Research stations in Antarctica

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Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the bases set up in the Arctic (see Drifting ice station), the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.

Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 30 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people doing and supporting science on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June).[citation needed] In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects.[1][dubious ]

Research stations[edit]

BaseOpenCountryEstablishedOperatorSituationCoordinatesTime zone
AboaSummerFinland Finland1988Finnish Antarctic Research ProgramQueen Maud Land73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Aboa (Finland))
Vernadsky Research BasePermanentUkraine Ukraine1994National Antarctic Scientific CenterGalindez Island65°14′44.6″S 64°15′26″W / 65.245722°S 64.25722°W / -65.245722; -64.25722 (Vernadsky Research Base (Ukraine))iUTC-3
Almirante Brown Antarctic BaseSummerArgentina Argentina1951Argentine Antarctic InstituteAntarctic Peninsula64°53′42.4″S 62°52′16.8″W / 64.895111°S 62.871333°W / -64.895111; -62.871333 (Almirante Brown Antarctic Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Amundsen–Scott South Pole StationPermanentUnited States United States1957United States Antarctic ProgramGeographical South Pole90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (USA))xUTC+12*
Artigas BasePermanentUruguay Uruguay1984Uruguayan Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°11′3.4″S 58°54′11.9″W / 62.184278°S 58.903306°W / -62.184278; -58.903306 (Artigas Base (Uruguay))iUTC-3
Asuka Stationunmanned observationJapan Japan1985National Institute of Polar ResearchQueen Maud Land71°31′34″S 24°08′17″E / 71.52611°S 24.13806°E / -71.52611; 24.13806 (Asuka Station (Japan))
Belgrano IIPermanentArgentina Argentina1979Argentine Antarctic InstituteCoats Land77°52′27.8″S 34°37′14.9″W / 77.874389°S 34.620806°W / -77.874389; -34.620806 (General Belgrano II (Argentina))iUTC-3
Bellingshausen StationPermanentRussia Russia1968King George Island62°11′47″S 58°57′39″W / 62.19639°S 58.96083°W / -62.19639; -58.96083 (Bellingshausen Station (Russia))
Bernardo O'Higgins StationPermanentChile Chile1948Chilean Army, LogisticsAntarctic Peninsula63°19′15″S 57°53′56.2″W / 63.32083°S 57.898944°W / -63.32083; -57.898944 (Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme Station (Chile))hUTC-4*
BharatiPermanentIndia India2012Indian Antarctic ProgramLarsemann Hills69°24′28″S 76°11′14″E / 69.40778°S 76.18722°E / -69.40778; 76.18722 (Bharathi Station (India))
Byrd StationSummerUnited States United States1957United States Antarctic ProgramMarie Byrd Land80°01′00″S 119°32′00″W / 80.01667°S 119.53333°W / -80.01667; -119.53333 (Byrd Station (USA))
Captain Arturo Prat BasePermanentChile Chile1947Chilean NavyGreenwich Island62°28′45″S 59°39′51″W / 62.47917°S 59.66417°W / -62.47917; -59.66417 (Captain Arturo Prat Base (Chile))hUTC-4*
Casey StationPermanentAustralia Australia1957Australian Antarctic DivisionVincennes Bay66°16′55.6″S 110°31′31.9″E / 66.282111°S 110.525528°E / -66.282111; 110.525528 (Casey Station (Australia))tUTC+8
Comandante Ferraz Antarctic StationPermanentBrazil Brazil1984Brazilian Antarctic ProgramKing George Island62°05′00″S 58°23′28.2″W / 62.08333°S 58.391167°W / -62.08333; -58.391167 (Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Base (Brazil))iUTC-3
Concordia StationPermanentFrance France
Italy Italy
2005Dome C, Antarctic Plateau75°06′00″S 123°20′00″E / 75.10000°S 123.33333°E / -75.10000; 123.33333 (Concordia Station (France))
Dakshin Gangotri StationReplaced by Maitri StationIndia India1984~1991Indian Antarctic ProgramQueen Maud Land70°45′S 11°46′E / 70.750°S 11.767°E / -70.750; 11.767 (Dakshin Gangotri Station (India))
