Robert Rossen

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Robert Rossen
Rossen.jpg
Robert Rossen
Born(1908-03-16)March 16, 1908
New York City
DiedFebruary 18, 1966(1966-02-18) (aged 57)
New York City
Years active1932–1963
Spouse(s)Sue Siegel Rossen
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Robert Rossen
Rossen.jpg
Robert Rossen
Born(1908-03-16)March 16, 1908
New York City
DiedFebruary 18, 1966(1966-02-18) (aged 57)
New York City
Years active1932–1963
Spouse(s)Sue Siegel Rossen

Robert Rossen (March 16, 1908 – February 18, 1966) was an American screenwriter, film director, and producer whose film career spanned almost three decades.

His 1949 film All the King's Men won Oscars for Best Picture, Best Actor and Best Supporting Actress, while Rossen was nominated for an Oscar as Best Director. He won the Golden Globe for Best Director and the film won the Golden Globe Award for Best Picture. In 1961 he directed The Hustler, which was nominated for nine Oscars and won two. Rossen was nominated as Best Director and with Sidney Carroll for Best Adapted Screenplay but did not win either award.

After directing and writing for the stage in New York, Rossen moved to Hollywood in 1937. There he worked as a screenwriter for Warner Bros. until 1941, and then interrupted his career to serve until 1944 as the chairman of the Hollywood Writers Mobilization Against the War, a body to organize writers for the effort in World War II. In 1945 he joined a picket line against Warner Bros., making an enemy of Jack Warner. After making one film for Hal Wallis's newly formed production company, Rossen made one for Columbia Pictures, another for Wallis and most of his later films for his own companies, usually in collaboration with Columbia.

Rossen was a member of the American Communist Party from 1937 to about 1947, and believed the Party was "dedicated to social causes of the sort that we as poor Jews from New York were interested in."[1] However, he finally ended all relations with the Party in 1949. Rossen was twice called before the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), in 1951 and in 1953. He exercised his Fifth Amendment rights at his first appearance, refusing to state whether he had ever been a Communist. As a result he found himself blacklisted by Hollywood studios as well as unable to renew his passport. At his second appearance he named 57 people as current or former Communists and his blacklisting ended. In order to repair finances he produced his next film, Mambo, in Italy in 1954. While The Hustler in 1961 was a great success, conflict with the star of Lilith so disillusioned Rossen that he made no more films during the last three years of his life.

Rossen's films for Warner generally described the conditions of working people, the portrayal of gangsters and racketeers, and opposition to fascism. He wrote that ambition and the desire for success were common themes in his work. His films often featured strong female characters. All Rossen's playscripts were adaptions except three he based on real events. While head of production at Warner, Wallis considered that some of his best films were written by Rossen.

Biography[edit]

Early life and career[edit]

Robert Rossen, originally known as Robert Rosen,[2] was born on March 16, 1908,[3] and raised on the Lower East Side of New York City.[4] His parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants and his father was a rabbi.[2][4] As a youth Rossen attended New York University,[3] hustled pool and fought some prizefights.[5]

He started his theatrical career as a director and playwright in stock and off-Broadway productions,[2] mainly in the social and radical theaters that flourished in New York in the early and mid-1930s.[6] In 1932 Rossen directed John Wexley's Steel, about labor agitation, and Richard Maibaum's The Tree, about a lynching. A year later Rossen directed Birthright, in which Maibaum attacked Nazism.[7] In 1935 Rossen wrote and directed The Body Beautiful, a comedy about a naive burlesque dancer. Although the play closed after four performances,[7] Warner Bros. director Mervyn LeRoy was so impressed that in 1936 he signed Rossen to a personal screenwriting contract.[5][7]

In 1936 Rossen married.[5] A daughter, Carol Eve Rossen, was born in August 1937[8] and his son, Stephen Rossen, in 1940.[9]

Work in Hollywood[edit]

Rossen was a member of the American Communist Party from 1937 to 1947.[5][10] Later he explained to his son Stephen that he believed the Party was "dedicated to social causes of the sort that we as poor Jews from New York were interested in."[1]

For his first credit in Hollywood, in 1937 Rossen co-wrote with Abem Finkel a script based on the prosecution of crime lord Lucky Luciano and eventually titled Marked Woman. Although some of Warner Bros.' management saw Rossen as an unknown quantity, the result won praise from both Jack Warner and the Daily Worker.[5] Rossen's first solo script was for They Won't Forget (1937), a fictionalized account of the lynching of Leo Frank, featuring Lana Turner in her debut performance.[10]

