Richard Lugar

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Richard Lugar
Dick Lugar official photo 2010.JPG
United States Senator
from Indiana
In office
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 2013
Preceded byVance Hartke
Succeeded byJoe Donnelly
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byJoseph Biden
Succeeded byJoseph Biden
In office
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
Preceded byCharles H. Percy
Succeeded byClaiborne Pell
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
In office
January 20 – June 6, 2001
Preceded byTom Harkin
Succeeded byTom Harkin
In office
January 4, 1995 – January 3, 2001
Preceded byPatrick Leahy
Succeeded byTom Harkin
44th Mayor of Indianapolis
In office
January 1, 1968 – January 1, 1976
Preceded byJohn J. Barton
Succeeded byWilliam H. Hudnut III
Personal details
BornRichard Green Lugar
(1932-04-04) April 4, 1932 (age 82)
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Charlene Smeltzer Lugar
ResidenceIndianapolis, Indiana
Alma materDenison University (B.A.)
Pembroke College, Oxford (B.A., M.A.)
Professionmanufacturing executive
ReligionMethodist
Signature
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Navy seal United States Navy
Years of service1957–1960
RankUS-O2 insignia.svg Lieutenant, Junior Grade
 
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Richard Lugar
Dick Lugar official photo 2010.JPG
United States Senator
from Indiana
In office
January 3, 1977 – January 3, 2013
Preceded byVance Hartke
Succeeded byJoe Donnelly
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations
In office
January 3, 2003 – January 3, 2007
Preceded byJoseph Biden
Succeeded byJoseph Biden
In office
January 3, 1985 – January 3, 1987
Preceded byCharles H. Percy
Succeeded byClaiborne Pell
Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry
In office
January 20 – June 6, 2001
Preceded byTom Harkin
Succeeded byTom Harkin
In office
January 4, 1995 – January 3, 2001
Preceded byPatrick Leahy
Succeeded byTom Harkin
44th Mayor of Indianapolis
In office
January 1, 1968 – January 1, 1976
Preceded byJohn J. Barton
Succeeded byWilliam H. Hudnut III
Personal details
BornRichard Green Lugar
(1932-04-04) April 4, 1932 (age 82)
Indianapolis, Indiana, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Spouse(s)Charlene Smeltzer Lugar
ResidenceIndianapolis, Indiana
Alma materDenison University (B.A.)
Pembroke College, Oxford (B.A., M.A.)
Professionmanufacturing executive
ReligionMethodist
Signature
Military service
Service/branchUnited States Navy seal United States Navy
Years of service1957–1960
RankUS-O2 insignia.svg Lieutenant, Junior Grade

Richard "Dick" Green Lugar, KBE (born April 4, 1932), is an American politician and member of the Republican Party who served as a United States Senator, representing Indiana from 1977 to 2013.

Born in Indianapolis, Indiana, Lugar is a graduate of Denison University and Oxford University. He served on the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners from 1964 to 1967 before he was elected to two terms as Mayor of Indianapolis, serving from 1968 to 1976. During his tenure as Mayor, Lugar served as the President of the National League of Cities in 1971 and gave the keynote address at the 1972 Republican National Convention.

In 1974, Lugar ran a failed campaign for the U.S. Senate, losing to incumbent Democratic senator Birch Bayh. He ran again in 1976, defeating Democratic incumbent Vance Hartke. Lugar was reelected in 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000 and 2006. In 2012, Lugar was defeated in a primary challenge by Indiana State Treasurer Richard Mourdock, ending his 36-year tenure in the U.S. Senate. Mourdock went on to lose the general election to Democrat Joe Donnelly. Lugar ran for the Republican nomination for President of the United States in 1996 but did not win any primaries or caucuses.

During Lugar's tenure, he served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations from 1985 to 1987 and from 2003 to 2007, serving as the ranking member of the committee from 2007 until his retirement in 2013. Lugar also twice served as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, from 1995 to 2001 and briefly again in part of 2001. Much of Lugar's work in the Senate was toward the dismantling of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons around the world, co-sponsoring his most notable piece of legislation with Georgia Democrat Sam Nunn: the Nunn-Lugar Act.

