River Forth

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Forth
River
River Forth near Stirling.jpg
The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling
CountryScotland
CouncilsStirling
CityStirling
SourceLoch Ard (Loch Chon)
 - elevation33 m (108 ft)
 - coordinates56°11′00″N 4°28′00″W / 56.1833333°N 4.4666667°W / 56.1833333; -4.4666667
MouthFirth of Forth, North Sea
 - elevation0 m (0 ft)
Length47 km (29 mi)
Course of River Forth
 
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Forth
River
River Forth near Stirling.jpg
The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling
CountryScotland
CouncilsStirling
CityStirling
SourceLoch Ard (Loch Chon)
 - elevation33 m (108 ft)
 - coordinates56°11′00″N 4°28′00″W / 56.1833333°N 4.4666667°W / 56.1833333; -4.4666667
MouthFirth of Forth, North Sea
 - elevation0 m (0 ft)
Length47 km (29 mi)
Course of River Forth

The River Forth (Gaelic: Uisge For or Abhainn Dubh, meaning "black river"), 47 km (29 mi) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland.

The Forth rises in Loch Ard in the Trossachs, a mountainous area some 30 km (19 mi) west of Stirling. It flows roughly eastward, through Aberfoyle, joining with the Duchray Water and Kelty Water, and out over the flat expanse of the Flanders Moss. It is then joined by the River Teith (which itself drains Loch Venachar, Loch Lubnaig, Loch Katrine, and Loch Voil) and the River Allan, before meandering through the ancient city of Stirling. At Stirling the river widens and becomes tidal, and it is here that the last (seasonal) ford of the river exists. From Stirling, the Forth flows east over the Carse of Stirling and past the towns of Cambus (where it is joined by the river Devon), Alloa, Fallin and Airth. Upon reaching Kincardine the river begins to widen into an estuary, the Firth of Forth.

Settlements on the Forth[edit]

The shores have many settlements, as well as the petrochemical complexes at Grangemouth, the commercial docks at Leith, oilrig construction yards at Methil, the ship-breaking facility at Inverkeithing and the naval dockyard at Rosyth, with numerous other industrial areas including the Forth Bridgehead area, Burntisland, Kirkcaldy, Bo'ness and Leven.

Navigation on the Forth[edit]

The meandering Forth viewed from the Wallace Monument. The river flows from right to left, and the former limit of navigation was in the left distance.

In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Stirling harbour was a busy port, with goods coming into Scotland and being exported to Europe. Links with the Hansa towns were strong, and Stirling had a particularly close relationship with Veere (Campvere as it used to be known) in the Netherlands. After 1707 much of the trade shifted to the port of Glasgow, as trade with America became the new focus. During the First and Second World Wars, however, Stirling harbour thrived again as a gateway for supplies of tea to Scotland. Trade slowly returned after the wars but the few agricultural merchants based at Stirling found such shipping uncompetitive due to high shore dues levied by the harbour’s owners. Today Stirling harbour is no more.

Bridges over the Forth[edit]

Upstream of Stirling, the river is rather small and is crossed in numerous places (although prior to modern drainage works, the ground was often treacherously marshy near the riverbank). After its confluence with the Teith and Allan, the river is sufficiently wide that a significant bridge is required. A bridge has existed at Stirling since at least the 13th century, and until the opening of the road crossing at Kincardine in 1936, Stirling remained the easternmost road crossing. A swinging railway bridge between Alloa on the north shore and Throsk on the south opened in 1885 and was closed (and largely demolished) in 1970. Only the metal piers remain. The Clackmannanshire Bridge just upstream of the Kincardine Bridge opened on 19 November 2008. Much further downstream joining North Queensferry and South Queensferry is the famous Forth Bridge (a railway bridge) opened in 1890, and the Forth Road Bridge which opened in 1964. Construction of the Forth Replacement Crossing to the west of the Forth Road Bridge began in 2011. It will be called Queensferry Crossing[1] and is planned to open in 2016.

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-edinburgh-east-fife-23047293

See also[edit]

External links[edit]