Richard Russell, Jr.

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Richard Russell, Jr.
Richard RussellJr.jpg
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 21, 1971
LeaderMike Mansfield
Preceded byCarl Hayden
Succeeded byAllen J. Ellender
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Appropriations
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 21, 1971
LeaderMike Mansfield
Preceded byCarl Hayden
Succeeded byAllen Ellender
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services
In office
January 3, 1955 – January 3, 1969
LeaderLyndon B. Johnson
Mike Mansfield
Preceded byLeverett Saltonstall
Succeeded byJohn C. Stennis
In office
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
LeaderErnest McFarland
Preceded byMillard Tydings
Succeeded byLeverett Saltonstall
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
January 12, 1933 – January 21, 1971
Preceded byJohn S. Cohen
Succeeded byDavid H. Gambrell
66th Governor of Georgia
In office
June 27, 1931 – January 10, 1933
Preceded byLamartine Griffin Hardman
Succeeded byEugene Talmadge
Personal details
BornRichard Brevard Russell, Jr.
(1897-11-02)November 2, 1897
Winder, Georgia
DiedJanuary 21, 1971(1971-01-21) (aged 73)
Washington D.C.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Never married
Alma materUniversity of Georgia School of Law
ProfessionAttorney
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Navy
UnitReserves
 
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For other people named Richard Russell, see Richard Russell (disambiguation).
Richard Russell, Jr.
Richard RussellJr.jpg
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 21, 1971
LeaderMike Mansfield
Preceded byCarl Hayden
Succeeded byAllen J. Ellender
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Appropriations
In office
January 3, 1969 – January 21, 1971
LeaderMike Mansfield
Preceded byCarl Hayden
Succeeded byAllen Ellender
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services
In office
January 3, 1955 – January 3, 1969
LeaderLyndon B. Johnson
Mike Mansfield
Preceded byLeverett Saltonstall
Succeeded byJohn C. Stennis
In office
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
LeaderErnest McFarland
Preceded byMillard Tydings
Succeeded byLeverett Saltonstall
United States Senator
from Georgia
In office
January 12, 1933 – January 21, 1971
Preceded byJohn S. Cohen
Succeeded byDavid H. Gambrell
66th Governor of Georgia
In office
June 27, 1931 – January 10, 1933
Preceded byLamartine Griffin Hardman
Succeeded byEugene Talmadge
Personal details
BornRichard Brevard Russell, Jr.
(1897-11-02)November 2, 1897
Winder, Georgia
DiedJanuary 21, 1971(1971-01-21) (aged 73)
Washington D.C.
Political partyDemocratic
Spouse(s)Never married
Alma materUniversity of Georgia School of Law
ProfessionAttorney
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Navy
UnitReserves

Richard Brevard Russell, Jr. (November 2, 1897 – January 21, 1971) was an American politician from Georgia. A member of the Democratic Party, he briefly served as speaker of the Georgia house, and as Governor of Georgia (1931–33) before serving in the United States Senate for almost 40 years, from 1933 until his death in 1971. As a Senator, he was a candidate for President of the United States in the 1948 Democratic National Convention, and the 1952 Democratic National Convention.

Russell was a founder and leader of the conservative coalition that dominated Congress from 1937 to 1963, and at his death was the most senior member of the Senate. He was for decades a leader of Southern opposition to the civil rights movement.

Early life[edit]

Russell was born in Winder, Georgia, the fourth child (and first son) of fifteen children of Ina (Dillard) and Richard Brevard Russell, Sr., a prominent lawyer and later chief justice of the Supreme Court of Georgia. The younger Russell graduated in 1914 from the Seventh District Agricultural and Mechanical School in Powder Springs, Georgia, and from Gordon Institute in Barnesville, Georgia, the following year. Russell then enrolled in the University of Georgia School of Law in 1915 and earned a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree in 1918.[1] While at UGA, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society.

Governor of Georgia[edit]

Russell served in the enlisted ranks of the United States Naval Reserve Forces in 1918 and, in 1919, set up law practice with his father in Winder. He was elected to the Georgia House of Representatives (1921–31), serving as its speaker (1927–31). His meteoric rise was capped by election, at age 33, as Governor of Georgia, serving from 1931 to 1933. He was sworn in by his father, who had become supreme court justice of Georgia 9 years before. He was a progressive governor who reorganized the bureaucracy, promoted economic development in the midst of the Great Depression, and balanced the budget.[2] He became embroiled in controversy, however, when in 1932 Robert Elliott Burns, serving time on a Georgia chain gang, escaped to New Jersey and wrote a book entitled I Am a Fugitive from a Georgia Chain Gang!, condemning the Georgia prison system as inhumane. It became a popular movie, but Russell demanded extradition. New Jersey refused, and Russell was attacked from all quarters.

