Richard C. Hoagland

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Richard C. Hoagland
BornRichard Charles Hoagland
(1945-04-25) April 25, 1945 (age 68)
Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.
ResidencePlacitas, New Mexico, U.S.
CitizenshipUnited States
Known forTheories about extraterrestrial civilizations; accusations of corruption of NASA and U.S. government
Notable work(s)The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever
Partner(s)Robin Falkov
AwardsInternational Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science, 1993.[1][note 1]
Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy, 1997.[2]
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Richard C. Hoagland
BornRichard Charles Hoagland
(1945-04-25) April 25, 1945 (age 68)
Morristown, New Jersey, U.S.
ResidencePlacitas, New Mexico, U.S.
CitizenshipUnited States
Known forTheories about extraterrestrial civilizations; accusations of corruption of NASA and U.S. government
Notable work(s)The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever
Partner(s)Robin Falkov
AwardsInternational Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science, 1993.[1][note 1]
Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy, 1997.[2]

Richard Charles Hoagland,[3] (born April 25, 1945 in Morristown, New Jersey[4]) is an American author, and a proponent of various conspiracy theories about NASA, lost alien civilizations on the Moon and on Mars and other related topics.

His writings claim that advanced civilizations exist or once existed on the Moon, Mars and on some of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and that NASA and the United States government have conspired to keep these facts secret. He has advocated his ideas in two published books, videos, lectures, interviews,[5][6] and press conferences.[7][8] His views have never been published in peer-reviewed journals.[9]

Hoagland has been described by James Oberg of The Space Review and Dr. Phil Plait of as a conspiracy theorist and fringe pseudoscientist.[10][11]


Hoagland's self-reported curriculum vitae[4] includes positions as Curator of Astronomy and Space Science at the Springfield Science Museum, 1964–1967, and Assistant Director at the Gengras Science Center[note 2] in West Hartford, Connecticut, 1967–1968. He was a Science Advisor to CBS News during the Apollo program, 1968–1971. In July 1968, Hoagland filed a copyright registration for a planetarium presentation and show script called The Grand Tour.[12] In 1969, he was contracted by the Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation to write a chapter about the Moon for a press book. The Grumman publication was intended to educate members of the media and government officials concerning the Apollo Lunar Module.

A popular planetarium lecturer at the Springfield Science Museum, Hoagland produced a program called "Mars: Infinity to 1965" to coincide with the Mariners 3 and 4 missions.[13] Charles Renaud produced[14] a radio program for WTIC (AM) in Hartford, Connecticut, The Night of the Encounter, which covered the July 14, 1965 Mariner 4 flyby of the planet Mars.[note 3] Hoagland was interviewed for the program at the Springfield Science Museum by WTIC announcer Dick Bertel.

In 1976, Hoagland, an avid Star Trek fan, initiated a letter-writing campaign that successfully persuaded President Gerald Ford to name the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise, replacing the previously slated name for the prototype vehicle, Constitution.[15][note 4] The Enterprise was rolled out for public display on September 17, 1976, Constitution Day.

Hoagland authored the book The Monuments of Mars: A City on the Edge of Forever, and co-authored the book Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA, which was ranked 21st on November 18, 2007 on The New York Times Best Seller list for paperback nonfiction.[16]

Hoagland runs The Enterprise Mission website,[17] which he describes as "an independent NASA watchdog and research group, the Enterprise Mission, attempting to figure out how much of what NASA has found in the solar system over the past 50 years has actually been silently filed out of sight as classified material, and therefore totally unknown to the American people."[18]

Hoagland appears regularly as the "Science Advisor" for Coast to Coast AM, a late-night radio talk show.[19]

While Hoagland makes frequent reference to his receipt of the "International Angstrom Medal for Excellence in Science" in August 1993, the organization that awarded the medal, The Angstrom Foundation Aktiebolag, founded by Lars-Jonas Ångström, was not authorized by Uppsala University or the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to make use of the academy's Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal. The academy has long authorized only Uppsala University to use their medal for the Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by Uppsala professors to physics students. Mr. Ångström stated in May 2000 that although his award to Hoagland was a mistake, he acted with good faith and with good intentions.[1][20][21]

Hyperdimensional physics[edit]

