Richard Kane

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Richard Kane
Richard Kane.jpg
Richard Kane
Born1662
Died1736
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branchBritish Army
RankBrigadier General
Battles/warsNine Years' War
War of the Spanish Succession
 
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For the British colonial administrator in the 1920s, see Richard Rutledge Kane.
Richard Kane
Richard Kane.jpg
Richard Kane
Born1662
Died1736
Allegiance Kingdom of Great Britain
Service/branchBritish Army
RankBrigadier General
Battles/warsNine Years' War
War of the Spanish Succession

Brigadier General Richard Kane (1662–1736) was a British Army General.

Origins[edit]

Born to Thomas O'Cahan and his wife, Margaret Dobbin, at his mother's home in Duneane, County Antrim, Ireland, in December 1662. At the age of 26, he anglicised his name to Kane and joined a volunteer Protestant regiment in his home town, Carrickfergus, raised to oppose James II's Catholic rule.

War of the Spanish Succession[edit]

Kane was trained in battle tactics, (including the ‘English Square’) in the Eighteenth regiment under William III and fought in William's campaigns in Ireland in 1689-91, rising to the rank of major. In 1702, William died and the Duke of Marlborough took command of the army. Richard Kane fought under Marlborough in many bloody battles of the War of the Spanish Succession. His regiment was singled out in recognition of its bravery during the 1695 siege of Namur; he was severely wounded at Blenheim, and, in December, 1710, Queen Anne named him colonel of the Royal Regiment of Ireland. He was 47.

In 1711, Kane sailed to Canada in an unsuccessful expedition under General Jack Hill to take Quebec from the French. On that voyage, he visited Boston. In the following year he commanded British troops in a takeover of the town of Dunkirk which ended disastrously when an epidemic killed half of the men.

Minorca and Gibraltar[edit]

In the summer of 1712, Queen Anne signed orders for the Duke of Argyll to capture the Spanish island of Minorca and turn it into an English colony. Argyll remained titular governor for the next three years, but the work was really for Richard Kane, the lieutenant governor. He arrived 10 November 1712 and remained on the island, with two short intervals, until his death twenty four years later.

In Minorca, against the interference of the Roman Catholic Church and always short of funds, Kane reformed the legal system, drew up a new constitution, built a road connecting the old Spanish capital, Ciudadela, with Mahón, the new capital, and improved trade by making Mahon a free port. He introduced new agricultural methods and imported new varieties of cereal, new breeds of cattle and drought-resistant clover to feed them.[1]

In 1720 – 21, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Gibraltar when it was threatened by Spain and, in 1725, George I ordered Kane to Gibraltar again to strengthen the defences and ward off Spanish invaders. This he did, at the same time recommending a civil government for "the Rock". Kane was able to return to Minorca in February 1727 before the unsuccessful siege. George I rewarded him with the colonelcy of the Ninth (Norfolk) Regiment of Infantry.

He was formally appointed Governor of Minorca in 1733 and given the rank of brigadier general in 1735. He was not knighted. Richard Kane died in Mahon on 31 December 1736 after almost twenty five years of devoted service on the island. He was buried in the chapel of St. Philip's Castle which was later bombed by the Spanish. A bust by J. M. Ruysback with a Latin inscription listing his many achievements is in Westminster Abbey. Although an excellent soldier, Kane is best remembered as a colonial administrator devoted to the people in his care.[2]

Memorial at Westminster Abbey[edit]

In the west aisle of the north transept in Westminster Abbey is a memorial to military commander Richard Kane. It is signed by sculptor J.M.Rysbrack and consists of a monument in white, grey and black marbles with a bust in armour with shoulder length hair on a pedestal. The Latin inscription can be translated:

"Sacred to the memory of Richard Kane laid to rest at the citadel of the Balearic island of Minorca named for Saint Philip, who was born on December 20th 1666 at Duneane in County Antrim. In 1689 he served his military apprenticeship in the famous siege of Derry, whereafter, under William III of blessed memory, he continued in armed service both at home, until the subjugation of all Ireland, and abroad, in Flanders, at great risk of life, not least by reason of a grave wound received at the siege of Namur. In the year 1702 when war broke out afresh in the reign of Queen Anne, again he campaigned in Belgium before joining the expedition to Canada. In the year 1712, under the renowned Duke of Argyll and Greenwich, and later under Baron Carpenter, he acted as civil governor of Minorca where, capably undertaking all tasks, both civil and military, and in command of army and navy alike, he planned, ordered and maintained everything that was necessary, expedient or beneficial for the preservation of the island, in war and in peace, on sea and on land, and also had paved, fortified and adorned a truly royal road throughout the length of an island hitherto impassable. In the year 1720 at the behest of George I he crossed from Mahon to Gibraltar and thwarted an attack by the Spaniards who planned to take it by surprise. In the year 1725 he returned to the same scene of action for eighteen months and, when the enemy laid the Peninsula under heavy siege, quashed their every hope of taking it. After this sequence of sterling achievements as Lieutenant Governor in the year 1733 at the command of George II neither by his own seeking nor with prior knowledge, as with his other offices wheresoever held, he was elevated to the supreme command in Minorca. But oh, oh, how uncertain is the life of man! He who under four sovereigns had borne arms with the greatest shrewdness, courage and dignity, who had served God with all his heart and played the role not less of a Christian than of a good soldier, of pure faith and old-fashioned courtesy, dear to his friends, amiable to his associates, affable to his people, kind and generous to all, and in all things concerned more for the public good than for his own, left an island that was both British and Spanish sadly mourning his loss and in his seventy sixth year on December 19th 1736 breathed his last."


Bibliography[edit]

He left a “Narrative of All the Campaigns of King William and the Duke of Marlborough” and wrote A New System of Military Discipline for Foot on Action[3][4] which became the British army's "bible" at the time.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thurston, Hazel (1979). The Balearics: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza, and Formentera. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 58. ISBN 0-224-01645-8. 
  2. ^ Laurie, Bruce (2008). "Richard Kane". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15182. ...it is on his governance of Minorca during a period of almost 25 years that his place in history depends. He was a colonial governor truly devoted to the people he administered. 
  3. ^ Kane, Richard (1745). Campaigns of King William and Queen Anne : from 1689, to 1712 : Also, a new system of military discipline, for a battalion of foot on action. London: J. Milan. OCLC 220661928. 
  4. ^ "Text of "A New System of Military Discipline for a Battalion of Foot on Action" in Word format". 
Government offices
Preceded by
Earl of Granard
Governor of Minorca
1720–1736
Succeeded by
Earl of Hertford
Preceded by
Earl of Portmore
Governor of Gibraltar
1720–1727
Succeeded by
Jasper Clayton