Davis StationPermanentAustralia Australia1957Australian Antarctic DivisionPrincess Elizabeth Land68°34′35.3″S 77°58′9.2″E / 68.576472°S 77.969222°E / -68.576472; 77.969222 (Davis Station (Australia))sUTC+7
Dome Fuji StationPermanentJapan Japan1995National Institute of Polar ResearchQueen Maud Land77°19′01″S 39°42′12″E / 77.31694°S 39.70333°E / -77.31694; 39.70333 (Dome Fuji Station (Japan))
Dumont d'Urville StationPermanentFrance France1956Adélie Land66°39′47.3″S 140°00′5.3″E / 66.663139°S 140.001472°E / -66.663139; 140.001472 (Dumont d'Urville Station (France))vUTC+10
Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva and Villa Las EstrellasPermanentChile Chile1969Chilean Air ForceKing George Island62°11.7′S 58°58.7′W / 62.1950°S 58.9783°W / -62.1950; -58.9783 (Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva (Chile))hUTC-4*
Esperanza BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1975Argentine Antarctic InstituteHope Bay63°23′50.3″S 56°59′49.3″W / 63.397306°S 56.997028°W / -63.397306; -56.997028 (Esperanza Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic StationSummerSpain Spain1989Marine biology [2]Deception Island62°58′40.5″S 60°33′38.4″W / 62.977917°S 60.560667°W / -62.977917; -60.560667 (Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Station (Spain))
Georg von Neumayer StationReplaced by Neumayer StationGermany Germany1981-1992Alfred Wegener InstituteQueen Maud Land70°37′00″S 08°22′00″W / 70.61667°S 8.36667°W / -70.61667; -8.36667 (Georg von Neumayer Station (Germany))lUTC
Gonzalez Videla StationSummerChile Chile1951Chilean Air ForceParadise Bay, Water Boat Point.64°49′24″S 62°51′29″W / 64.82333°S 62.85806°W / -64.82333; -62.85806 (Gonzalez Videla Station (Chile))
Great Wall StationPermanentChina China1985MeteorologyKing George Island62°13′02″S 58°57′41.5″W / 62.21722°S 58.961528°W / -62.21722; -58.961528 (Great Wall Station (China))
Halley Research StationPermanentUnited Kingdom United Kingdom1956British Antarctic SurveyBrunt Ice Shelf75°35′00″S 26°34′00″W / 75.58333°S 26.56667°W / -75.58333; -26.56667 (Halley Research Station (UK))
Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic StationPermanentPoland Poland1977Polish Academy of SciencesKing George Island62°09′0.14″S 058°28′2.1″W / 62.1500389°S 58.467250°W / -62.1500389; -58.467250 (Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station (Poland))
Jang Bogo Station (proposed)PermanentSouth Korea South Korea2014Korea Antarctic Research ProgramTerra Nova Bay
Jinnah Antarctic StationSummerPakistan Pakistan1991Pakistan Antarctic ProgrammeSør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land70°24′S 25°45′E / 70.400°S 25.750°E / -70.400; 25.750 (Jinnah Antarctic Station (Pakistan))
Juan Carlos I Antarctic BaseSummerSpain Spain1988CSIC. Laboratory, investigation and meteorogical station. [3]South Bay, Livingston Island62°39′45.9″S 60°23′25.3″W / 62.662750°S 60.390361°W / -62.662750; -60.390361 (Juan Carlos I Base (Spain))
JubanyPermanentArgentina Argentina1953Argentine Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°14′16.7″S 58°40′0.2″W / 62.237972°S 58.666722°W / -62.237972; -58.666722 (Jubany (Argentina))iUTC-3
King Sejong StationPermanentSouth Korea South Korea1988Korea Antarctic Research ProgramKing George Island62°13′23.2″S 58°47′13.4″W / 62.223111°S 58.787056°W / -62.223111; -58.787056 (King Sejong Station (South Korea))
Kohnen-StationSummerGermany Germany2001Alfred Wegener InstituteQueen Maud Land75°00′S 00°04′E / 75.000°S 0.067°E / -75.000; 0.067 (Kohnen-Station (Germany))
Kunlun StationSummerChina China2009Chinese Arctic and Antarctic AdministrationDome A80°25′01″S 77°06′58″E / 80.41694°S 77.11611°E / -80.41694; 77.11611 (Kunlun Station (China))
Law-Racoviţă StationPermanentRomania Romania1986Romanian Polar Research InstituteLarsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land69°23′18.9″S 76°22′50.75″E / 69.388583°S 76.3807639°E / -69.388583; 76.3807639 (Law-Racoviţă Station (Romania))