He is also the longest-serving senator in Indiana's history and until his defeat was the most senior Republican member of the Senate.

After leaving the Senate, Lugar created a nonprofit organization that specializes in the policy areas he pursued while in office. The Lugar Center focuses on food and energy security, the nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and effective bipartisan governance.[1] Located in Washington, D.C., the Center works with academics, experts, and policymakers in order to create proposals for these 21st century issues. The Center works to highlight these specific topics and their implications, as well as educating the public on them.

Early life, education, and early career[edit]

Lugar was born in Indianapolis, Indiana, the son of Bertha (née Green) and Marvin Lugar.[2] He is of part German descent.[3] Lugar attended the Indianapolis Public School. During this time he attained the Boy Scouts' highest rank: Eagle Scout.[4] Later, he became a recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award from the Boy Scouts of America.[5] He graduated first in his class at Shortridge High School in 1950 and from Denison University in 1954 where he was a member of Beta Theta Pi.[6] He went on to attend Pembroke College, Oxford, England, as a Rhodes Scholar, and received a second bachelor's degree and a master's degree in 1956.[7] He served in the U.S. Navy from 1956 to 1960; one of his assignments was as an intelligence briefer for Admiral Arleigh Burke. He achieved the rank of Lieutenant, Junior Grade.[8]

Lugar manages his family's 604-acre (244 ha) Marion County corn, soybean and tree farm. Before entering public life, he helped his brother Tom manage the family's food machinery manufacturing business in Indianapolis.[6]

Indianapolis politics[edit]

Lugar served on the Indianapolis Board of School Commissioners from 1964 to 1967. At the age of 35, he was elected mayor of Indianapolis in 1967, defeating incumbent Democrat John J. Barton, and began serving the first of two mayoral terms in 1968. A political cartoon of the time questioned how an Eagle Scout could survive in the world of politics.[4] He is closely associated with the adoption of Unigov in 1970, which unified the governments of Indianapolis and Marion County. The Unigov plan helped trigger Indianapolis's economic growth and earned Lugar the post of president of the National League of Cities in 1971. In 1972 Lugar was the keynote speaker at the Republican National Convention.[9] During this time he became known as "Richard Nixon's favorite mayor" owing to his support for devolving federal powers to local communities.[10] In 1971 he was elected president of the National League of Cities.

U.S. Senate[edit]

Elections[edit]

1974

Lugar ran for the U.S. Senate in 1974 U.S. Senate election and lost to incumbent Democrat U.S. Senator Birch Bayh (51%-46%).[11]

1976
Lugar in 1977, during his first term in the Senate

Two years later, he ran against Indiana's other U.S. senator, Democrat Vance Hartke, defeating him by a massive landslide, 59%-40%, a 19-point margin.[12]

1982

Lugar won reelection to a second term, defeating Democrat U.S. Congressman Floyd Fithian (54%-46%).[13]

1988

Lugar won reelection to a third term, defeating Democrat Jack Wickes (68%-32%).[14]

1994

Lugar won reelection to a fourth term, defeating Democratic former U.S. Congressman Jim Jontz (67%-31%).[15] He became the first Indiana U.S. Senator elected to a fourth term.

2000

Lugar won reelection to a fifth term, defeating Democrat David Johnson (67%-32%).[16]

2006

Lugar won reelection to a sixth term, defeating Libertarian Steve Osborn (87%-13%).[17] The Democratic Party did not field a candidate. His was the highest-percentage win of the 2006 Senate elections despite a Democratic takeover of Washington.

2012

Lugar ran for reelection to a seventh term but was defeated in the Republican primary by State Treasurer Richard Mourdock (61%-39%), who went on to lose the general election to Democratic Rep. Joe Donnelly. The only two counties that Lugar carried were Boone and Marion.[18][19] Lugar is the first six-term U.S. Senator to lose his seat in a primary election since Kenneth McKellar in 1952.

Tenure[edit]

Richard Lugar with then-Senator Barack Obama in August 2005 near Perm, Russia.

