened.[21]

Defense witness Fred Hogan—whose efforts had led to the discredited recantations of Bello and Bradley—dealt the defense yet another blow. Though Hogan denied offering any bribes or inducements to Bello,[22] Judge Bruno Leopizzi forced him to produce his original handwritten notes on his conversations with Bello.

The court also heard testimony from a Carter associate that Passaic County prosecutors had tried to pressure her into testifying against Carter. Prosecutors denied the charge.[23] After deliberating for almost nine hours, the jury again found Carter and Artis guilty of the murders. Judge Leopizzi re-imposed the same sentences on both men: a double life sentence for Carter, a single life sentence for Artis.

Artis was paroled in 1981.[24]

Carter's attorneys continued to appeal. In 1982, the Supreme Court of New Jersey affirmed his convictions (4–3). While the justices felt that the prosecutors should have disclosed Harrelson's oral opinion (about Bello's location at the time of the murders) to the defense, only a minority thought this was material. The majority thus concluded that the prosecution had not withheld information that the Brady disclosure law required that they provide to the defense.[25]

According to Carolyn Kelley, a 61-year-old from Newark working as a bail bondswoman in 1975, she was asked to get involved in the effort to win a new trial for Mr. Carter. She devoted more than a year to raising funds for Mr. Carter. Mr. Carter's appeal was upheld. In March 1976, Mr. Carter was released on bail to await a new trial. A few weeks later, Mrs. Kelly says the boxer beat her into unconsciousness in his hotel room during a meeting she sought with him over affairs relating to her involvement with his cause. Rumors of the beating got out. Finally, Chuck Stone, a columnist for the Philadelphia Daily News, broke the story of the alleged beating in a front-page article. After Mr. Stone's column ran, the alleged beating became a national story. Mr. Carter's celebrity support melted away.[26]

Federal court action[edit]

Three years later, Carter's attorneys filed a petition for a writ of habeas corpus in federal court. In 1985, Judge Haddon Lee Sarokin of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey granted the writ, noting that the prosecution had been "predicated upon an appeal to racism rather than reason, and concealment rather than disclosure," and set aside the convictions.[27]

Carter, 48 years old, was freed without bail in November 1985.[28]

Prosecutors appealed Sarokin's ruling to the Third Circuit Court of Appeals and filed a motion with the court to return Carter to prison pending the outcome of the appeal.[29][30] The court denied this motion and eventually upheld Sarokin's opinion, affirming his Brady analysis without commenting on his other rationale.[31]

The prosecutors appealed to the United States Supreme Court, which declined to hear the case.[11][32]

Prosecutors could have tried Carter (and Artis) a third time, but decided not to, and filed a motion to dismiss the original indictments. "It is just not legally feasible to sustain a prosecution, and not practical after almost 22 years to be trying anyone," said New Jersey Attorney General W. Cary Edwards. Acting Passaic County Prosecutor John P. Goceljak said several factors made a retrial impossible, including Bello's "current unreliability" as a witness and the unavailability of other witnesses. Goceljak also doubted whether the prosecution could reintroduce the racially motivated crime theory due to the federal court rulings.[33] A judge granted the motion to dismiss, bringing an end to the legal proceedings.[34]

Aftermath[edit]

As of May 2013, Carter lives in Toronto, Ontario, and was executive director of the Association in Defence of the Wrongly Convicted (AIDWYC) from 1993 until 2005. Carter resigned when the AIDWYC declined to support Carter's protest of the appointment (to a judgeship) of Susan MacLean, who was the prosecutor of Canadian Guy Paul Morin,[35] who served ten years in prison for rape and murder until exonerated by DNA evidence.[36]

In 1996 Carter, then 59, was arrested when Toronto police mistakenly identified him as a suspect in his thirties believed to have sold drugs to an undercover officer. He was released after the police realized their error.[37]

Carter often serves as a motivational speaker. On October 14, 2005, he received two honorary Doctorates of Law, one from York University (Toronto, Ontario, Canada) and one from Griffith University (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia), in recognition of his work with AIDWYC and the Innocence Project. Carter received the Abolition Award from Death Penalty Focus in 1996.

Popular culture[edit]

Carter's story inspired:

Carter also appeared as himself in Dylan's 1978 movie Renaldo and Clara.[40]

Professional boxing record[edit]