Hoagland has proposed a form of physics he calls "hyperdimensional physics"[22][23] which, supported by the work of pseudoscientific overunity claimant Thomas E. Bearden,[24] he claims to represent the full implementation of James Clerk Maxwell's original 20 quaternion equations,[25] instead of the reduced Maxwell's equations as amended by Oliver Heaviside commonly taught today. These ideas are rejected by the mainstream physics community as unfounded.[26]

A tenet of these views holds that vast amounts of energy originating from dimensions we cannot perceive are available at latitudes 19.5° both south and north on the Sun and every planet in the Solar System. Hoagland points to the colossal volcano, Olympus Mons, on Mars, as the supreme example, in addition to Earth's biggest volcano, Mauna Loa on the island of Hawaiʻi, and the anticyclonic storm on Jupiter. Olympus Mons is centered at approximately 18.65°N 226.2°E, and the massive shield spans from 13.48°N to 23.68°N and from 220.76°E to 232.2°E.[27] Jupiter's Great Red Spot is centered at 22.0°S.[28] According to Hoagland, an essential prediction of his theory is that a massive planet is yet to be discovered in the Solar System.[29] To date, no research conducted in mainstream astronomy would appear to substantiate these theories. Data analyzed from the WISE all-sky infrared survey, fully released in March 2012, has yet to reveal a Jupiter-size planet within the Oort cloud.[30] The survey would have revealed such an object if it had existed.[31]

Hoagland extended his theory about the importance of 19.5° latitude when the Chinese lander Chang'e 3 landed on the Moon at 44.1143°N, 19.5149°W. In this case he drew attention to the significance of that same number as a longitude[32] instead of a latitude. He said the Chinese wished to send a coded message to an extraterrestrial intelligence by landing at that longitude.

Mars, Face on Mars, and Cydonia[edit]

Hoagland claims the "Face on Mars" is part of a city built on Cydonia Planitia consisting of very large pyramids and mounds arranged in a geometric pattern, with the ratios between measured angles roughly equaling mathematical constants such as pi (π), e, as well as the square root of 2 (√2), the square root of 3 (√3), and the number 3. He states that the ratio between the surface area of a sphere and the surface area of the tetrahedron inscribed within it, ≈2.720699, which is π × (√3)/2, is an approximation of e that he refers to as e'. Since e'/π = (√3)/2 = ≈0.866, he speculates that the primary meaning of the geometry of Cydonia is to emphasize the ratio of the sphere and circumscribed tetrahedron.[33] To Hoagland, this is evidence that an advanced civilization might once have existed on Mars, and that NASA is suppressing the evidence for reasons explained in a 1960 Brookings Institution report entitled "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs."[34][note 5] In fact, although the report did state that it is a possibility that such information would destabilize society, it did not itself even consider the question of withholding information from the public. The report recommended that the question ought to be studied.[35]

On April 5, 1998, NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) space probe sent back better images of the Cydonia region that indicated that the "face" was an irregularly shaped mesa.[36] Hoagland contends these images were run through multiple filters that degraded the original image in quality, giving it a catbox appearance which obscures what is really on Mars.[37] On September 21, 2006, several new three-dimensional views were released,[38] derived from the high-resolution stereo camera on the European Space Agency's Mars Express space probe. In response to their publication, he remarked, "Science is not what you see or what you feel, it's what you can measure!"[39][40] His co-author Mike Bara has accused the European Space Agency, which released that photo set, of fraud.[41] The image from the HiRISE camera on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), released in April 2007, was so detailed that even Hoagland appears to have abandoned his contention that the whole structure is a "face."[citation needed] In the epilogue to his book released the following October, he analyzed the details of the "face" within the MRO frame and declares: "Nothing in this image is natural. [...] Natural geology doesn't come with 'parallel walls,' 'multiple, 3-D planes,' 'twisted beams'—or repetitive examples of obvious 'thin girders.'"[42]

In March 2010, Mars Express returned radar and visual data from Mars' larger moon, Phobos, showing the moon in unprecedented detail.[43][44] Hoagland wrote that Phobos was revealed to be artificial, a "manufactured" satellite.[45] He added that ESA itself would announce this finding at the September 2010 meeting of the European Planetary Science Congress (EPSC) in Rome.[46] The Phobos session at EPSC in fact announced that Phobos is probably formed from re-accretion of orbiting debris.[47]