Dust Be My Destiny, co-written in 1939 by Rossen, is the story of a fugitive from justice who is eventually acquitted with help from an attorney and a journalist, the latter arguing that "a million boys all over the country" were in a similar plight. Warner Bros. then ordered producer Lou Edelman to cut the script, adding that "This is the story of two people – not a group. It is an individual problem – not a national one."[11]

The Sea Wolf, released in 1941, was based on Jack London's novel. Although the film had a strong cast and production, Rossen's re-draft of the script may be the greatest influence on the film.[12] While the character of Captain Larsen remained both victim and oppressed in a capitalist hierarchy, he also became a symbol of fascism. Rossen also split the novel's idealist hero into an intellectual bosun and a rebellious seaman.[13] Warner Bros. cut many political points during production.[14] After the Attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Screen Writers Guild set up on December 8, 1941, the Hollywood Writers Mobilization Against the War, a body to organize writers for the war effort. Rossen served as the body's chairman until 1944 and advocated the opening of a Second Front to support West European resistance again the Nazis. He was now seen as a patriot rather than a radical, and his earnings were much greater than in 1937. However, his work for Hollywood Writers Mobilization and for the Communist Party forced him to abandon some partly developed film projects, including The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, which John Huston eventually directed in 1948.[15]

In 1945 Rossen joined a picket line against Warner Bros., making an enemy of Jack Warner. Rossen signed a contract with an independent production company formed by Hal Wallis, who had previously been Warner Bros.' head of production. However Rossen wrote only two full scripts for this company, The Strange Love of Martha Ivers in 1946 and Desert Fury in 1947.[16][17] In The Strange Love of Martha Ivers Rossen used a short story by John Patrick to introduce the main plot, which was set fifteen years later and which Rossen wrote himself.[16] The relationship between Rossen and Wallis broke down when Rossen received offers from other production companies.[16]

Dick Powell had been a crooner but was making a new career as a dramatic actor. When Columbia Pictures agreed to make Johnny O'Clock for him in 1947, Powell successfully campaigned for Rossen to direct, and this became Rossen's debut in directing.[17] As this crime melodrama proved a modest success, Roberts Productions signed Rossen to direct Abraham Polonsky's script of Body and Soul,[18] described by Bob Thomas as "possibly the best prizefight film ever made."[4] Rossen preferred an ending in which the hero wins a boxing match and then is killed by a gangster, but Polonsky insisted on his own ending, in which the hero escapes into obscurity before the fight.[18] Following the success of Body and Soul, Rossen formed his own company and signed with Columbia Pictures a contract that gave him wide autonomy over every second film that he made at the studio.[18]

All the King's Men (1949) was based on the novel of the same name by Robert Penn Warren, which in turn was based on the career of the Louisiana politician Huey Long.[19] Rossen introduced a new concept, that the defenders of the ordinary people can in turn become the new exploiters.[20] As a requirement for his participation in the film, Rossen had to write to Columbia's Harry Cohn saying that he was no longer a Communist Party member.[18][21] Cohn's critiques of draft of Rossen's script including scrapping a framing structure that was difficult for audiences to follow, and several improvements in the relationships and motivations of characters.[22] A meeting of the Communist Party in Los Angeles severely criticized the film, and Rossen finally ended all relations with the Party.[23] All the King's Men won the Academy Award for Best Picture, Broderick Crawford won the award for Best Actor and Mercedes McCambridge was honored as Best Supporting Actress. Rossen was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director but lost to Joseph L. Mankiewicz for A Letter to Three Wives.[24] Rossen won a Golden Globe for Best Director and the film won the Golden Globe for Best Picture.[25]

The Brave Bulls was directed in 1950 and released in 1951. This was Rossen's last work before studios blacklisted him.[26] The New York Times critic called this "the best film on bull-fighting yet."[27]

Examinations by HUAC[edit]

After the end of World War II in 1945, the USA became alarmed by the spread of Communism.[28] In 1946, the Republicans gained an overwhelming majority in the Congressional elections.[16] The Communist victory of China in 1949 and the start of the Korean War in 1950 reinforced the fear and extended it to Hollywood, where the film companies also opposed attempts to organize an industry-wide trade union.[28] Conservative and right-wing groups fought to undo many of the liberal measures of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidencies.[28]