27 Wins (19 knockouts, 8 decisions), 12 Losses (1 knockout, 11 decisions), 1 Draw [1]
ResultRecordOpponentTypeRoundDateLocationNotes
Loss52-13-3Argentina Juan Carlos RiveroPTS1006/08/1966Argentina Rosario, Santa Fe
Draw18-4United States Wilbert McClurePTS1008/03/1966United States Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio
Win37-14-3United States Ernest BurfordKO826/02/1966South Africa Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg, Gauteng
Loss59-16-2United States Stan HarringtonPTS1025/01/1966United States Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii
Loss25-9United States Johnny MorrisSD1018/01/1966United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania44-47, 45-47, 47-44.
Win18-3United States Wilbert McClureSD1008/01/1966United States Aragon Ballroom, Chicago, Illinois
Win45-6-1South Africa Joe N'GidiTKO218/09/1965South Africa Orlando Stadium, Johannesburg, Gauteng
Loss63-4Cuba Luis Manuel RodriguezUD1026/08/1965United States Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California3-7, 2-7, 4-5.
Win21-1-1United States Fate DavisTKO114/07/1965United States Akron, OhioReferee stopped the bout at 1:26 of the first round.
Loss50-16-3Nigeria Dick TigerUD1020/05/1965United States Madison Square Garden, New York City1-9, 1-8, 2-6.
Win18-23-6United States Johnny TorresTKO930/04/1965United States Paterson, New Jersey
Loss22-15-4United Kingdom Harry ScottPTS1020/04/1965United Kingdom Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London
Win22-14-4United Kingdom Harry ScottTKO909/03/1965United Kingdom Royal Albert Hall, Kensington, London
Win20-11-7France Fabio BettiniKO1022/02/1965France Palais des Sports, Paris
Loss57-4Cuba Luis Manuel RodriguezUD1012/02/1965United States Madison Square Garden, New York City3-6, 3-7, 3-7.
Loss96-24-8United States Joey GiardelloUD1514/12/1964United States Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaWBC/WBA World Middleweight Titles. 66-72, 66-71, 67-70.
Win8-3-1United States Clarence JamesTKO124/06/1964United States Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, CaliforniaReferee stopped the bout at 1:54 of the first round.
Win14-2United States Jimmy EllisUD1028/02/1964United States Madison Square Garden, New York City7-2, 6-3, 7-3.
Win38-4United States Virgin Islands Emile GriffithTKO120/12/1963United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaReferee stopped the bout at 2:13 of the first round.
Loss36-1United States Joey ArcherSD1025/10/1963United States Madison Square Garden, New York City4-5, 5-4, 4-6.
Win38-4-3Argentina Farid SalimUD1014/09/1963United States Pittsburgh Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania50-40, 50-41, 49-45.
Win48-7-1United States George BentonSD1025/05/1963United States Madison Square Garden, New York City4-5, 6-4, 7-2.
Loss23-7-1Puerto Rico Jose "Monon" GonzalezTKO630/03/1963United States Madison Square Garden, New York City
Win52-7-5The Bahamas Gomeo BrennanUD1002/02/1963United States Madison Square Garden, New York City9-1, 8-1, 7-3.
Win59-23-6United States Holly MimsUD1022/12/1962United States Madison Square Garden, New York City6-3, 6-3, 7-3.
Win31-5Cuba Florentino "The Ox" FernandezKO127/10/1962United States Madison Square Garden, New York CityFernandez knocked out at 1:09 of the first round.
Win22-20-2United States Mel CollinsTKO508/10/1962United States Jersey City Armory, Jersey City, New JerseyReferee stopped the bout at 0:42 of the fifth round.
Win25-10-1United States Ernest BurfordTKO204/08/1962United States Madison Square Garden, New York CityReferee stopped the bout at 2:17 of the second round.
Loss24-10-1United States Ernest BurfordUD823/06/1962United States Madison Square Garden, New York City
Win53-20-5Aruba Sugar Boy NandoTKO321/05/1962United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York City
Win8-4-1United States Walter McDanielsTKO230/04/1962United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York City
Win13-2United States Johnny TuckerTKO116/04/1962United States St. Nicholas Arena, New York CityReferee stopped the bout at 1:05 of the first round.
Win2-8United States Jimmy McMillanKO316/03/1962United States Jersey City Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey
Win3-9-2Puerto Rico Felix SantiagoKO128/02/1962United States State Garden, Union City, New Jersey
Win5-8United States Tommy SettlesKO114/02/1962United States State Garden, Union City, New Jersey
Loss9-3United States Herschel JacobsPTS619/01/1962United States Gladiators Arena, Totowa, New Jersey
Win7-2United States Herschel JacobsPTS417/11/1961United States Gladiators Arena, Totowa, New Jersey
Win1-0United States Frank NelsonTKO124/10/1961United States Alhambra A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Win1-0-1United States Joey CooperKO211/10/1961United States American Legion Arena, Reading, Pennsylvania
Win1-0United States Pike ReedSD422/09/1961United States Navy-Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, Annapolis, Maryland

References[edit]