Hoagland also claims that the true color of Mars is salmon red with patches of greenish plant life and a light blue sky.[48] This runs counter to widely accepted spectrographic observations.[49] He also claims that Mars was once the moon of a larger planet which exploded, leaving Mars isolated,[note 6][50] that the advanced civilization on Mars had prior warning of the cataclysm and so escaped by migrating to planet Earth, eventually adapting to the environment and becoming the present human race,[51] and that the numerous objects surrounding the landing sites of the Mars Exploration Rovers are in fact pieces of Martian machinery.[52]

Life on Europa[edit]

Hoagland claims to have originated the idea, in a 1980 article in Star & Sky magazine, that oceans, and possibly life, may exist beneath the surface of Jupiter's moon Europa.[53] In fact, Ralph Greenberg, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Washington, has pointed out that multiple scientists published similar theories throughout the 1970s. Isaac Asimov, for example, postulated it in his 1979 book Extraterrestrial Civilizations.[54] Hoagland himself references the work of Cassen, Peale, and Reynolds,[55] whose computer modeling demonstrated the possibility that tidal heating could maintain an ocean beneath the icy surface.[56]

The Moon[edit]

Hoagland rejects the entire body of knowledge represented by professional selenology and asserts that there are large semitransparent structures constructed of glass on the lunar surface, visible in some Apollo photography when the images are digitally manipulated,[57] and even more so when old photoprints are re-scanned on amateur equipment in non-clean conditions.[58] He goes on to say that NASA is suppressing knowledge of an ancient civilization on the Moon, and that the advanced technology of this civilization is lying around on the Moon's surface.[59][60] He alleged in Dark Mission that the twelve Apollo moonwalkers, who would be well qualified to confirm the existence of lunar artifacts and glass structures, have had their memories selectively edited with hypnosis so that they no longer remember seeing evidence of a lunar civilization.[61] He has stated that a feature in an image of the lunar surface, believed by professional planetary scientists to be a rock, is actually the severed head of a robot,[60] and that "someone with an obvious 'in'" to JPL was the true originator of the Apollo Moon landing hoax conspiracy theory in July 1969.[62]

In September 2009, Hoagland stated that the extremely thin film of water that had been detected on the Moon[63] was obviously leakage from buried cities.[64]

On October 6, 2009, he opined that the upcoming LCROSS lunar impact was targeted on a manned lunar base, set up by the "secret space program,"[65] and that the impact would reveal some secrets. He also said that the impact would be recorded by ALSEP seismometers — the idea that ALSEP was turned off in September 1977 was "just another NASA lie." Eighteen days after the LCROSS lunar impacts, Hoagland released a digitally manipulated copy of the plume image released by NASA. He wrote that the rectilinear pixellation pattern emphasized by his manipulation of the photograph is in fact a ruined city.[66]

It is Hoagland's opinion that NASA's two Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were sent to map the gravitational field of the Moon to confirm the "presence of actual engines inside the Moon."[67] Based on his examination of earlier NASA lunar seismic data, he said that he found "symmetrical structures under the lunar surface at the depth of the core of the Moon." Moreover, he said that the "Moon is not ours" and that it was "brought here and placed in orbit" around the Earth.

U.S. government conspiracy[edit]

Hoagland claims the United States government has covered up the presence of extraterrestrials, that the Space Agency[who?] murdered the Apollo 1 astronauts,[68] that NASA missions to Mars are a "well documented interest of the Bush family,"[69][70] and that there is a clandestine space program which uses anti-gravity technology reverse-engineered from lunar artifacts and communicated by secret societies.[71]

Hoagland further claims that President John F. Kennedy was assassinated by an agency or agencies opposed to his stated policy of inviting First Secretary Nikita Khrushchev to create a joint U.S.–Soviet manned lunar effort.[71][72] He asserts that federal agencies such as the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and NASA are linked to Freemasonry.[68][73][74][75]

NASA and the Egyptian gods[edit]

Hoagland has written[76] and spoken[77] often about what he sees as NASA's "fanatical, relentless"[78] drive to pay homage to the Egyptian gods Isis, Osiris, and Horus. Citing work by Robert Bauval and Graham Hancock on the symbolism of the Great Pyramid at Giza, he explains that these gods are honored via their proxies, the stars Sirius (Isis), the "belt" stars of Orion (Osiris), and Regulus (Horus). He has theorized that NASA preferentially arranges for key space mission events to occur when any of these five stars are at any of five elevations (−33°, −19.5°, 0, 19.5° and 33°) as seen from a significant place related to that space mission event.