Senate career[edit]

Following the death of U.S. Senator William J. Harris in 1932, Governor Russell defeated Congressman Charles R. Crisp to serve the remainder of Harris' term; he was elected on his own to serve a full term in 1936 and was subsequently re-elected in 1942, 1948, 1954, 1960, and 1966. During his long tenure in the Senate, Russell served as chairman on Committee on Immigration (75th through 79th Congresses), Committee on Manufactures (79th Congress), Committee on Armed Services (82nd and 84th through 90th Congresses), and Committee on Appropriations (91st Congress). As the senior Senator, he became President pro tempore of the Senate during the 91st and 92nd Congresses.

Russell at first supported the New Deal and in 1936, he defeated the demagogic Governor Eugene Talmadge by defending the New Deal as good for Georgia. By 1937, however, Russell became a leader of the conservative coalition, and wielded significant influence within the Senate from 1937 to 1964. He proclaimed his faith in the "family farm" and supported most New Deal programs for parity, rural electrification, and farm loans, and supported promoting agricultural research, providing school lunches and giving surplus commodities to the poor. He was the chief sponsor of the National School Lunch Act of 1946 with the dual goals of providing proper nutrition for all children and of subsidizing agriculture. He ran as a regional candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination in 1952, winning widespread newspaper acclaim but few delegates. He was a member of the Warren Commission, which investigated the assassination of John F. Kennedy.

During World War II, he was known for his uncompromising position towards Japan and its civilian casualties. He held that Japan should not be treated with more lenience than Germany, and that the United States should not encourage Japan to sue for peace.[3]

Russell on the receiving end of "The Treatment" from President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1963.

Russell was a highly respected senatorial colleague and skilled legislator.[citation needed] Russell chaired the Senate investigation into the firing of General Douglas MacArthur. Conducted during a political firestorm over the firing, Russell's chairmanship prevented national rancor and layered political motivations surrounding the firing from interfering in a dignified and insightful investigation into the incident. Military historians have printed transcripts of the hearings to instruct on the proper relationship between civilian and military officials in a democracy.

Russell competed in the 1952 Democratic presidential primary, but was shut out of serious consideration by northern Democratic leaders who saw his support for segregation as untenable outside of the Jim Crow South. When Lyndon Johnson arrived in the Senate, he sought guidance from knowledgeable senate aide Bobby Baker, who advised that all senators were "equal" but Russell was the most "equal"—meaning the most powerful. Johnson assiduously cultivated Russell through all of their joint Senate years and beyond. Russell's support for first-term senator Lyndon Johnson paved the way for Johnson to become Senate Majority Leader. Russell often dined at Johnson's house during their Senate days. However, their 20-year friendship came to an end during Johnson's presidency, in a fight over the Chief Justice nomination of Johnson's friend and Supreme Court justice Abe Fortas in 1968.[4]

While a prime mentor of Johnson, Russell and the then-president Johnson also disagreed over civil rights. Russell, a segregationist, had repeatedly blocked and defeated civil rights legislation via use of the filibuster and had co-authored the Southern Manifesto in opposition to civil rights. He had not supported the States Rights' Democratic Party of Strom Thurmond in 1948, but he opposed civil rights laws as unconstitutional and unwise. (Unlike Theodore Bilbo, "Cotton Ed" Smith and James Eastland, who had reputations as ruthless, tough-talking, heavy-handed race baiters, he never justified hatred or acts of violence to defend segregation. But he strongly defended white supremacy and apparently did not question it or ever apologize for his segregationist views, votes and speeches.) Russell was key, for decades, in blocking meaningful civil rights legislation intended to protect African-Americans from lynching, disenfranchisement, and disparate treatment under the law.[5] After Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Russell (along with more than a dozen other southern Senators, including Herman Talmadge and Russell Long) boycotted the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City.[6]

Russell was one of the members of the Warren Commission, which was charged to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. At the conclusion of the Commission's dealings and in announcing its final report, Russell, along with two other members, Senator John S. Cooper and Representative Hale Boggs, were not ready to sign off on the report unless certain objections were in the record. Russell was so disenchanted with the commission's proceedings that he actually wrote a letter of resignation which he did not send, and he later commissioned his own private inquiry into the president's death.[7]

A prominent supporter of a strong national defense, Russell became in the 1950s the most knowledgeable and powerful congressional leader in this area.[citation needed] He used his powers as chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1951 to 1969 and then as chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee as an institutional base to add defense installations and jobs for Georgia. He was dubious about the Vietnam War, privately warning President Johnson repeatedly against deeper involvement.