During hearings in 1947, Jack Warner included Rossen among many leftist writers whom Warner accused of incorporating Communist propaganda in scripts, and whom he claimed to have fired. Rossen was one of 19 "unfriendly witnesses" subpoenaed in October 1947 by the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) during the second Red Scare but was one of eight not called to testify.[7][16]

In 1951, however, Rossen was named as a Communist by several HUAC witnesses and he appeared before HUAC for the first time in June of that year.[7] He exercised his rights under the Fifth Amendment against self-incrimination, taking what came to be known as the "augmented Fifth". He testified that he was not a member of the Communist Party and that he disagreed with the aims of the party but when asked to state whether he had ever been a member of the party, Rossen refused to answer.[29][7] He was placed on the unofficial blacklist by the Hollywood studios,[10] and Columbia broke its production contract with him.[30]

Rossen could not renew his passport, and in May 1953, Rossen again appeared before the committee and named 57 people as Communists.[26] He explained to the committee why he chose to testify: "I don't think, after two years of thinking, that any one individual can indulge himself in the luxury of personal morality or pit it against what I feel today very strongly is the security and safety of this nation."[31] Stephen Rossen later shed light on his father's decision:

"It killed him not to work. He was torn between his desire to work and his desire not to talk, and he didn't know what to do. What I think he wanted to know was, what would I think of him if he talked? He didn't say it in that way, though. Then he explained to me the politics of it—how the studios were in on it, and there was never any chance of his working. He was under pressure, he was sick, his diabetes was bad, and he was drinking. By this time I understood that he had refused to talk before and had done his time, from my point of view. What could any kid say at that point? You say, 'I love you and I'm behind you.' "[1]

Return to filmmaking[edit]

From 1952 to 1953, Rossen wrote Mambo, trying to repair his finances after almost two years without work following the 1951 HUAC hearing. He had to produce the film in Italy, and it was premiered in Italy in 1954 and the USA in 1955.[32][33] Rossen later said "Mambo was to be for fun only," but he "took it seriously, and it didn't come off."[34] Contemporary critics dismissed the film.[35][36][37] However, in 2001 Dorothea Fischer-Hornung concluded that the film achieved more than Rossen and contemporary critics realised: the female lead resolves her own conflicts by devoting herself to dance; Katherine Dunham's choreography highlights this process;[38] and innovative cinematography intensifies the dance scenes.[39]

Rossen hoped Alexander the Great (1956) would be a blockbuster,[30] but the majority of the reviews criticized the film for failing to keep the audience's interest.[40] However, the review from The New York Times wrote that "its moments of boredom are rare ... an overlong but thoughtful and spectacular entertainment."[41]

The gravesite of Robert Rossen

In 1961, Rossen co-wrote, produced and directed The Hustler. Drawing upon his own experiences as a pool hustler, Rossen teamed with Sidney Carroll to adapt the novel of the same name for the screen. The Hustler was nominated for nine Academy Awards and won two. Rossen was nominated as Best Director and with Carroll for Best Adapted Screenplay but did not win either award.[42] He was named Best Director by the New York Film Critics Circle[43] and shared with Carroll the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Written Drama.[44] The Hustler was an enormous popular success and is credited with sparking a resurgence in the popularity of pool in the United States, which had been on the decline for decades.[45]

Rossen was already ill when he started on his final film, Lilith (1964), and it was poorly received in the USA.[46] After it Rossen lost interest in directing, reportedly because of conflicts with the film's star, Warren Beatty. The filmmaker said, "It isn't worth that kind of grief. I won't take it any more. I have nothing to say on the screen right now. Even if I never make another picture, I've got The Hustler on my record. I'm content to let that one stand for me."[4] However, at the time of his death Rossen was planning Cocoa Beach, a script he conceived in 1962, showing the hopes and struggles of transients in a local community and contrasting this with nearby Cape Canaveral, which Neve described as a "symbol of America's imperial reach".[26][47]

Later life[edit]

Rossen married Sue Siegal in 1954.[3] He died in New York City at age 57 on February 18, 1966, following a series of illnesses[4] and is interred at Westchester Hills Cemetery in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. He was survived by his wife Sue, son Stephen and daughters Carol and Ellen.[10][8][48] His grandchild, Daniel Rossen, is the guitarist/vocalist of alternative bands Grizzly Bear and Department of Eagles.