As an example, he cites the fact that, at the exact time of the Lunar Orbit Insertion burn of Apollo 8, on December 24, 1968, the Orion belt star Mintaka was exactly on the horizon of the site in the Sea of Tranquility where the Apollo 11 Lunar Module would land seven months later.[78]

He traces the origin of this obsession on the part of NASA to the geologist Dr. Farouk El-Baz, who is Egyptian by birth. He has written that El-Baz was "the most powerful single individual in the American space program"[79] because of his influence over Apollo landing site selection. Two of the six Apollo landing sites satisfy Hoagland's Egyptian criteria:

Hoagland has published on his web site a "Table of Coincidence"[73] specifying several additional Apollo events that he says satisfy his criteria for "fanatical, relentless" worship. Only one of the 135 Space Shuttle launches and 133 landings is included—the launch of STS-88.[80]

Elenin and 2005 YU55[edit]

During the summer and fall of 2011, Hoagland spoke and wrote comprehensively about comet C/2010 X1, also known as Elenin after its discoverer, amateur Russian astronomer Leonid Elenin, and asteroid 2005 YU55. During the June 24, 2011 teleconference sponsored by Project Camelot,[81] he gave the correct dates for closest approach to Earth for both bodies. He said that 2005 YU55 would come dangerously close to both Earth and Moon while we were all distracted by Elenin.

Speaking at the August 2011 Exopolitics Great Britain expo[82] held in Leeds, West Yorkshire, and again at Project Camelot's September Awake & Aware 2011 conference,[83] held in Irvine, California, he expounded a complex pseudo-statistical theory which he said proved that Elenin was not a comet but some kind of time capsule, sent by a prior Earthly civilization thousands of years ago with a message for contemporary humanity. As he said a few weeks earlier before leaving for Leeds, " could have been sent on a trajectory 13,000 years ago, arriving back home in the inner Solar System now, as a flying time capsule through interplanetary space with some kind of vital information for now as we approach the end of the Mayan calendar..."[84][85] His analysis depended upon highly counter-rational calculations such as that the odds of any given comet having any given inclination to the ecliptic are one in 360 divided by the inclination in degrees.[86] When, in late August, professional and amateur cometary astronomers announced that Elenin had begun to break up,[87] Hoagland denied this and showed an August 19, 2011 STEREO-B image[88] which he said proved that the "object/structure" apparently had a "'tetrahedral shield'" protecting "'Elenin the spacecraft'" from a coronal mass ejection.[89]

Elenin wrote about the breakup of the comet that bears his name, published on September 3, 2011.[90]

Hoagland told Coast to Coast AM host Rob Simone on October 16, 2011, "Well, Elenin, when he discovered it, back in December, remember, announcing he discovered it when it was at +19.5 magnitude,[91] he also stated that he had calculated it had a 13,000 year orbit. 13,000 years is exactly half the precessional cycle — think Mayan calendar — and it takes us back to the time of Atlantis, the time of the previous high civilization that may have been destroyed on this planet, that left a whole bunch of clues, including Göbekli Tepe, as time capsules to help us avert the next time the cycle is going maybe do something bad to us..."[92]