A statue of Russell is placed in the rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building.

Personal life[edit]

Russell died at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington, D.C. due to complications from emphysema. He is buried in the Russell family cemetery behind the Russell home near Winder. This area was designated as the Russell Homeplace Historic District by the National Register of Historic Places in 1984.

His younger brother, Robert Lee Russell, was a lawyer and served as a federal judge, appointed by President Roosevelt and later by President Truman. Brother-in-law Hugh Peterson served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1935 to 1947.

Russell was the uncle of Betty Russell Vandiver, and his support aided the career of her husband, Ernest Vandiver, who was lieutenant governor of Georgia from 1955 to 1959 and governor from 1959 to 1963. After Russell's death in 1971, Ernest Vandiver was disappointed at not being named as an interim replacement. He ran unsuccessfully for the seat in 1972.

Richard Russell was a bachelor.

Legacy[edit]

Russell has been honored by having the following named for him:

Richard Russell, Jr. stamp, issued by the USPS in 1981 as part of the Great Americans series.

References[edit]

  1. ^ RUSSELL, Richard Brevard, Jr. - Biographical Information
  2. ^ http://russelldoc.galib.uga.edu/russell/view?docId=ead/russell_subgroupA.xml
  3. ^ "The foul attack on Pearl Harbor brought us into war and I am unable to see any valid reason why we should be so much more considerate of Japan and lenient in dealing with Japan than with Germany. I earnestly insist Japan should be dealt with as harshly as Germany and that she should not be a beneficiary of a soft peace... If we do not have available a sufficient number of atomic bombs with which to finish the job immediately, let us carry on with TNT and firebombs until we can produce them. I also hope that you will issue orders forbidding the officers in command of our Air Forces from warning Japanese cities that they will be attacked. These generals do not fly over Japan and this showmanship can only result in the unnecessary loss of many of our fine boys in our Air Force as well as our helpless prisoners in the hands of the Japanese, including the survivors on the march of death on Bataan who are certain to be brought into the cities that have been warned. This was a total war as long as our enemies held all the cards. Why should we change the rules now, after the blood, treasure and enterprise of the American People have given us the upper hand. Our people have not forgotten that the Japanese stuck us the first blow in this war without the slightest warning. They believe that we should continue to strike the Japanese until they are brought groveling to their knees. We should cease our appeals to Japan to sue for peace. The next plea for peace should come from an utterly destroyed Tokyo..." Correspondence between Richard Russell and Harry S. Truman, August 7 and 9, 1945, regarding the situation with Japan. Papers of Harry S. Truman: Official File. Truman Library
  4. ^ Laura Kalman (1990). Abe Fortas. Yale University Press. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  5. ^ Caro, 2002
  6. ^ Kornacki, Steve (2011-02-03) The "Southern Strategy," fulfilled, Salon.com
  7. ^ Reclaiming Parkland; page 258
  8. ^ Georgia State Parks - Richard B. Russell State Park
  9. ^ Richard B Russell Airport

Further sources[edit]

Primary sources[edit]

Scholarly secondary sources[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Lamartine G. Hardman
Governor of Georgia
1931–1933
Succeeded by
Eugene Talmadge
Preceded by
Millard Tydings
Maryland
Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
1951–1953
Succeeded by
Leverett Saltonstall
Massachusetts
Preceded by
Leverett Saltonstall
Massachusetts
Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee
1955–1969
Succeeded by
John C. Stennis
Mississippi
Preceded by
Carl T. Hayden
Arizona
President pro tempore of the United States Senate
1969–1971
Succeeded by
Allen J. Ellender
Louisiana
Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee
1969–1971
United States Senate
Preceded by
John S. Cohen
U.S. Senator (Class 2) from Georgia
1933–1971
Served alongside: Walter F. George, Herman Talmadge
Succeeded by
David H. Gambrell
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Carl T. Hayden
Arizona
Dean of the United States Senate
January 3, 1969–January 21, 1971
Succeeded by
Allen J. Ellender
Louisiana