Reception[edit]

Rossen was one of the directors who developed film gris (French for "grey film"). In his films for Warner Brothers' "Popular Front" period between 1937 and 1944, consistent themes were the conditions of working people, the portrayal of gangsters and racketeers, and opposition to fascism.[5] After Dust Be My Destiny, written by Rossen and released in 1939, Frank Nugent, who regularly reviewed for The New York Times, complained about Warner Brothers' long line of melodramas about boys from poor neighbourhoods.[49] Unlike filmmakers such as John Ford and Howard Hawks, Rossen was willing to explain his aims as a director: "The element common to many of my films is the desire for success, ambition, which is an important element in American life. It is an important element, and has become increasingly more important in what is known as Western Civilization."[40] Polonsky commented that "Rossen's talent is force applied everywhere without let-up."[50][46] Neve acknowledged that social concerns were central in most of Rossen's works, but commented that Lilith was different from Rossen's earlier films as it emphasized mood rather than narrative and examined through pictures and silences the nature of maladjustment and madness.[51]

Farber noted the strong female characters of the 1930s and 1940s, and laments their replacing by all-male relationships from the 1950s onwards. For the earlier pattern Farber cited Rossen's 1946 script The Strange Love of Martha Ivers, which was over melodramatic but portrayed a woman consumed by power, money and success.[52] Lilith created one of the few strong women in the 1960s.[53] Rossen generally destroyed the main character.[50]

All Rossen's playscripts were adaptions except Marked Woman, Racket Buster and Alexander the Great, which were based on real events.[54] Before he was blacklisted in 1951, only two of Rossen's adaptions were of serious novels, and Rossen's early drafts of the script for All the King's Men received serious criticisms within Columbia.[55]

While head of production at Warner, Hal Wallis considered that some of his best films – including The Roaring Twenties, Marked Woman and The Sea Wolf – were written by Rossen.[56] Wallis was very pleased with Rossen's script in 1946 for The Strange Love of Martha Ivers,[57] which was produced by Wallis own company.[58] However, Rossen turned down Wallis's next two films.[59] Both Wallis as producer and Rossen as writer-director wanted to operate as independents, rather than under the control of a studio.[60]

All the King's Men was one of the last of the social "message" films, as they were eclipsed as America turned conservative. Thomas Schatz' regarded All the King's Men as possibly the best of the genre, as it examined alcoholism, adultery, political corruption and the influence of journalism.[61] In 2001 the United States National Film Registry preserved the film as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[62]

Rossen produced, directed and co-wrote The Hustler in 1961. At the time Variety praised the cast, complained about the "sordid aspects" of the story and felt the film was far too long.[63] The New Republic praised the cast and Rossen's "sure, economical" direction, but thought the script "strains hard to give an air of menace and criminality."[64] The film won two Academy Awards and was nominated for another seven,[42] was nominated in four of the Golden Globes' categories,[65] and gained many other awards and nominations.[42] In 1997 the National Film Registry preserved The Hustler as "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant."[66] In 2002 Roger Ebert described the film as one "where scenes have such psychic weight that they grow in our memories" and praised Rossen's decision to develop all four main characters,[67] and James Berardinelli listed the film in his All Time Top 100 for similar reasons.[68] Ebert also praised Rossen's decision to shoot the film in the "stygian gloom of the billiard parlor" created by black-and-white.[67] Other accolades appeared in the 2000s (decade).[69][70]

In 1966 Stephen Farber used "Gothic" to described Lilith and a few other American films of the early 1960s based on psychological horror, and regarded Lilith's female protagonist as a demonic temptress.[71] Nina Leibman regarded Lilith as the most extreme of the American film industry's applications, or rather misapplications, of psychoanalytic concepts, as the patient is already psychotic and has a track record of previous conquests.[72] In The New Biographical Dictionary of Film David Thomson describes Lilith as "an oddity, the only one of [Rossen's] films that seems passionate, mysterious and truly personal. The other films will look increasingly dated and self-contained, but Lilith may grow."[73]

Works[edit]