On October 21, 2011, on Coast to Coast AM, Hoagland said that 2005 YU55 had two "really weird" characteristics.[93] First, he said that the asteroid was almost as spherical as a beach ball. Second, it had a rotation period of 19.5 hours. Both characteristics were later found to be inaccurate when better ephemerides[94] and radar images[95][96][97] became available.[note 7] In a November 4, 2011 interview on the Internet radio program Collision Course, he laid out a lunar impact scenario for 2005 YU55.[98] He said that since both Elenin and 2005 YU55 had nearly coincident perihelions on September 11, 2011,[note 8] a "torsion field effect" at perihelion at a distance of 16 million miles (25.75 million km) from each other would have perturbed the asteroid's trajectory just enough so that it will collide with the Moon on November 9, 2011. This perturbation of the asteroid's orbit was the work of an intelligent force using hyperdimensional physics, according to Hoagland. Additionally, he said that if his scenario is correct, NASA would announce on November 7, 2011, when new radar observations are released, that the asteroid is going to collide with the Moon. Hoagland foretold of a "calm and reassuring" address by President Obama concerning the lunar impact at the 19th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Honolulu, Hawaii, on November 9, 2011, even though the meetings in Honolulu had been long-scheduled for November 12–13, 2011, and took place as scheduled.[99][100] He believes that calm reassurances are necessary to prevent people from panicking, possibly with lethal results due to stupidity, when a spectacular, but mostly harmless, meteor shower occurs in the Earth's atmosphere about three days after such a significant lunar impact.

On November 7, 2011, Hoagland announced that two sources, one in the "political structure" in Washington, D.C., and the other in the "intelligence community" in southern California, had informed him of an unconfirmed rumor that an Atlas-Centaur was being prepared for launch at Vandenberg Air Force Base that very night. According to the rumor, the launch will send either a probe to observe 2005 YU55 or, more interesting to Hoagland, a warhead to deflect the asteroid so that it "does not come within a certain radius of the Earth."[101]

Neither of these two celestial bodies diverged from predicted paths. Elenin disintegrated completely into a dust cloud. If there was a message for humanity it was not made public. Wrapping up this event, Hoagland took issue with a Coast to Coast AM caller on April 2, 2012, countering the caller's charge that he was claiming that Elenin was a spaceship. He told the caller, "I said it was a probe...I never said it was a spaceship. I said it could be a time capsule. It could be a probe. It could be a chunk of rock directed on an intelligent course. I never said it was a spaceship."[102][note 9]

Torsion field sensing[edit]

Since 2004, Hoagland has conducted a series of what he calls "experiments" designed to detect and, if possible, to measure the torsion field generated by the interactions of massive spinning objects, including distant planets and stars. He seeks to confirm an idea first proposed by amateur scientist Bruce DePalma[103] according to which rotating masses generate inertial fields that cause an increase of the inertia of any other mass they pass through.[104] More recently he has extended this belief to the proposition that large pyramids amplify this effect in their immediate vicinity. He has not said what units a torsion field would be measured in.

His equipment consists of a Bulova Accutron wristwatch manufactured in 1977 or earlier, placed in a tuning fork sensor enclosure which is electrically connected to a MicroSet precision watch timer manufactured by Mumford Micro Systems of Santa Barbara, California.[105] The MicroSet output data is linked to a laptop computer by USB cabling and the Mumford-supplied software creates a dynamic display with many options for data management. The end result is a trace of the Accutron tuning fork frequency, nominally 360 Hz, recorded over any chosen time period. According to Hoagland's explanation,[104] the inertia of the tuning fork should increase when it is influenced by the torsion field, and thus its frequency should decrease.

He has used this equipment on several occasions:

Other claims[edit]

Hoagland has asserted that he, and not Carl Sagan, co-created the Pioneer 10 plaque with Eric Burgess;[69][111][112] that the Saturnian moon Iapetus is an artificial planetoid;[113] that the Galileo orbiter, which burned up in Jupiter's atmosphere, caused a mysterious black spot due to its nuclear power source;[114] that the 9/11 attacks were part of a pseudo-Masonic conspiracy;[115][116] and that the Arecibo message was intentionally altered by its author, Carl Sagan.[117]

On December 9, 2007 Hoagland wrote that the vexatious problems NASA was then having with the Engine Cut-off (ECO) low-fuel sensors in the Space Shuttle main fuel tank were due to what he called the "torsion field," which he claimed would never be resolved by conventional engineering.[118] On February 7, 2008, STS-122 launched successfully. In the postlaunch press conference mission managers reported that the ECO sensors had performed flawlessly. The problem had been traced to an external tank feed-through connector — and corrected using perfectly conventional engineering. The mission ended, as planned, on February 20 — and was called a complete success. He also asserts that the orbital parameters of spin-stabilized satellites are influenced by an anti-gravity field in addition to the energy imparted by their launch rockets, which has been kept secret for fifty years until revealed by himself in August 2008.[119]

