Roti

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Roti
Chapati.jpg
Indian flat roti, also known as chapati
Place of origin:
Indian subcontinent[1]
Region or state:
Indian subcontinent
Main ingredient(s):
atta flour
Variations:
Chapati, Makki di roti, Tandoori roti, Roti canai
Recipes at Wikibooks:
Cookbook Roti
Media at Wikimedia Commons:
Wikimedia Commons  Roti
 
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Roti
Chapati.jpg
Indian flat roti, also known as chapati
Place of origin:
Indian subcontinent[1]
Region or state:
Indian subcontinent
Main ingredient(s):
atta flour
Variations:
Chapati, Makki di roti, Tandoori roti, Roti canai
Recipes at Wikibooks:
Cookbook Roti
Media at Wikimedia Commons:
Wikimedia Commons  Roti

Roti is generally an Indian bread, made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta flour, that originated and is consumed in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is also consumed in parts of South Africa, the southern Caribbean, particularly in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname, and Fiji. Its defining characteristic is that it is unleavened. Indian naan bread, by contrast, is a yeast-leavened bread. A kulcha in Indian cuisine is a bread-like accompaniment, made of processed flour ("Maida") leavened with yeast.

Roti and its thinner variant, known as chapati, are integral to Indian and Pakistani cuisine.[2][3]

Etymology[edit]

The word roti is derived from the Sanskrit word रोटिका (roṭikā), meaning "bread".[4] Names in other languages are Hindi: रोटी; Assamese: ৰুটী; Nepali : रोटी; Bengali: রুটি; Sinhala: රොටි; Marathi: पोळी; Oriya: ରୁଟି; Malayalam: റൊട്ടി; Kannada: ರೊಟ್ಟಿ; Telugu: రొట్టి; Tamil: ரொட்டி; Urdu: روٹی‎; Dhivehi: ރޮށި; Punjabi: ਰੋਟੀ,ਫੂਲਕਾ; Thai: โรตี. It is also known as rotli in Gujarati, maani in Sindhi and phulka in Punjabi and Saraiki.

South Asia[edit]

Many different variations of flat breads are found in many cultures across the globe, from South Asia to the Americas. The traditional flat bread originating from the South Asia is commonly known as roti; pronounced "rho tee". It is normally eaten with cooked vegetables or curries as in the goat roti; it can be called a carrier for curries or cooked vegetables. It is made most often from wheat flour, cooked on a flat or slightly concave iron griddle called a tawa. It is similar to the tortilla in appearance. Like breads around the world, roti is a staple accompaniment to other foods, and may be spread with ghee (clarified butter). In Iran, the two variants of this bread are: khaboos[5] and lavash. These two breads (the former of which is almost exactly prepared like Indian roti) are quite similar to other South Asian rotis.

In Sri Lanka, probably the most popular type of roti is pol roti (coconut roti), made of wheat flour, kurakkan flour or a mixture of both, and scraped coconut. Sometimes, chopped green chillies and onion are added to the mixture before cooking. These are usually thicker and harder than other roti types. They are usually eaten with curries, or some types of sambol or lunu miris and considered a main meal rather than a supplement.

Southeast Asia[edit]

A Thai "โรตีกล้วยไข่ /rɒtiː klûaj kʰàj/": roti with banana and egg, drizzled with sweetened condensed milk
Kerala / Ceylon roti (porotta) served with curry

In Indonesia, Malaysia, and Somalia, the term encompasses all forms of bread, including western-style bread, as well as the traditional Punjabi breads.

In Thailand, "โรตี" refers to the maida paratha—known in Indonesia as roti maryam, roti cane or roti konde, Malaysia as roti canai and in Singapore as roti prata—which is sometimes drizzled with condensed milk, rolled up, and eaten as a hot snack, or fried with egg as a larger dish.

West Indies[edit]

In the West Indies, roti is referred to in two ways, the roti itself and the roti used as wrap with any sort of savory stuffing. The traditional way of eating roti among Indo-Caribbeans at home is still to break the roti with their hands and to use it to sop up curry or stew.

The roti wrap is the commercialization of roti and curry as a fast-food item in the Caribbean. The wrap roti originated in southern Trinidad. It was first created in the mid-1940s by Sackina Karamath who later founded Hummingbird Roti Shop in San Fernando, Trinidad, to make it easier and faster to eat the items, as the individuals' hands would not get as dirty. In Trinidad and Tobago, various wrapped "roti" are served, including chicken, conch, beef, and vegetable. Shrimp and goat are also available. Because the roti acts as a wrap, numerous combinations can be made, but the most popular tend to be curried items.