Future Governor of Indiana Mitch Daniels served as his chief of staff from 1977 to 1982.[20] During the 1980 Republican National Convention, Lugar was rumored as a potential Vice Presidential nominee for Presidential nominee Ronald Reagan.[21]

During the August recess of 2005, Lugar and freshman Senator Barack Obama visited Russia, Azerbaijan, and Ukraine to inspect nuclear facilities there.[22] He was detained for three hours at an airport in the city of Perm, near the Ural Mountains, where they were scheduled to depart for a meeting with the President and the Speaker of the House of Ukraine. He was released after a brief dialogue between U.S. and Russian officials, and the Russians later apologized for this incident. In January 2007, President Bush signed into law the Lugar-Obama Proliferation and Threat Reduction Initiative, which was furthering Lugar's work with Senator Nunn in deactivating weapons in the former Soviet Union. The Lugar-Obama program focuses on terrorists and their use of multiple types of weapons.[23] In April 2006, Time magazine selected Lugar as one of America's 10 Best Senators.[24]

Although Lugar's party was in the minority in the Senate, he had good relationships with President Obama and Vice President Joe Biden. Lugar was named an honorary co-chairman of their inauguration.[25] On the day of the final 2008 presidential debate, Lugar gave a speech at the National Defense University praising Obama's foreign policy approach and warning against the isolationist, reactive policies espoused by Senator McCain.[26] At that debate, Obama also listed Lugar as among the individuals "who have shaped my ideas and who will be surrounding me in the White House".[27] There were rumors that either Obama or McCain would select Lugar to be Secretary of State, but that he preferred to keep his Senate seat.[23][28]

On March 18, 2009, Lugar cast his 12,000th Senate vote, putting him in 13th place for most votes. During his 32 years as senator, he had a 98% attendance record.[29]

Committee assignments[edit]

1996 presidential campaign[edit]

Lugar ran for the Republican nomination for President in 1996. He declared his candidacy on 19 April 1995 in Indianapolis. The primaries and caucuses began in January 1996. He ran on a campaign slogan of "nuclear security and fiscal sanity", but his campaign failed to gain traction.[30]

He came in 7th in the Iowa caucuses on 12 February with 4% and he came in 4th in the New Hampshire primary on 20 February with 5%. In the Delaware primary on 24 February he also won 5%, and in the Arizona and North Dakota primaries on 27 February he came in last with 1%. He was on the ballot in seven of the nine contests on Super Tuesday on 5 March, winning 1% in Colorado, Connecticut and Maryland, 2% in Massachusetts, 3% in Maine and Rhode Island and 14% in Vermont, which was the best result he managed, though he still only came in 4th. He quit the race on the next day, 6 March. Lugar's fellow senator, and eventual Republican nominee, Bob Dole had won all nine contests and Lugar endorsed him.[31]

He remained on the ballot in a number of states, winning 2% of the vote in Florida, then 1% each in Oregon, Illinois, Ohio and California, 5% in Pennsylvania and 1% in North Carolina and West Virginia. He finished sixth overall, with 127,111 votes, or 0.83%, though he did not win any contests or delegates. In retrospective, David Corn of Mother Jones called his presidential campaign "ludicrous".[32]

Political positions[edit]

Senator Richard Lugar meeting with actress Ashley Judd

Abortion[edit]

Lugar's 2007 rating from NARAL was 40%.[33] His 2007–2008 rating from the National Right to Life Committee was 85%.[34]

Agricultural reform[edit]

As Chairman of the Agriculture Committee, Lugar built bipartisan support for 1996 federal farm program reforms, ending 1930s-era federal production controls. He worked to initiate a biofuels research program to help increase U.S. utilization of ethanol and combustion fuels, and led initiatives to streamline the U.S. Department of Agriculture, reform the food stamp program, and preserve the federal school lunch program.

Cuba[edit]

Lugar believes that the U.S. sanctions on Cuba have failed and wrote to President Obama that "additional measures are needed...to recast a policy that has not only failed to promote human rights and democracy, but also undermines our broader security and political interests".[35] He supports the Freedom to Travel to Cuba Act (S.428), which would lift the restrictions on U.S. citizens visiting Cuba that have been in place since the early 1960s.[36]

Economy[edit]

Lugar takes a conservative approach to economics. He voted for Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001.[37] He voted against the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.[38]

Gun control[edit]

Lugar is also one of the strongest known Republican supporters of gun control, and has supported a number of gun legislations and weapons bans. Senator Lugar has an F rating from the National Rifle Association of America.[39] He has an F rating from Gun Owners of America and a 53% positive rating from the Brady Campaign to Prevent Handgun Violence.