The February 2009 satellite collision between Iridium 33 and Kosmos 2251 was "...deliberate, it was an act of violence," with the intent to make low Earth orbit "uninhabitable at some point," and to permit the termination of the International Space Station, the Space Shuttle program, and the Hubble Space Telescope, according to Hoagland on March 16, 2009 on Coast to Coast AM.[120][121] The three terminations, he said, would be in line with a policy allowing NASA to devote resources to more inspiring programs. He predicted that NASA would announce before May 2009 that because of the increased risk of debris collisions, "Hubble cannot be rescued." As it happened, the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 was successfully completed by the crew of STS-125, and the space telescope was released by them on May 19, 2009. In addition, he said that NASA was lying about the two space-junk alerts in March 2009.

During Coast to Coast AM, on May 21, 2009, Hoagland stated that NASA is destroying evidence of life on Mars through the heating of soil samples to high temperatures by the various rovers and landers, which has killed "Martians."[122]

Hoagland stated on October 16, 2009 that the new Ares I-X rocket, scheduled for rollout on October 19 for launch on October 27, would never reach the launch pad.[123] In fact, Ares arrived at pad 39B on October 20, 2009.[124]

On December 2, 2010, Hoagland said that the Space Shuttle Discovery mission STS-133, then on the launch pad, would be the first post-Newtonian mission.[125] He explained that the spacecraft would be powered to orbit by " from space, i.e., free energy, hyperdimensional physics, torsion [field] physics...," although he did not explain what he meant by that and was not pressed by host George Noory. STS-133 was delayed by needed repairs to the external tank, but launched successfully, and conventionally, on February 24, 2011.

Hoagland released the recording[126] of a National Press Club news conference held on October 30, 2007[7] in which Hoagland and Ken Johnston, a former NASA employee who worked in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory during the Apollo missions,[127] announced that Johnston was ordered to destroy Apollo lunar images and data 40 years ago. Johnston states that he secretly preserved these Apollo images in a private album of "about 1000 old NASA photos and other memorabilia" from his time at NASA,[128] and some of these images were printed and discussed along with Johnston's story in Dark Mission.[129] In December 2007, Project Camelot released a three-part interview with Hoagland.[6] In it, he discussed "the secret history of NASA," and elaborated on his various claims about the Moon. He also discussed a variety of additional topics, such as "hyperdimensional physics," ancient monuments, the Vatican, consciousness, and the year 2012.

Hoagland is a proponent of the belief that all the planets in the Solar System are warming, and rejects man-made climate change.[130]

Responses by scientists[edit]

Many scientists have responded to Hoagland's claims and assertions. Professional astronomer Phil Plait described Hoagland as a pseudoscientist and his claims as ridiculous.[11] Prof. Ralph Greenberg asserted that the logic of Hoagland's deductions from the geometry of Cydonia Mensae is flawed[131] and says that he is not a trained scientist in any sense. The claim that the crashing of the Galileo orbiter into Jupiter caused a "mysterious black spot" on the planet has since been disputed by both NASA and Plait. There is photographic evidence that a similar "black spot" was present in imagery of Jupiter taken in 1998. A second image referenced by Plait shows a dark ring which looks similar to the spot Hoagland cited.[132] In 1995, Malin Space Science Systems, NASA prime contractor for planetary imaging, published a paper critiquing claims that the "city" at Cydonia is artificial, the claimed mathematical relationships, and — very specifically — denying any claims about concealing questionable data from the public.[133]

In October 1997, Hoagland received the Ig Nobel Prize for Astronomy "for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon." The prize is a parody award given for outlandish or "trivial" contributions to science.[2]



Contributions, introductions, forewords[edit]