Leningradskaya StationRe-opening in 2007/2008Russia Russia1971Russian Antarctic ExpeditionOates Coast, Victoria Land69°30′00″S 159°23′00″E / 69.50000°S 159.38333°E / -69.50000; 159.38333 (Leningradskaya Station (Russia))
Machu Picchu Research StationSummerPeru Peru1989Peruvian Antarctic Institute (INANPE) [4]Admiralty Bay, King George Island62°05′29.9″S 58°28′15.4″W / 62.091639°S 58.470944°W / -62.091639; -58.470944 (Machu Picchu Research Station (Peru))
Maitri StationPermanentIndia India1989Indian Antarctic ProgramSchirmacher Oasis70°45′57.7″S 11°43′56.2″E / 70.766028°S 11.732278°E / -70.766028; 11.732278 (Maitri Station (India))
Maldonado BaseSummerEcuador Ecuador1990Greenwich Island62°26′56.6″S 59°44′29″W / 62.449056°S 59.74139°W / -62.449056; -59.74139 (Maldonado Base (Ecuador))
Marambio BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1969Argentine Antarctic InstituteSeymour-Marambio Island64°14′27.1″S 56°37′26.7″W / 64.240861°S 56.624083°W / -64.240861; -56.624083 (Marambio Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Mario Zucchelli StationSummerItaly Italy1986Oceanobiology, Oceanography, Geology, Geomorphology, Glaciology, Meteorology, Climatology, Seismology, Magnetism and Ecology [5]Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea74°41′39.9″S 164°06′46.5″E / 74.694417°S 164.112917°E / -74.694417; 164.112917 (Mario Zucchelli Station (Italy))xUTC+12
Mawson StationPermanentAustralia Australia1954Australian Antarctic DivisionMac Robertson Land67°36′10.1″S 62°52′22.8″E / 67.602806°S 62.873000°E / -67.602806; 62.873000 (Mawson Station (Australia))rUTC+6
McMurdo StationPermanentUnited States United States1956United States Antarctic ProgramRoss Island77°50′43.4″S 166°40′11.2″E / 77.845389°S 166.669778°E / -77.845389; 166.669778 (McMurdo Station (USA))xUTC+12*
Mendel Polar StationSummerCzech Republic Czech Republic2006biological, geological and climate researchJames Ross Island63°48′6.5″S 57°53′7.9″W / 63.801806°S 57.885528°W / -63.801806; -57.885528 (Mendel Polar Station (Czech Republic))
Mirny StationPermanentRussia Russia1956glaciology, seismology, meteorology, polar lights, cosmic radiation, and marine biologyDavis Sea66°33′10.4″S 93°00′34.8″E / 66.552889°S 93.009667°E / -66.552889; 93.009667 (Mirny Station (Russia))
Mizuho Stationirregular (transshipment station)Japan Japan1970National Institute of Polar Research70°41′53″S 44°19′54″E / 70.69806°S 44.33167°E / -70.69806; 44.33167 (Mizuho Station (Japan))
Molodyozhnaya StationRe-opening in 2007/2008Russia Russia
Belarus Belarus
1962Meteorology[6]Russian Antarctic Expedition67°39′57.0″S 45°50′33.2″E / 67.665833°S 45.842556°E / -67.665833; 45.842556 (Molodyozhnaya Station (Russia))
Neumayer StationPermanentGermany Germany1992Alfred Wegener InstituteAtka Bay70°39′5.6″S 08°15′51.9″W / 70.651556°S 8.264417°W / -70.651556; -8.264417 (Neumayer Station (Germany))lUTC
Neumayer-Station IIIPermanentGermany Germany2009Alfred Wegener InstituteAtka Bay70°40′8″S 08°16′1.95″W / 70.66889°S 8.2672083°W / -70.66889; -8.2672083 (Neumayer-Station III (Germany))lUTC
Novolazarevskaya StationPermanentRussia Russia1961Queen Maud Land70°49′21.1″S 11°38′40.1″E / 70.822528°S 11.644472°E / -70.822528; 11.644472 (Novolazarevskaya Station (Russia))
Orcadas BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1904Argentine Antarctic Institute, Argentine NavyLaurie Island, South Orkney Islands60°44′15.5″S 44°44′22″W / 60.737639°S 44.73944°W / -60.737639; -44.73944 (Orcadas Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Palmer StationPermanentUnited States United States1968Science labs, a dock and a helicopter pad.Anvers Island64°46′27.1″S 64°03′11″W / 64.774194°S 64.05306°W / -64.774194; -64.05306 (Palmer Station (USA))hUTC-4
Princess Elisabeth BasePermanentBelgium Belgium2007Energy-passive research station.Queen Maud Land71°34′12″S 23°12′00″E / 71.57000°S 23.20000°E / -71.57000; 23.20000 (Princess Elisabeth Base (Belgium))