Health care reform[edit]

Lugar opposed President Barack Obama's health reform legislation, voted against the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[40] and voted against the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[41]

Immigration[edit]

Senator Lugar has a generally liberal stance on immigration, supporting the DREAM Act under the Obama Administration and the McCain-Kennedy Comprehensive Immigration Reform bill under the Bush Administration, both of which died in Congress. Both were described by critics as "amnesty".

Iraq War[edit]

On June 25, 2007, Senator Lugar, who had been "a reliable vote for President Bush on the war", said that "Bush's Iraq strategy [is] not working and... the United States should downsize the military's role".[42]

Lugar's blunt assessment has been viewed as significant because it showed the growing impatience and dissatisfaction with President Bush's strategy in Iraq. Lugar's speech had particular resonance given his stature as one of the party's elder statesmen on foreign policy. After Lugar finished his remarks, Senate Majority Whip Richard Durbin (D-IL), a sharp critic of the war, praised Lugar's "thoughtful, sincere and honest" speech, which Durbin said was in "finest tradition of the U.S. Senate".[43] Senator Durbin urged his Senate colleagues to take a copy of Lugar's speech home over the Fourth of July break and study it before returning to work.[43] Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid said, in reaction to Lugar's speech: "When this war comes to an end, and it will come to an end, and the history books are written, and they will be written, I believe that Sen. Lugar's words yesterday could be remembered as a turning point in this intractable civil war in Iraq".[44]

Two days later, on June 27, 2007, Lugar said that Congressional measures aimed at curtailing U.S. military involvement in Iraq – including "so-called timetables, benchmarks" – have "no particular legal consequence", are "very partisan", and "will not work".[45]

Judicial nominees[edit]

Senator Lugar believes that judicial confirmation decisions should not be purely partisan. His view is if an appointee is properly qualified for the position by their education, integrity, and other similar factors, that they should be confirmed by the Senate. Senator Lugar introduced President George W. Bush's appointee, now Chief Justice John Roberts, to the Senate at the beginning of Roberts' confirmation process and was instrumental in securing votes to confirm Roberts for the Supreme Court. Senator Lugar was the first Republican senator to announce his support for President Barack Obama's first Supreme Court nominee United States Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Sonia Sotomayor[citation needed] and also voted in favor of his second Supreme Court nominee Solicitor General Elena Kagan.[citation needed]

LGBT issues[edit]

Senator Lugar voted for the Federal Marriage Amendment, limiting the definition of marriage to one man and one woman.[46] However, he has also voted in favor of the Matthew Shepard Act, which expanded the federal hate crime statutes to include sexual orientation and gender identity.[47] In October 2010, Senator Lugar voted against repeal of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy—which prevented gays and lesbians from serving openly in the armed forces.[citation needed] Although Senator Joe Lieberman of Connecticut announced on November 18, 2010, that Senator Lugar promised to vote to repeal the policy the next time it comes up for a vote,[48] Lugar voted against DADT repeal in both the cloture[49] and final votes on December 18, 2010.[50]

Nuclear stockpile[edit]

Senators Sam Nunn and Lugar leaving the White House in 1991 after briefing President George H. W. Bush on the Nunn-Lugar legislation

Lugar has been influential in gaining Senate ratification of treaties to reduce the world's use, production and stockpiling of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. In 1991 he initiated a partnership with then-Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman Sam Nunn aiming to eliminate latent weapons of mass destruction in the former Soviet Union.[4] To date, the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction program has deactivated more than 7,500 nuclear warheads. In 2004, Senators Lugar and Nunn were jointly awarded the Heinz Awards Chairman's Medal for their efforts.[51] He was an important figure in trying to get the New START Treaty approved (which passed 71-26).[52]

Pakistan[edit]