  1. ^ A private award presented to Hoagland by Lars-Jonas Ångström in Washington, D.C., August 1993; not to be confused with the long-established Ångström's Prize (Ångströms premium), awarded yearly by professors at Uppsala University to physics students.
  2. ^ The Children's Museum, formerly The Science Center of Connecticut, is home to the Gengras Planetarium.
  3. ^ The WTIC radio program, A Night of Encounter (submission title), was submitted by WTIC President Paul W. Morency as an entry for a Peabody Award, but it did not win. Contrary to what Hoagland states on his biography page, the program was not nominated for the award since there is no intermediate level of competition. All winners are chosen directly from the entire field of accepted entries. The entry form, along with an archival 7" 45 rpm gramophone audio recording of the program, are currently being held at the Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library at the University of Georgia Libraries in Athens, Georgia. WTIC announcer Dick Bertel hosted the program and interviewed Hoagland. The program also featured a conversation between Hoagland and astronomer Dr. Robert S. Richardson, associate director of the Griffith Observatory.
  4. ^ In "Why 'Enterprise?'", The Enterprise Mission credits the 1976 Space Shuttle letter-writing campaign as being "organized by Richard C. Hoagland and a small group of associates, including White House consultant, Jerome Glenn." Glenn is the co-founder and Director of The Millennium Project, a think tank. His résumé posted on his organization's website mentions that he was "instrumental in naming the first Space Shuttle the Enterprise."
  5. ^ The Brookings Institution's report prepared for the Committee on Long-Range Studies of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, "Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs," published in December 1960, is available from the NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS). WorldCat lists nine editions of the report, published between 1960 and 1965. Page 184 of the report is of particular interest to Hoagland. On that page, the report recommends additional studies regarding the implications of the discovery of intelligent extraterrestrial life.
  6. ^ Adapted with acknowledgment from the late Dr. Tom Van Flandern.
  7. ^ Hoagland is not aware of any asteroids, including cinematic asteroids, that are not splinter-shaped. Small spheroidal celestial bodies such as 2005 YU55 strikes him as being "really weird" since they lack sufficient self-gravitation to force them to take on a spherical shape. Video: "Collision Course -Francis Walsh & Special Guest Richard Hoagland with YU55 News (11-4-2011) Pt.1". Collision Course, an Internet radio show hosted by Revolution Radio. November 4, 2011. YouTube. Uploaded by user DrakenI78 on November 5, 2011. See time index 05:28 - 08:32. In part 2 of the interview, he said that he does not think 2005 YU55 is an asteroid. He said, "...the damn thing looks like a ship, it looks technological. It does not look like any asteroid I have ever seen." See time index 0:01:19 - 0:01:43. Further reading: Szabo, Gyula M.; Kiss, László L. (July 2008). "The shape distribution of asteroid families – evidence for evolution driven by small impacts". Icarus 196 (1): 135–143. arXiv:0801.2389. Bibcode:2008Icar..196..135S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2008.01.019. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  8. ^ Elenin's perihelion was on September 10, 2011 at 17:15:51.8 UT (Julian Date: 2455815.219354417315) at a distance from the Sun of 0.48243 AU, according to JPL's Small-Body Database Browser. 2005 YU55's perihelion was on September 9, 2011 at 19:31:44.5 UT (Julian Date: 2455814.313707203) at a distance from the Sun of 0.652495 AU, according to JPL's HORIZONS ephemerides generator for asteroid 308635.
  9. ^ In a November 11, 2011 bulletin posted on his Facebook page, Hoagland described 2005 YU55 as a spaceship: "Here (below) is an Enterprise Mission processed frame from this JPL radar animation. It presents a striking view of YU55, revealing that the 'asteroid' appears MUCH more like 'a badly-eroded ancient spaceship' -- an ancient derelict -- which, indeed, has startling and amazing 'structures' visible across its remarkably symmetrical surface ...."
  10. ^ From the longitude of Homestead, it was not possible to observe the transit until it was nearly over


