Rome, New York

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City of Rome
City
Oneida County Courthouse (1851)
Oneida County Courthouse (1851)
Motto: Center of It All
City of Rome is located in New York
City of Rome
City of Rome
Location within the state of New York[1]
Coordinates: 43°13′10″N 75°27′48″W / 43.21944°N 75.46333°W / 43.21944; -75.46333Coordinates: 43°13′10″N 75°27′48″W / 43.21944°N 75.46333°W / 43.21944; -75.46333
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
CountyOneida
Incorporated1870
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorJoseph Fusco, Jr. (Conservative)
 • Common Council
Area
 • Total75.7 sq mi (196.0 km2)
 • Land74.9 sq mi (194.1 km2)
 • Water0.8 sq mi (1.9 km2)  0.99%
Elevation456 ft (139 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total33,725
 • Density466.4/sq mi (180.1/km2)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)315
FIPS code36-63418
GNIS feature ID0962840
Websitehttp://romenewyork.com/
 
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City of Rome
City
Oneida County Courthouse (1851)
Oneida County Courthouse (1851)
Motto: Center of It All
City of Rome is located in New York
City of Rome
City of Rome
Location within the state of New York[1]
Coordinates: 43°13′10″N 75°27′48″W / 43.21944°N 75.46333°W / 43.21944; -75.46333Coordinates: 43°13′10″N 75°27′48″W / 43.21944°N 75.46333°W / 43.21944; -75.46333
CountryUnited States
StateNew York
CountyOneida
Incorporated1870
Government
 • TypeMayor-Council
 • MayorJoseph Fusco, Jr. (Conservative)
 • Common Council
Area
 • Total75.7 sq mi (196.0 km2)
 • Land74.9 sq mi (194.1 km2)
 • Water0.8 sq mi (1.9 km2)  0.99%
Elevation456 ft (139 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total33,725
 • Density466.4/sq mi (180.1/km2)
Time zoneEastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s)315
FIPS code36-63418
GNIS feature ID0962840
Websitehttp://romenewyork.com/

Rome is a city in New York State. It is located in Oneida County, which is in north-central or "Upstate" New York. The population was 33,725 at the 2010 census. Rome is one of two principal cities in the Utica-Rome Metropolitan Statistical Area, which lies in the "Leatherstocking Country" made famous by James Fenimore Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales. Rome is in New York's 22nd congressional district.

The city occupies a site that was important to the main 18th and 19th century waterway connecting the Atlantic seaboard of North America to the Great Lakes. The original settlements were associated with fortifications erected in the 1750s to defend the waterway, and in particular the British Fort Stanwix (1763). The development into a city began with the construction of the Rome Canal along the waterway in 1796, and in the same year the Town of Rome was formally created as a section of Oneida County. For a time, the small community immediately next to the canal was informally known as Lynchville, after the original owner of the property.[2][3] The Town of Rome was converted formally into a city by the New York State Legislature on February 23, 1870.[4] The residents have called Rome the City of American History.[5]

History[edit]

Oneida Carrying Place[edit]

This area has been of strategic importance for hundreds of years. It was located along an ancient Native American trade route extending from the Great Lakes and Canada via the Mohawk River to the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean. This site was known as the Oneida Carrying Place, known as Deo-Wain-Sta, or The Great Carrying Place to the Six Nations (Iroquois) or Haudenosaunee people in their language. These names refer to a portage road or path between the Mohawk River to the east and Wood Creek to the west, which leads to Lake Ontario. Now located within the modern Oneida city limits, this short portage path was the only overland section of a water trade route stretching over a thousand miles between Lake Ontario and the lower Hudson. Travelers and traders coming up the Mohawk River from the Hudson had to transfer their cargo and boats overland between 1.7 and six miles (depending on the season) to continue west to Lake Ontario.

During the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, this region had much fighting. The British colonists had erected several small forts to guard the Oneida Carrying Place and the lucrative fur trade against French incursions from Canada. But, a combined French regular army, Canadian and allied Native American force overwhelmed and massacred a British force in the Battle of Fort Bull. Later in 1758, after several abortive attempts to fortify the area, the British sent a very large force to secure the Oneida Carry and build a stronger rampart complex, which they named Fort Stanwix.

Following their defeat of the French in the war, the British "took over" their territory east of the Mississippi River. They signed the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768), to try to preserve areas for the Iroquois. It has been described as "one of the worst treaties in the History of Anglo-Indian relationships".[6] The treaty has also been described as "the last desperate effort of the British to create order west of the Appalachians.[7] The British abandoned the fort after the war; it deteriorated and was eventually torn down, its parts used by settlers. In 1776 the Continentals decided to reconstruct the fort for strategic purposes during the American Revolution. It was later abandoned after that war and again deconstructed. Today the remains are a mound of earth covered in grass and bushes.[8]

Revolutionary War and Fort Stanwix[edit]

Photograph of a grassy field and a log stockade. The tops of log buildings are visible behind the stockade.
View of the stockade and Fort Stanwix reconstruction completed in 1976 (based on 1758 & 1776 structures).)