  1. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott C. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter still fighting long after boxing days pass". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  2. ^ McLaughlin, Eliott C. "Rubin 'Hurricane' Carter still fighting long after boxing days pass". CNN. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  3. ^ Houston, Frank. "Storm of the century". Salon. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  4. ^ Houston, Frank. "Storm of the century". Salon. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "Rubin Carter is a Substantial Threat to the Community", filed by the Passaic County Prosecutor's Office in December 1985
  6. ^ a b c d "Rubin Carter 'Hurricane'". New Jersey Boxing Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  7. ^ Lipsyte, Robert (2000-03-12). "Once Again, Giardello Is in the Eye of the Storm". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "Joey clearly deserved his unanimous decision. Afterward, he said that Carter "isn't a bad fighter" and admitted that he had him confused early and never fell for any of my feints. Carter's failing was not attacking inside. "He just kept looking for that one shot to knock me out," Giardello said." 
  8. ^ "Dick Tiger: The Life and Times of a Boxing Immortal (Part three) by Adeyinka Makinde". Hometown.aol.com. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  9. ^ Duff, Mickey (1999). Twenty and Out: A Life in Boxing. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-218926-2. 
  10. ^ "Rubin Carter". Boxrec. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "won 27 (KO 19) + lost 12 (KO 1) + drawn 1 = 40 rounds boxed 256 : KO% 47.5" 
  11. ^ a b c Raab, Selwyn (January 12, 1988). "Supreme Court Refuses to Revive Hurricane Carter's Murder Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "The United States Supreme Court refused yesterday to consider reinstating the triple-murder convictions of Rubin (Hurricane) Carter and John Artis. It was the latest and perhaps the last chapter in a tangled 21-year legal struggle." 
  12. ^ a b c d "The Seventeenth Round". Time. 1976-03-29. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  13. ^ a b Wice, Paul B (2000). Rubin "Hurricane" Carter and the American Justice System. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-2864-9. 
  14. ^ a b Houston, Frank. "Storm of the century". Salon. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "Hurricane Carter Case Back in Court". Nytimes.com. 1987-03-30. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  16. ^ "Carter Artis arrest report, 1966". Graphicwitness.com. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  17. ^ Berger, Joseph. "Raymond A. Brown, Civil Rights Lawyer, Dies at 94", The New York Times, October 11, 2009. Accessed October 12, 2009.
  18. ^ "Microsoft Word - Valentine 1967 Trial Testi.doc" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  19. ^ Hirsch, James S. (2000). Hurricane: The Miraculous Journey of Rubin Carter. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 120. ISBN 0618087281, 9780618087280 Check |isbn= value (help). 
  20. ^ a b "826 F2d 1299 Carter v. J Rafferty I Artis". OpenJurist. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  21. ^ Maitland, Leslie (1976-12-12). "Testimony Supports Rubin Carter's Alibi". New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  22. ^ Maitland, Leslie (1976-12-10). "Rubin Carter Jury Hears Investigator Deny Bribe Offers". New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  23. ^ Raab, Selwyn (1976-10-14). "An Ex-Associate of Rubin Carter Charges 'Pressure' by Prosecution". New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  24. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 15, 1981). "Artis Wins Parole". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "John Artis, who was convicted twice with Rubin (Hurricane) Carter of killing three persons in a Paterson, N.J., bar holdup 15 years ago, will be paroled from Rahway State Prison on December 22, the New Jersey Parole Board announced yesterday. Mr. Artis, 35 years old, was sentenced to a ..." 
  25. ^ Rhoden, William; Levine, Richard (1982-08-22). "Rubin Carter's Plea Rejected". New York Times (New York, NY). Retrieved 2010-04-17. 
  26. ^ Newark Star-Ledger Columnist February 4, 2000 Retrieved 08/25/2013
  27. ^ Carter v. Rafferty, 621 F. Supp. 533, 534 (D.N.J. 1985).
  28. ^ "Supreme Court Refuses to Revive Hurricane Carter's Murder Case". The New York Times. 1988-01-12. 
  29. ^ Carter v. Rafferty, 826 F.2d 1299 (3rd Cir. 1987)
  30. ^ "Court Urged to Return Rubin Carter to Prison". The New York Times. Associated Press. December 20, 1985. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "Prosecutors have petitioned a Federal appeals court to return Rubin (Hurricane) Carter to prison. A judge ordered Mr. Carter's release last month on the ground that his conviction in a 1966 triple murder had been based on racism." 
  31. ^ "U.S. Court Refuses to Order Rubin Carter Back to Prison". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 19, 1986. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "A Federal appeals court has denied a request by New Jersey prosecutors that Rubin (Hurricane) Carter be returned to prison while they appeal a dismissal of his 1977 murder conviction. A three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit here denied the request by ..." 
  32. ^ Carter v. Rafferty, 484 U.S. 1011 (1988)
  33. ^ Raab, Selwyn (February 20, 1988). "Jersey Ends Move to Retry Rubin Carter". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-01-24. "New Jersey prosecutors said yesterday that they would not try Rubin (Hurricane) Carter and John Artis a third time for a triple-murder in a case that provoked national attention over charges that the authorities had framed both men." 
  34. ^ "Judge Drops Murder Charges in the Hurricane Carter Case". Nytimes.com. 1988-02-27. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  35. ^ http://injusticebusters.org/04/Carter_Rubin.shtml
  36. ^ "Morin, Guy Paul". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 18 April 2012. 
  37. ^ "World News Briefs; American Boxer May Sue Toronto Police for Arrest". The New York Times. 14 April 1996. Retrieved 2009-02-08. 
  38. ^ Algren, Nelson (1 January 2006). The Devil's Stocking. Seven Stories Press. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-58322-699-5. 
  39. ^ Parmar, Raj. "Dare To Dream: Rubin "Hurricane" Carter Shares His Thoughts", 3MoreRounds.com, February 22, 2011
  40. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0141918/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]