In October 2008 Lugar and Joe Biden, his partner in the Committee on Foreign Relations, received the Hilal-i-Pakistan (Crescent of Pakistan) Award from the government of Pakistan for their continued support of the country. In July 2008 Lugar and Biden introduced a plan that would give $1.5 billion in aid per year to support economic development in Pakistan.[53]

Electoral history[edit]

Indianapolis mayoral election, 1967[54]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar72,27853.3%
DemocraticJohn J. Barton (incumbent)63,28446.7%
Indianapolis mayoral election, 1971[54]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar155,16460.5%
DemocraticJohn Neff101,36739.5%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 3), 1974
PartyCandidateVotes%
DemocraticBirch Bayh (incumbent)889,26950.7%
RepublicanRichard Lugar814,11746.4%
AmericanDon L Lee49,5922.8%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1976
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar1,273,83359.0%
DemocraticVance Hartke (incumbent)868,52240.2%
IndependentDon L Lee14,3210.7%
U.S. LaborDavid Lee Hoagland2,5110.1%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1982
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)978,30153.8%
DemocraticFloyd Fithian828,40045.6%
AmericanRaymond James10,5860.6%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1988
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)1,430,52568.1%
DemocraticJack Wickes668,77831.9%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 1994
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)1,039,62567.4%
DemocraticJim Jontz470,79930.5%
LibertarianBarbara Bourland17,3431.1%
New AllianceMary Catherine Barton15,8011.0%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 2000
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)1,427,94466.6%
DemocraticDavid L. Johnson683,27331.9%
LibertarianPaul Hager33,9921.6%
U.S. Senator of Indiana (Class 1), 2006
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)1,171,55387.4%
LibertarianSteve Osborn168,82012.6%
IndependentMark Pool (write in)4440.0%
IndependentJohn H. Baldwin (write in)2940.0%
Republican US Senate Primary, 2012[55]
PartyCandidateVotes%
RepublicanRichard Lugar (incumbent)262,38839%
RepublicanRichard Mourdock403,26861%

Awards and honors[edit]

Lugar has received numerous awards, including Guardian of Small Business, the Spirit of Enterprise, Watchdog of the Treasury, and 47 honorary doctorate degrees. In 2001 Lugar received the Democracy Service Medal of the National Endowment for Democracy.[56] In June 2012 he was conferred with the Order of Lakandula by President Benigno S. Aquino III for his contributions to the enhancement of the Philippine-US alliance and friendship.[57]

Lugar was knighted as a Knight Commander of the British Empire (KBE) for his efforts to reduce Weapons of Mass Destruction and supporting NATO.[58] Lugar was awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, from Germany, in 2013 for his work on fostering transatlantic cooperation.[59] In 2014, Lugar received the Golden Laurel Branch award, the highest honor given by the Bulgarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Lugar was recognized for his contributions to Bulgaria's accession to NATO.[60]

On August 8, 2013, President Barack Obama named Lugar as a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. The citation in the press release read as follows:

Richard Lugar represented Indiana in the United States Senate for more than 30 years. An internationally respected statesman, he is best known for his bipartisan leadership and decades-long commitment to reducing the threat of nuclear weapons. Prior to serving in Congress, Senator Lugar was a Rhodes Scholar and Mayor of Indianapolis from 1968 to 1975. He currently serves as President of the Lugar Center.[61]

Outside activities[edit]

Senator Lugar is a member the Indiana Society of the Sons of the American Revolution[62] as well as a member of the Society of Indiana Pioneers, based on his descent from very early settlers in the state.[63]

He joined the Rotary Club of Indianapolis in 1957 and spoke at the club annually during his time in the U.S. Senate. He remains an active Rotarian.[64][65] On February 16, 2013, Lugar was named the Rotarian of the Century.[66]

He served on the Board of Directors of the National Endowment for Democracy from 1992 to 2001.[67]

Lugar is a member of the board of the International Foundation for Electoral Systems, an organization involved in international elections.[68]

Senator Lugar is a member of the board of the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI).