Later, when Guyanese and Trinidadians moved to other Caribbean islands or to North American cities like Toronto, New York City, and Montreal, the wrapped roti is the version that most non-Indo-Caribbean people know as roti. It has also become popular among non-West Indians. As the popularity of the West Indian style roti grew in more recent times, some individuals and restaurants/commercial companies may now refer to a plain roti by itself as "roti shell or skin" to avoid confusion.

Roti features prominently in the diets of many West Indian countries, especially Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and Suriname. West Indian roti are primarily made from wheat flour, baking powder, salt, and water, and cooked on a tava. Certain rotis are also made with butter. Several types of roti are made in Guyana, Trinidad, and where ever else they settled.

Guyanese roti, clapped and ready to be eaten.

Depending on where Indians settled in Guyana, foods can be different. In some parts of Guyana, Dosti Roti is made. Indo-Guyanese food as a whole can be different from their Trinidadian brothers, including the names of many items.

In Suriname roti refers mainly to roti dahlpuri or roti aloopuri. It is most often eaten with chicken curry. Roti can also refer to a dish of stuffed and spiced roti wraps. It is custom to eat this dish by hand. Due to mass emigration of Indian Surinamese in the 1970s, roti became a popular take-out dish in the Netherlands. It usually includes chicken curry, potatoes, a boiled egg and various vegetables, most notably the kousenband or yardlong bean. Another variation includes shrimp and aubergine. The meat with gravy, potatoes, egg and yardlong beans are served side by side on a plate, with the aloopura folded in fours on top. One then has the option to spice the dish with a very hot chutney made of Madame Jeanette peppers.

Other dishes[edit]

A roti wrap with cream cheese and smoked chicken.
2 rolls of lamb roti roll

Roti, pronounced "Rooti" in Cape Town, is also a staple food source amongst many of the Indian, Asian and Cape coloured communities living in South Africa and is either eaten as a flat bread or a wrap with locally made curries.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Trinidad and Leeward Islands
FoodDescription
Sada rotiThis is a plain roti, made of white flour. Because it is the simplest roti to make, it is the most commonly consumed roti in Trinidad. It is a popular breakfast option in Trinidad, in combination with tomato and eggplant, and other vegetable dishes.
Paratha rotiA roti made with butter, usually ghee (Clarified Butter) but any butter can be used with it, the roti is put onto the tawa and butter is spread out onto it, partha eventually turns brown, and has more taste than the plain traditional roti, paratha is traditionally eaten with fried eggs and/or a cup of tea. Ghee is rubbed on both sides, then it is cooked on tawa (a round, flat metal griddle used in Indian cooking). This gives the roti a crisp outside. When it almost finished cooking, the cook begins to beat the roti while it is on the tawa, causing it to crumble. It is also called 'Buss-Up-Shut' in Trinidad.
PuriA roti where two layers are rolled out together and cooked on the tava. It is also rubbed with oil while cooking. It is called dosti roti because the word dosti means friendship in Hindi. This type of roti is eaten in Guyana with a special halva when a child is born.
Dhalpuri[6]A roti with a stuffing of ground yellow split peas, cumin (geera), garlic, and pepper. The split peas are boiled until they are al dente and then ground in a mill. The cumin is toasted until black and also ground. The stuffing is pushed into the roti dough, and sealed. When rolled flat, the filling is distributed within the roti. It is cooked on the tava and rubbed with oil for ease of cooking. This is the most popular roti.
Wrap rotiA popular sandwich made by folding a curry stew inside of a Dhalpuri roti skin. Curry stew normally contains potatoes and a meat of some sort like chicken, goat, beef or shrimp.
Piper rotiA wrap roti that usually contains only potatoes and gravy, and scrap meat. Piper roti got its name by being a cheaper alternative to purchasing a regular roti. The term "piper" is the local slang used to describe a drug addict; most of his money is spent on drugs and the little he has remaining will purchase food.
AloopuriA roti similar to a Dhalpuri but with aloo (potato) substituted for the dhal. The aloo is boiled, milled and spices and seasonings are added before being sealed in the dough. This aloo filling is also used when making aloo pie or aloo choka.