At the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, American Continental forces reoccupied, rebuilt and improved Fort Stanwix. The installation played a pivotal role in the Saratoga Campaign of 1777, becoming renowned as "the fort that never surrendered". Patriot militia, regulars, and their Oneida Nation allies under the command of Col. Peter Gansevoort, successfully repelled a prolonged siege in August 1777 by British, German, Loyalist, and Canadian troops and warriors from several Native American nations, all commanded by British Gen. Barry St. Leger. The failed siege combined with the battle at nearby Oriskany as well as the battles of Bennington, and Saratoga thwarted a coordinated British effort to take the northern colonies. The success of the Americans led to their alliances with France and the Netherlands.

After the repulse of the British at Fort Stanwix, bloody fighting erupted along the American northern frontier and throughout the Mohawk Valley, resulting in terrible losses to American settlers but especially the people of the Six Nations. Because many of the Oneida were fighting against the four nations allied with the British, especially the Mohawk and Seneca, the Iroquois had civil war.

Fort Stanwix became the primary staging point for American attacks against British loyalist units and their Haudenosaunee allies, including the Sullivan Expedition of 1779, a ruthless scorched earth campaign against villages of Iroqouis nations allied with the British. George Washington ordered the campaign in response to fierce frontier attacks and atrocities such as the Cherry Valley Massacre by Loyalist irregulars led by Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant and John Butler. The Sullivan campaign destroyed nearly 50 Iroquois villages and their food stores, leading to starvation the following winter. Many Iroquois went to Canada for refuge. The fort was finally abandoned in 1781.

In the year 1830, the city of Rome was developed over the remains of Fort Stanwix. The Fort Stanwix Act of 1935 established Fort Stanwix as a National Monument. In 1973, the reconstruction of Fort Stanwix began, based on historical evidence related to 18th-century construction and occupation, and it was completed in 1976.[9] On July 2, 2005, the Marinus Willet Center opened on the grounds of the historic site. It helps orient visitors through audio-visual programs and secure storage space for the museum's collection.[10]

Commercial Growth: The Erie Canal[edit]

The Oneida Carry and the critical east/west American trade route through the frontier was formalized by construction of the Erie Canal. On July 4, 1817 construction on the Erie Canal began in Rome. The Erie Canal reaches a summit in Rome, reaching 420 feet.[11]

Manufacturing Legacy: The Copper City[edit]

Revere Copper Products, Inc. is one of the oldest manufacturing companies in the United States.[12] Revere Copper Products Incorporated was formed in Rome, NY between 1928 and 1929 as a series of mergers between several companies of which one of them being Revere Copper Company located in Canton, Massachusetts. The first president of Revere Copper Products, Inc George H. Allen was formerly the president of Michigan Copper and Brass Company[13] also included in the merger. The early history of Revere Copper Products, Inc is detailed in the book Copper Heritage: The Story of Revere Copper and Brass, Inc. by Isaac F. Marcosson. At one time, 10 percent of all copper products used in the United States were manufactured in Rome.

Jesse Williams founded America's first cheese factory at Rome in 1851.[14] Williams also developed the process used today for large scale cheese manufacturing.[15]

The City of Rome was incorporated in 1870.

Cold War and Technology Role[edit]

Between 1951 and 1991, the Rome Air Development Center (RADC) was located at Griffiss AFB. In 1991, the RADC was redesignated Rome Laboratory. It remained active as the Griffiss AFB was closed as part of the Base Realignment and Closure process in 1993. In 1997, Rome Laboratory was made part of the Air Force Research Laboratory and renamed the Rome Research Site. The RADC has been responsible for some of the United States Air Force's major technological accomplishments, especially in the area of radio communications.

Griffiss Air Force Base consists of 3552 acres.[16]

The Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) is also located in Rome, on the site of the former Griffiss Air Force Base.