ReleaseTitleTypeProduction companyWriterDirectorProducer
1932Steel[7]PlayY
1932The Tree[7]PlayY
1933Birthright[7]PlayY
1935The Body Beautiful[5][7]PlayYY
1937 – April[74]Marked Woman[5][75]FilmWarner Bros.Y co-wrotenn
1937 – October[76]They Won't Forget[5][77][10]FilmWarner Bros.Ynn
1938Racket Busters[5][78]FilmWarner Bros.Ynn
1939 – September[79]Dust Be My Destiny[11][80]FilmWarner Bros.Y co-wrotenn
1939 – October[81]The Roaring Twenties[82][83]FilmWarner Bros.Y co-wrotenn
1940A Child Is Born[84]FilmWarner Bros.Ynn
1941 – March[85]The Sea Wolf[82][86]FilmWarner Bros.Y co-wrotenn
1941 – June[87]Out of the Fog[15][88]FilmWarner Bros.Ynn
1941 – Nov[89]Blues in the Night[15][90][91]FilmWarner Bros.Y co-wrotenn
1945 – December[92]A Walk in the Sun[7][93]FilmLewis Milestone ProductionsYnn
1946 – July[94]The Strange Love of Martha Ivers[95][58]FilmHal Wallis ProductionsYnn
1947 – March[96]Johnny O'Clock[97][98]FilmJ. E. M. ProductionsYYn
1947 – August[99]Desert Fury[17][100]FilmHal Wallis Productions[100]Ynn
1947 – November[101]Body and Soul[18][102]FilmEnterprise StudiosnYn
1949 – April[103]The Undercover Man[104][105][106]FilmRobert RossennnY
1949 – November[107]All the King's Men[108][109]FilmColumbia Pictures CorporationYYY
1951The Brave Bulls[110][111]FilmRossen EnterprisesnYY
1954Mambo[32][33]FilmProduzione Ponti-De LaurentiisYYn
1956Alexander the Great[112][113]FilmRossen Films, S.A. C.B. FilmsYYY
1957Island in the Sun[114][115][116]FilmDarryl F. Zanuck ProductionsnYn
1959They Came to Cordura[117][118][3]FilmGoetz Pictures, Inc.; Baroda Productions, Inc.YYn
1960The Cool World[119][120]PlayY co-wrotenn
1961The Hustler[121][122]FilmRossen Enterprises CompanyY co-wrote with Sidney CarrollYY
1964Lilith[123][124]FilmCentaur EnterprisesYYY

