Rotwelsch or Gaunersprache (from the German Gauner "criminal" and Sprache "language") is a secret language, a cant or thieves' argot, spoken by covert groups primarily in southern Germany and Switzerland.
Rotwelsch was formerly common among travelling craftspeople and vagrants. The language is built on a strong substratum of German, but contains numerous words from other languages, notably from various German dialects, including Yiddish, as well as from Romany languages, notably Sintitikes. There are also significant influences from Judæo-Latin, the ancient Jewish language of the Roman Empire. Rotwelsch has also played a great role in the development of the Yeniche language. In form and development, it closely parallels the commercial speech ("shopkeeper language") of German-speaking regions.
Because of its development as a means of conveying information about goods and transactions, Rotwelsch has no terms for abstractions. For example, it has no direct translations for the seasons such as spring and autumn. Instead, it uses Bibberling (literally, "shivering") and Hitzling (literally, "heat") in place of season names.
Other vocabulary examples, compared to their German counterparts, include:
Schokelmei = Kaffee (coffee)
schenigeln = arbeiten (to work)
Krauter = Chef eines Handwerkbetriebes (master artisan)
brennen (literally 'to burn') = Extortion, but also to collect the "thieves' portion" with companions. The analogy between distilling spirits (Branntweinbrennen) and taking a good gulp of the portion (Anteil) is obvious.
Variants of Rotwelsch, sometimes toned-down, can still be heard among travelling craftspeople and funfair showpeople as well as among vagrants and beggars. Also, in some southwestern and western locales in Germany, where travelling peoples were settled, many Rotwelsch terms have entered the vocabulary of the vernacular, for instance in the municipalities of Schillingsfürst and Schopfloch. A couple of Rotwelsch words have entered the colloquial language, for example, "aufmucken", "Bau", "berappen". "Baldowern" or "ausbaldowern" is very common in Berlin dialect; "Bombe" is still used in German prison jargon. The Manisch dialect of the German city of Gießen is still used, although was only spoken fluently by approximately 700-750 people in 1976.
Rotwelsch in the arts
A variant of Rotwelsch was spoken by some American criminal groups in the 1930s and '40s, and harpist Zeena Parkins' 1996 album Mouth=Maul=Betrayer made use of spoken Rotwelsch texts.
An example of Rotwelsch is found in Gustav Meyrink's Der Golem and reads as follows: An Beindel von Eisen recht alt.An Stranzen net gar a so kalt.Messinung, a' Räucherl und Rohn,und immerrr nurr putzen.Und stoken sich Aufzug und Pfiff,und schmallern an eisernes G'süff.Juch,Und Handschuhkren, Harom net san.