The nationally recognized rock festival, Woodstock 1999 was held in Rome, with the city once again making use of the former Griffiss Air Force Base site. The 3-day festival was held the weekend of July 23–25, and drew a crowd of about 200,000 people. Cable network MTV covered the concert extensively, and live coverage of the entire weekend was available on pay-per-view. The festival featured a diverse assortment of acts including Metallica, Kid Rock, DMX, Red Hot Chili Peppers, and Wyclef Jean; early reviews for many of the acts were positive; critics particularly praised performances by George Clinton, Jamiroquai, James Brown, Sheryl Crow, and Rage Against the Machine. A full list of appearances can be found at Woodstock 1999. Woodstock '99 is also known for chaos and destruction. Bonfires were lit in the crowd, brawls with police broke out, and looting occurred.[17]

In July 2005, New York City developers, Park Drive Estates, purchased the former Woodhaven Housing- formerly the base housing for Griffiss Air Force officers and enlisted military members, and are in the process of re-developing that land into a resort-style active adult community.

Geography[edit]

Rome is the second largest city by area in New York State, and the 140th largest city in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 75.7 square miles (196 km2), of which 74.9 square miles (194 km2) is land and 0.8 square miles (2.1 km2) (0.99%) is water.[1]

Rome averages over 120 inches (3,000 mm) of snowfall each winter, mostly due to its proximity to Lake Ontario and the lake-effect snow that it produces. Rome is the home base for the West Rome Riders, Inc. snowmobile club,[18] who maintain 41 miles (66 km) of trails in and around Rome to Taberg, North Rome, Verona Beach State Park, and to Kanon Valley Country Club.

The Rome Sand Plains[edit]

Main article: Rome Sand Plains

Located within the city is a rare environmental area: the Rome Sand Plains. The Rome Sand Plains is a 15,000-acre (61 km2) inland pine barrens that consists of a diverse mosaic of high sand dunes and low peat bogs, mixed northern hardwood forests, meadows and wetlands. The Rome Sand Plains harbor rare and unusual species, including carnivorous plants like the pitcher plant and sundew, and animals like the red-shouldered hawk and fisher. It is one of only a handful of inland pine barrens remaining in the United States. Several civic groups including the Nature Conservancy in conjunction with New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have successfully preserved portions of the Sand Plains and visitors are able to walk and bike this unique environment. Poor farming and overgrazing had reduced much of the area to desert patches by the 1930s when it first began to revert to forest cover, grazing cattle had eaten the hardwood saplings allowing pines to temporarily overtake them but as the forest stand ages it will return to hardwoods such as oak, cherry and maple.

Demographics[edit]

As of the census[19] of 2000, there were 34,950 people, 13,653 households, and 8,328 families residing in the city. The population density was 466.4 people per square mile (180.1/km²). There were 16,272 housing units at an average density of 217.2 per square mile (83.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 87.85% White, 7.58% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.88% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.35% from other races, and 2.05% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.72% of the population. Like other cities in the region, Rome has a large Italian-American presence, which is especially prevalent in the Little Italy in the vicinity of East Dominick Street.[20]

There were 13,653 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.0% were non-families. 33.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.93.

In the city the population was spread out with 22.1% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 105.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $33,643, and the median income for a family was $42,928. Males had a median income of $31,635 versus $23,899 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,604. About 12.0% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.4% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.

Sports[edit]

One of Rome's most popular venues is the Kennedy Ice Arena. The facility hosts multiple ice hockey and figure skating events. Construction of the arena started in 1963 and was finished in 1964. The arena was renovated in 2008.[21]

The city of Rome became home to a professional sports franchise, when the Rome Frenzy of the Federal Hockey League began play in November 2010. The team played its home games in the renovated John F. Kennedy Civic Arena. On 23 June 2011, citing poor attendance, the Frenzy suspended operations and cancelled the 2011-12 season in Rome, vowing to relocate the team to a more sustainable location.[22]

Between 1964 and 1988 the Rome Knights and later the Copper City Chiefs played their home games on Saturday evenings at the "Kennedy Arena". The Chiefs were a semi-professional ice hockey club which competed against senior and Iitermediate level teams from Province of Ontario, Canada, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Newark, New Jersey, New England, and other cities from the State of New York. The Chiefs were known for a physical and aggressive style of ice hockey, the team roster being built around team toughness. In the 25 years of existence, the Chiefs never had a losing season.[23]

Government[edit]

The city government consists of a mayor and a common council. The mayor is elected at large. The common council consists of 7 members who are elected from one of 7 wards. Each ward elects one member.

Notable people[edit]

Transportation[edit]

Rome Railroad Station

Rome's primary road connection is the Utica-Rome Expressway, a freeway section of New York State Route 49. The expressway runs 14 miles from Rome to Utica, where it meets I-90, I-790, NY 5, NY 12, and NY 8 in a massive cloverleaf interchange.

Rome's Amtrak station is served by Amtrak's Empire Service, with two daily trains in each direction between Niagara Falls and New York City as well as the daily Maple Leaf between Toronto and New York.