  1. ^ a b "rich-ang.jpg". The Enterprise Mission. Retrieved April 18, 2013.  Image of an Anders Jonas Ångström memorial medal of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and Lars-Jonas Ångström with Richard C. Hoagland in Washington, D.C.
  2. ^ a b "The 1997 Ig Nobel Prize Winners". Improbable Research, Inc. Retrieved April 18, 2013. 
  3. ^ "Mars Pathfinder Conspiracy". Coast to Coast AM. June 17, 1997. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Art Bell confirms that Hoagland's middle name is Charles.
  4. ^ a b Richard C. Hoagland on Facebook
  5. ^ Grossinger, Richard, ed. (1986). "The 'Face' on Mars". Planetary Mysteries: Megaliths, Glaciers, the Face on Mars, and Aboriginal Dreamtime. Berkeley: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-0-938-19090-5. 
  6. ^ a b Hoagland, Richard (December 2007). Dark Mission: Richard Hoagland. Interview with Kerry Cassidy. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  7. ^ a b "NASA Cover-Ups Continue". National Press Club. The news conference was sponsored by the Enterprise Mission. October 30, 2007. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved November 2, 2012.  Two press releases were issued by The Enterprise Mission website announcing the 30 October 2007 National Press Club new conference, dated October 22, 2007 and October 30, 2007. Video excerpt: "Richard C. Hoagland Press Conference - October 30, 2007". YouTube. Uploaded by user aparfrey on February 16, 2009.
  8. ^ Teague, Bill. "Media Coverage of Richard Hoagland's Press Conference of March 21st (-- From Various Sources -- )". V J Enterprises. Retrieved November 16, 2012.  Information concerning the National Press Club press conference held in Washington, D.C., March 21, 1996.
  9. ^ Knize, Francis C. P. (May 28, 2004). "OMB Peer Review: Public Comment Concerning NASA" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: The White House. p. 12. Retrieved November 16, 2012. "Efrain Palermo and Richard Hoagland for their previous research which was submitted as peer reviewed material concerning the feature of water streaks on Mars and the possibility of water actually being able to collect on the surface."  Efrain Palermo writes on his personal website: "I am not a scientist or a geologist. I am a layman astronomer and an artist."
  10. ^ Oberg, James (January 21, 2008). "The dark side of space disaster theories". The Space Review. Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Plait, Phil (2008). "Richard Hoagland's Nonsense". Bad Astronomy (Blog). Retrieved November 16, 2012. 
  12. ^ Library of Congress. Copyright Office (July–December 1968). Dramas and Works Prepared for Oral Delivery. Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third Series. Volume 22, Parts 3–4, Number 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 108. 0 026 718 105 6. Retrieved November 9, 2012. 
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  14. ^ "The Night of the Encounter". Retrieved November 17, 2012.  Page includes a half-hour of excerpts from the 1965 WTIC radio program in the MP3 format.
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  18. ^ Hoagland, Richard C.; Bara, Mike (2007). Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA. Port Townsend: Feral House. p. I. ISBN 978-1-932-59526-0.  ; Ibid., 2009, p. 57.
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  27. ^ "Planetary Names: Mons, montes: Olympus Mons on Mars". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
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  32. ^ Coast to Coast AM, 14 December 2013
  33. ^ Hoagland & Torun 1989. This number is close to e, the base of natural logarithms (≈2.71828). Hoagland therefore calls it e' and uses it in calculations as though it were actually e.
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  42. ^ Dark Mission, 2007, p. 526; Ibid., 2009, p. 596
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  49. ^ Erard, Stéphane; Calvin, Wendy (December 1997). "New Composite Spectra of Mars, 0.4–5.7 μm". Icarus 130 (2): 449–460. Bibcode:1997Icar..130..449E. doi:10.1006/icar.1997.5830. 
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  56. ^ Cassen, P.; Reynolds, R. T.; Peale, S. J. (Accepted July 16, 1979). "Is There Liquid Water on Europa?". Geophysical Research Letters 6 (9): 731–734. Bibcode:1979GeoRL...6..731C. doi:10.1029/GL006i009p00731. 
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  61. ^ Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 246–248
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  76. ^ Dark Mission, 2009, pp. 62–63, 271–289, Figs. 5-10, 5-11, 5-12, 5-13
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  79. ^ Dark Mission, 2009, p. 286
  80. ^ Hoagland's 'Table of Coincidence' offers two different star elevations coinciding with this event. Comet Enke at -33°, and Mars at -3.33°, both as seen from Phoenix AZ. Neither of these qualifies by Hoagland's own stated rules. Encke and Mars are not among the five stars listed. -3.33° is not among the five elevations listed. The Shuttle was neither launched nor controlled from the city of Phoenix. STS-88 launched more than a day later than planned, due to an unexplained master alarm.
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