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c LoBianco – TCM.
  2. ^ a b c Robert Rossen – Biography NY Times.
  3. ^ a b c d Tomlinson filmreference.
  4. ^ a b c d e Thomas 1966, p. 11.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Neve 2005, p. 54.
  6. ^ Mayer 2007, p. 64.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Neve 1992, pp. 170–171.
  8. ^ a b Carol Rossen – IMDb.
  9. ^ Death: Stephen Rossen 2007.
  10. ^ a b c d e UPI obituary 1966.
  11. ^ a b Neve 2005, p. 55.
  12. ^ Sea Wolf – Williams 1998, pp. xix–xxi.
  13. ^ Sea Wolf – Williams 1998, pp. xxii–xxiii.
  14. ^ Sea Wolf – Williams 1998, pp. xxiii–xxiv.
  15. ^ a b c Neve 2005, p. 57.
  16. ^ a b c d e Neve 2005, p. 58.
  17. ^ a b c Neve 2005, p. 60.
  18. ^ a b c d e Neve 2005, p. 62.
  19. ^ Kings Men – Berardinelli.
  20. ^ Neve 2005, pp. 63–64.
  21. ^ Casty 1966, p. 6.
  22. ^ Dick 1993, pp. 168–174.
  23. ^ Neve 2005, p. 63.
  24. ^ Filmsite 1949 Oscars.
  25. ^ Awards – HFPA.
  26. ^ a b c Neve 2005, pp. 64.
  27. ^ Brave Bulls – Crowther 1951.
  28. ^ a b c Mayer 2007, p. 62.
  29. ^ Blacklisting I – Cogley, p. 104.
  30. ^ a b Casty 1966, p. 7.
  31. ^ Treason – Bentley, p. 576.
  32. ^ a b Mambo – TCM.
  33. ^ a b Mambo – allmovie.
  34. ^ Fischer-Hornung 2001, p. 94.
  35. ^ Fischer-Hornung 2001, p. 95.
  36. ^ Crowther 1955.
  37. ^ Casty 1966.
  38. ^ Fischer-Hornung 2001, p. 102.
  39. ^ Fischer-Hornung 2001, pp. 98–99.
  40. ^ a b Tatara.
  41. ^ Alexander – Weiler 1956.
  42. ^ a b c Hustler Awards – allmovie.
  43. ^ NYFCC 1961 Awards.
  44. ^ WGoA Award.
  45. ^ Pool – Dyer 2003, p. 119.
  46. ^ a b Neve 1992, p. 214.
  47. ^ Neve 1992, p. 215.
  48. ^ Weddings: Ellen Rossen 1992.
  49. ^ Nugent – Dust 1939.
  50. ^ a b Millar 1972, p. 310.
  51. ^ Neve 1992, pp. 214–215.
  52. ^ Farber 1974, p. 573.
  53. ^ Farber 1974, p. 574.
  54. ^ Millar 1972, p. 309.
  55. ^ Dick 1993, p. 172.
  56. ^ Dick 2004, p. 124-125.
  57. ^ Dick 2004, p. 122.
  58. ^ a b Martha Ivers – TCM.
  59. ^ Dick 2004, p. 123.
  60. ^ Dick 2004, p. 124.
  61. ^ Schatz 1999, p. 5.
  62. ^ National Film Registry – All the Kings Men 2001.
  63. ^ Hustler – Variety 1961.
  64. ^ Kauffmann 1961, p. 28.
  65. ^ GoldenGlobes – The Hustler.
  66. ^ National Film Registry – Hustler 1997.
  67. ^ a b Hustler – Ebert 2002.
  68. ^ Hustler Review – Berardinelli 2002.
  69. ^ Writers Guild of America West 100.
  70. ^ AFI: Top 10 Sports Films 2008.
  71. ^ Farber 1966, p. 23.
  72. ^ Leibman 1987, p. 32.
  73. ^ Biographical Dictionary – Thomson 2002, p. 760.
  74. ^ Marked Woman – IMDb.
  75. ^ Marked Woman – TCM.
  76. ^ They Won't Forget – IMDb.
  77. ^ They Won't Forget – TCM.
  78. ^ Racket Busters – TCM.
  79. ^ Dust Be My Destiny – IMDb.
  80. ^ Dust Be My Destiny – TCM.
  81. ^ Roaring Twenties – IMDb.
  82. ^ a b Neve 2005, p. 56.
  83. ^ Roaring Twenties – TCM.
  84. ^ Nugent – A Child 1940.
  85. ^ Sea Wolf – IMDb.
  86. ^ The Sea Wolf – TCM.
  87. ^ The Fog – IMDb.
  88. ^ The Fog – TCM.
  89. ^ Blues in the Night – IMDb.
  90. ^ T.M.P – Blues in the Night 1941.
  91. ^ Blues in the Night – TCM.
  92. ^ A Walk in the Sun – IMDb.
  93. ^ A Walk in the Sun – TCM.
  94. ^ Martha Ivers – IMDb.
  95. ^ Neve 2005, pp. 58–59.
  96. ^ Johnny O'Clock – IMDb.
  97. ^ Neve 2005, pp. 60–62.
  98. ^ Johnny O'Clock – TCM.
  99. ^ Desert Fury – IMDb.
  100. ^ a b Desert Fury – TCM.
  101. ^ Body and Soul – IMDb.
  102. ^ Body and Soul – TCM.
  103. ^ Undercover Man – IMDb.
  104. ^ Undercover Man – TCM.
  105. ^ Undercover Man – Crowther 1949.
  106. ^ Undercover Man – Variety 1949.
  107. ^ All the King's Men – IMDb Release dates.
  108. ^ Neve 2005, pp. 62–64.
  109. ^ All the King's Men – TCM.
  110. ^ Brave Bulls – TCM.
  111. ^ Brave Bulls – allmovie.
  112. ^ Alexander – TCM.
  113. ^ Alexander – allmovie.
  114. ^ Island – TCM.
  115. ^ Island (Overview) – allmovie.
  116. ^ Island (Production) – allmovie.
  117. ^ Cordura – TCM.
  118. ^ Cordura – Crawford.
  119. ^ Cool World – AFICOMPPITS:FF 1961–1970, p. 202.
  120. ^ Cool World – TCM UK.
  121. ^ Casty 1966, pp. 8–10.
  122. ^ Hustler – TCM.
  123. ^ Casty 1966, pp. 10–12.
  124. ^ Lilith – TCM.