Professor Julio Escudero BasePermanentChile Chile1994Chilean Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°12′4.2″S 58°57′45.3″W / 62.201167°S 58.962583°W / -62.201167; -58.962583 (Professor Julio Escudero Base (Chile))hUTC-4*
Progress StationSummerRussia Russia1988Russian Antarctic ExpeditionPrydz Bay69°22′48.2″S 76°23′19.1″E / 69.380056°S 76.388639°E / -69.380056; 76.388639 (Progress Station (Russia))
Rothera Research StationPermanentUnited Kingdom United Kingdom1975British Antarctic SurveyAdelaide Island67°34′08.3″S 68°07′29.1″W / 67.568972°S 68.124750°W / -67.568972; -68.124750 (Rothera Research Station (UK))
Russkaya StationRe-opening in 2007/2008Russia Russia1980Russian Antarctic ExpeditionMarie Byrd Land74°46′00″S 136°52′00″W / 74.76667°S 136.86667°W / -74.76667; -136.86667 (Russkaya Station (Russia))fUTC-6[7]
San Martín BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1951Argentine Antarctic InstituteBarry Island68°07′48.9″S 67°06′7.2″W / 68.130250°S 67.102000°W / -68.130250; -67.102000 (San Martín Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition)PermanentSouth Africa South Africa1962 (SANAE I)South African National Antarctic ProgrammeVesleskarvet in Queen Maud Land71°40′21.9″S 2°50′24.9″W / 71.672750°S 2.840250°W / -71.672750; -2.840250 (SANAE IV (South Africa))
 iUTC+2 
St. Kliment Ohridski BasePermanentBulgaria Bulgaria1988Biological research, laboratorial and meteorological measurements. First Eastern Orthodox chapel, St. Ivan RilskiEmona Anchorage, Livingston Island62°38′29″S 60°21′53″W / 62.64139°S 60.36472°W / -62.64139; -60.36472 (St. Kliment Ohridski Base (Bulgaria))
Scott BasePermanentNew Zealand New Zealand1957Antarctic physical environments, Southern Ocean and Antarctic ecosystems.Ross Island77°50′58.5″S 166°46′5.9″E / 77.849583°S 166.768306°E / -77.849583; 166.768306 (Scott Base (New Zealand))xUTC+12
Showa StationPermanentJapan Japan1957National Institute of Polar ResearchEast Ongul Island69°00′15.6″S 39°34′48.9″E / 69.004333°S 39.580250°E / -69.004333; 39.580250 (Showa Station (Japan))oUTC+3
Signy Research StationSummer (Permanent 1947-1995)United Kingdom United Kingdom1947British Antarctic SurveySigny Island, South Orkney Islands60°43′S 45°36′W / 60.717°S 45.600°W / -60.717; -45.600 (Signy Research Station (UK))
Siple StationPermanentUnited States United States1973STAR Lab75°55′S 83°55′W / 75.917°S 83.917°W / -75.917; -83.917 (Siple Station (USA))oUTC+3
Svea Research StationSummerSweden Sweden1988Swedish Polar Research SecretariatQueen Maud Land74°34′34″S 11°13′31″W / 74.57611°S 11.22528°W / -74.57611; -11.22528 (Svea (Sweden))
Tor StationSummerNorway Norway1993Norwegian Polar InstituteQueen Maud Land71°53′20″S 05°09′30″E / 71.88889°S 5.15833°E / -71.88889; 5.15833 (Tor Station (Norway))
Troll StationPermanentNorway Norway1990Norwegian Polar InstituteQueen Maud Land72°00′43.5″S 2°31′56″E / 72.012083°S 2.53222°E / -72.012083; 2.53222 (Troll Station (Norway))
WAIS Divide CampSummerUnited States United States2005United States Antarctic Program, Collect a deep ice coreWest Antarctic Ice Sheet79°28′S 112°04′W / 79.467°S 112.067°W / -79.467; -112.067 (WAIS Divide Camp)
Wasa Research StationSummerSweden Sweden1989Swedish Polar Research SecretariatQueen Maud Land73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Wasa Station (Sweden))
Vostok StationPermanentRussia Russia1957Russian Antarctic ExpeditionAntarctic Ice Sheet78°27′51.8″S 106°50′14″E / 78.464389°S 106.83722°E / -78.464389; 106.83722 (Vostok Station (Russia))rUTC+6
Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) StationPermanentChina China1989Polar Research Institute of China (PRIC)Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay69°22′24″S 76°22′12″E / 69.37333°S 76.37000°E / -69.37333; 76.37000 (Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) Station (China))
* Observes daylight saving time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]