After his Senate Career, he has set up "The Lugar Center".[69]

Lugar is on the Board of Selectors of Jefferson Awards for Public Service.[70]

Personal life[edit]

Lugar married Charlene Smeltzer on September 8, 1956. The couple have four sons and thirteen grandchildren.[6]

He is a member of the United Methodist Church.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "About the Center"
  2. ^ Ancestry of Dick Lugar
  3. ^ http://www.ighs.org/index_files/Page2965.htm
  4. ^ a b c Townley, Alvin (2007) [December 26, 2006]. Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 123–132, 237. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved December 29, 2006. 
  5. ^ "Distinguished Eagle Scouts". Scouting.org. Retrieved November 4, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c "Biography of Senator Dick Lugar". United States Senate: Richard G. Lugar. Archived from the original on July 30, 2008. Retrieved November 23, 2008. 
  7. ^ "Dick Lugar". Nndb.com. September 8, 1956. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 
  8. ^ "Senator Dick Lugar - Biography - Project Vote Smart". Votesmart.org. Retrieved May 6, 2012. 
  9. ^ Witherbee, Amy. 2008. "Richard Lugar". Our States: Indiana.
  10. ^ Hallow, Ralph Z. (April 3, 1995). "Lugar takes a walk on the wild side". News World Communications, Inc. Retrieved November 23, 2008. 
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=6361
  12. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3449
  13. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3448
  14. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3447
  15. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=3446
  16. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=96
  17. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=84340
  18. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=509996
  19. ^ "Indiana - Summary Vote Results". C-SPAN. May 9, 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Mitch Daniels". IndyStar. November 1, 2005. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  21. ^ Richard V. Allen (2000), How the Bush Dynasty Almost Wasn't, Hoover Digest, 2000 no 4.
  22. ^ Zelany, Jeff (September 23, 2005). "A foreign classroom for junior senator". Retrieved November 2, 2008. 
  23. ^ a b Schnitzler, Peter (November 1, 2008). "Could Obama call on Lugar?: Presidential hopeful frequently praises foreign policy guru". Indianapolis Business Journal. Retrieved November 2, 2008. 
  24. ^ "Richard Lugar: The Wise Man". Time. April 14, 2006. Retrieved November 2, 2008. 
  25. ^ "Indiana Senator hits unexpected Milestone". Retrieved January 5, 2009. [dead link]
  26. ^ Graham-Silverman, Adam (October 15, 2008). "Obama's 'Diplomacy' Wins a Republican Endorsement". Retrieved November 2, 2008. [dead link]
  27. ^ Transcript of Final Presidential Debate
  28. ^ "Lugar Addresses Rumors Of Possible Obama Appointment". TheIndyChannel.com. November 12, 2008. Retrieved November 13, 2008. 
  29. ^ "Lugar Boosts Senate Clout With History-Making Vote". TheIndyChannel.com. March 18, 2009. Retrieved March 19, 2009. 
  30. ^ "Richard Lugar's Loss Devastates Moderate Republicans". The Huffington Post. 9 May 2012. 
  31. ^ "Now It's a Three-Way Race". CNN/Time AllPolitics. March 6, 1996. 
  32. ^ "Why Washington Needs Dick Lugar". Mother Jones. 8 May 2012. 
  33. ^ "Indiana". NARAL Pro-Choice America. Retrieved January 20, 2009. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Federal NRLC Scorecard – 110th Congress, Combined Sessions". National Right to Life Committee. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
  35. ^ Langan, Michael (April 2, 2009). "Key US senator urges Obama to reach out to Cuba". Yahoo!. Retrieved April 4, 2009. [dead link]
  36. ^ Brice, Arthur (March 31, 2009). "Bill to allow travel to Cuba has a better shot". CNN. Retrieved April 4, 2009. 
  37. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 107th Congress – 1st Session". 
  38. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 1st Session". 
  39. ^ [1], DailyKos.com, April 9, 2012
  40. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved September 19, 2011. 