Griffiss Air Force Base closed in 1995 and was converted into Griffiss International Airport, which sees general aviation as well as military use. However, no scheduled commercial service uses the airport.

CENTRO buses run six routes in Rome, two of which serve the Amtrak station.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  2. ^ Zackey, Christopher. "The Naming of Rome, NY". Jervis Public Library, Rome, NY. Retrieved 2012-06-26.  This webpage cites several published sources.
  3. ^ Lemark, Joseph (2008). "Roman Grandeur in Central New York: The Classical Tradition in a Nineteenth-Century Pioneer Town". New York History 89.  This article mainly discusses Elmira, New York, but does explain the tradition of naming Upstate New York towns and cities after classical sites.
  4. ^ Canfield, William Walker; Clark, J. E. (1909). Things worth knowing about Oneida County. T. J. Griffiths. p. 88. 
  5. ^ Rome, N.Y.: "the City of American History.". City of Rome. 1982.  No online version.
  6. ^ Marshall, Peter. "Sir William Johnson and the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1768." Journal of American Studies 1.02 (1967): 149. Print.
  7. ^ Campbell, William J. "Converging Interests: Johnson, Croghan, the Six Nations, and the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix," New York History 89.2 (2008): 128. JSTOR. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
  8. ^ Horton, John T. "Documents: The Mohawk Valley in 1791", New York History 22.2 (1941): 212. JSTOR. Web. accessed 26 Feb. 2014.
  9. ^ A Historic Site for All Time. "Fort Stanwix National Monument: History and Culture." National Parks Service. National Parks Service, 8 Feb. 2014. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <http://www.nps.gov/fost/historyculture/index
  10. ^ "Fort Stanwix National Monument." Marinus Willett Center Opens to the Public. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <http://home.nps.gov/fost/parknews/marinus-willett-center-opens-to-the-public.htm>.
  11. ^ Schoff, Wilfred H. "The New York State Barge Canal. Part II." Bulletin of the American Geographical Society 47.7 (1915): 498-508. JSTOR. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/201433>.
  12. ^ http://www.reverecopper.com/
  13. ^ "Business & Finance: Mergers: Oct. 22, 1928". Time. 1928-10-22. 
  14. ^ Hakim, Danny (April 10, 2006). "Is One Museum Honoring Cheese Really Enough?". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2012. 
  15. ^ "The Fort Stanwix Administrative History: Executive Summary." The Public Historian 31.2 (2009): 71-78. JSTOR. Web. 25 Feb. 2014. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/tph.2009.31.2.71>.
  16. ^ "Griffiss AFB." Griffiss AFB. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <http://www.griffiss.airforcebase.us/>.
  17. ^ Wartofsky, Alona. "Woodstock '99 Goes Up in Smoke." Washington Post [Washington DC] 27 July 1999: n. pag. www.washingtonpost.com. Web. 27 Feb. 2014.
  18. ^ http://www.westromeriders.com
  19. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  20. ^ http://www.rome-ny.gov/BOA/Documents/Boa%20Nomination%20Study/7%20Little%20Italy%20Main%20Street%20Subarea.pdf
  21. ^ "Kennedy Arena In The City of Rome, NY." Kennedy Arena In The City of Rome, NY. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Feb. 2014. <http://www.romenewyork.com/organization.asp?orgid=45>.
  22. ^ http://theromefrenzy.pointstreaksites.com/view/theromefrenzy/news-235/news_28052
  23. ^ The History of the Copper City Chiefs
  24. ^ John, Syliva (1982-01-20). "Obituary: Rome Woman Was Friend of Alex Haley". Utica (NY) Observer Dispatch. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  25. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=hpl5fryB8kMC&pg=PA6&lpg=PA6&dq=peter+m.+Leonard&source=bl&ots=FgGA_BbBo6&sig=0nQy5_GqqsG8kivr9GUUVtCCmHs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=UM3eUZ-rG9a04AP094C4DA&ved=0CFcQ6AEwCQ
  26. ^ http://www.romeobserver.com/articles/2011/06/09/life/doc4df10dc316614981414125.txt
  27. ^ Manfred groomed to lead MLB from early age MLB.com | 8/14/2014
  28. ^ http://thesundevils.cstv.com/sports/w-tennis/mtt/mcinerney_sheila00.html
  29. ^ New Genworth CEO focusing on turnaround efforts http://www.timesdispatch.com/business/real-estate/article_c39c9116-7971-5568-be2b-d9a2a4680f68.html
  30. ^ Meet Frank Page
  31. ^ http://mgglaw.com/Bios/bio_page.htm#RDS
  32. ^ "Star player for NYC roller derby team has connections to Rome", Rome Sentinel

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]