References[edit]

  • "Body and Soul (1947)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 3, 2010. 
  • "The Brave Bulls (1951)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  • "Cool World (1964)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
  • "Dust Be My Destiny (1939)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved Jan December 13, 2011. 
  • "The Hustler (1961)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  • Eric Bentley, ed. (1971). Thirty Years of Treason: Excerpts from Hearings before the House Committee on Un-American Activities, 1938–1968. New York: The Viking Press. 
  • Cogley, John (1956). Report on Blacklisting I · Movies. Arno Press & The New York Times. ISBN 0-405-03915-8. 
  • "Desert Fury (1947)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  • "The Fog(1)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved January 14, 2011. 
  • Dyer, R.A. (2003). Hustler Days: Minnesota Fats, Wimpy Lassiter, Jersey Red, and America's Great Age of Pool. New York: Muf Books. ISBN 1-56731-807-X. 
  • "Lilith (1964)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 5, 2010. 
  • "Marked Woman (1937)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  • Berardinelli, James (2002). "Hustler, The". ReelViews. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  • Buhle, Paul; Wagner, Dave (2002). Radical Hollywood: The Untold Story Behind America's Favorite Movies. New York: The New Press. ISBN 1-56584-718-0. 
  • Crowther, Bosley (March 31, 1955). "'Mambo' Out of Step". The New York Times. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  • Dick, Bernard F. (1993). "Harry's Hierarchy". The Merchant Prince of Poverty Row: Harry Cohn of Columbia Pictures. University Press of Kentucky. pp. 157–180. ISBN 0-8131-1841-7. Retrieved March 3, 2010. 
  • Dick, Bernard F. (2004). "Interstellar Spaces". Hal Wallis: producer to the stars. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. pp. 111–128. ISBN 0-8131-2317-8. Retrieved March 3, 2010. 
  • Ebert, Roger (June 23, 2002). "The Hustler (1961)". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved February 2, 2010. 
  • Farber, Stephen (Autumn 1966). "New American Gothic". Film Quarterly (University of California Press) 20 (1): 22–27. JSTOR 1211159. 
  • Farber, Stephen (Winter 1974–1975). "The Vanishing Heroine". The Hudson Review (The Hudson Review, Inc.) 27 (4): 570–576. JSTOR 3850358. 
  • "Johnny O'Clock (1947)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  • Kauffmann, Stanley (October 9, 1961). "The Talent of Paul Newman". The New Republic. p. 28. 
  • Leibman, Nina C. (Winter 1987). "Sexual Misdemeanor/Psychoanalytic Felony". Cinema Journal (University of Texas Press) 26 (2): 27–38. JSTOR 1225337. 
  • "Mambo". allmovie.com. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  • "Mambo (1955)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 4, 2010. 
  • "Racket Busters (1938)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved January 7, 2011. 
  • "The Sea Wolf (1941)". Turner Classic Movies. Turner Sports and Entertainment Digital Network. Retrieved December 2, 2010. 
  • Neve, Brian (1992). Into the Fifties. "Film and politics in America: a social tradition". Studies in film, television, and the media (Routledge). pp. 170–171. ISBN 0-415-02619-9. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  • "Rossen, Director of Many Movie Masterpieces, Dies". UPI. February 19, 1966. 
  • Sadoul, Georges; Peter Morris (1972). "Lilith". Dictionary of films. University of California Press. p. 193. ISBN 0-520-02152-5. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  • Crowther, Bosley (April 19, 1951). "The Brave Bulls (1951)". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved July 14, 2010. 
  • Tatara, Paul. "Alexander the Great". Turner Classic Movies. Time Warner Company. Retrieved June 22, 2010. 
  • Thomas, Bob (March 11, 1966). "Robert Rossen Thought About Impending Death". Ada (Oklahoma) Evening News (Associated Press). p. 11. 
  • Thomson, David (2002). The New Biographical Dictionary of Film. London: Little, Brown. 
  • Tomlinson, Doug. "Robert Rossen". Film Reference. Advameg, Inc. Retrieved February 23, 2010. 
  • Variety staff (January 1, 1961). "The Hustler". Variety (Reed Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved April 24, 2008. 
  • Williams, Tony (1998). "From Novel to Film". In Rocco Fumento, Tony Williams. Jack London's The Sea Wolf: A Screenplay by Robert Rossen. SIU Press. pp. xvii–xxvi. ISBN 0-8093-2176-9. Retrieved March 3, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]