  41. ^ "U.S. Senate: Legislation & Records Home > Votes > Roll Call Vote". Senate.gov. Retrieved August 29, 2010. 
  42. ^ Flaherty, Anne (June 26, 2007). "GOP senator says Iraq plan not working". Associated Press. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007. 
  43. ^ a b "Lugar urges Bush to change course soon in Iraq". CNN. June 26, 2007. Retrieved June 27, 2007. 
  44. ^ The Swamp: Sen. Harry Reid: Lugar Iraq speech a 'turning point'
  45. ^ "Lugar: Plans To End The War Are ‘Very Partisan,’ ‘Will Not Work’", ThinkProgress.com, June 27, 2007
  46. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 109th Congress – 2nd Session". 
  47. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 1st Session". 
  48. ^ "Lieberman confident about 60 votes for ‘Don’t Ask’ repeal". 
  49. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 2nd Session". 
  50. ^ "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 111th Congress – 2nd Session". 
  51. ^ The Heinz Awards, Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn profile
  52. ^ Baker, Peter (December 22, 2010). "Senate Passes Arms Control Treaty with Russia, 71-26". NY Times. 
  53. ^ Zeeshan, Haider (October 28, 2008). "Pakistan gives awards to Biden, Lugar for support". Reuters. Retrieved November 2, 2008. 
  54. ^ a b Bodenhamer, David J.; Barrows, Robert Graham (1994). The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis. Vanderstel, David Gordon. Indiana University Press. p. 1356. ISBN 0-253-31222-1. Retrieved November 23, 2008. 
  55. ^ http://hosted.ap.org/dynamic/files/elections/2012/by_state/IN_US_Senate_0508.html?SITE=CSPANELN&SECTION=POLITICS
  56. ^ National Endowment for Democracy, Democracy Service Medal
  57. ^ [2]
  58. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2013/apr/16/ex-sen-richard-lugar-knighted-queen-elizabeth-ii/
  59. ^ http://www.germany.info/Vertretung/usa/en/__pr/P__Wash/2013/05/10-Lugar-Award.html?archive=1980516
  60. ^ http://www.gmfus.org/archives/senator-lugar-to-receive-golden-laurel-branch-award-from-bulgaria/
  61. ^ "President Obama Names Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Office of the Press Secretary, The White House. August 8, 2013. Retrieved August 9, 2013. 
  62. ^ "Clarence A Cook SAR Newsletter". Winter 2007. Retrieved January 11, 2011. 
  63. ^ Yearbook, Society of Indiana Pioneers, published annually by the Society
  64. ^ https://www.rotary.org/en/history
  65. ^ http://www.rotaryfirst100.org/clubs/cities/clubs/58indianapolis/lugar.htm#.U1EaMsvn_qA
  66. ^ http://www.courierpress.com/news/2014/feb/21/lugar-rotarian-century-help-celebrate-local-clubs/
  67. ^ National Endowment for Democracy, November 6, 2003, Official Commemoration of the Twentieth Anniversary of the National Endowment for Democracy, Retrieved August 5, 2010
  68. ^ "Board". IFES. 2009. Retrieved Oct 16, 2009. 
  69. ^ http://www.thelugarcenter.org/
  70. ^ http://www.jeffersonawards.org/board

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
John J. Barton
Mayor of Indianapolis
1968–1976
Succeeded by
William H. Hudnut III
Preceded by
Charles H. Percy
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
1985–1987
Succeeded by
Claiborne Pell
Preceded by
Patrick Leahy
Chairman of the Senate Agriculture Committee
1995–2001
Succeeded by
Tom Harkin
Preceded by
Joe Biden
Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
2003–2007
Succeeded by
Joe Biden
United States Senate
Preceded by
Vance Hartke
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Indiana
1977–2013
Served alongside: Birch Bayh, Dan Quayle, Dan Coats, Evan Bayh, Dan Coats
Succeeded by
Joe Donnelly
Party political offices
Preceded by
William Ruckelshaus
Republican Party nominee for United States Senator from Indiana
(Class 3)

1974
Succeeded by
Dan Quayle
Preceded by
Richard L. Roudebush
Republican Party nominee for United States Senator from Indiana
(Class 1)

1976, 1982, 1988, 1994, 2000, 2006
Succeeded by
Richard Mourdock
Preceded by
Bob Packwood
Chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee
1983–1985
Succeeded by
H. John Heinz III
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Ted Stevens
Most Senior Republican United States Senator
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2013
Succeeded by
Orrin Hatch