Research stations in Antarctica

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Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the bases set up in the Arctic (see Drifting ice station), the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.

Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 30 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June).[citation needed] In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects.[1][dubious ]

History[edit]

First base[edit]

"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition.

During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration in the early 20th century, the first bases on the continent were established. In 1903, Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition set off to Antarctica, with one of its aims to establish a meteorological station in the area.

After the expedition failed to find land, Bruce decided to head back to the South Orkneys and find an anchorage there.[2] The islands were well-situated as a site for a meteorological station, and their relative proximity to the South American mainland allowed a permanent station to be established.[3] Bruce instituted a comprehensive programme of work, involving meteorological readings, trawling for marine samples, botanical excursions, and the collection of biological and geological specimens.[2]

The major task completed during this time was the construction of a stone building, christened "Omond House".[4] This was to act as living accommodation for the parties that would remain on Laurie Island to operate the proposed meteorological laboratory. The building was constructed from local materials using the dry stone method, with a roof improvised from wood and canvas sheeting. The completed house was 20 feet square (6m × 6m), with two windows, fitted as quarters for six people. Rudmose Brown wrote: "Considering that we had no mortar and no masons' tools it is a wonderfully fine house and very lasting. I should think it will be standing a century hence ..."[5]

Bruce later offered to Argentina the transfer of the station and instruments on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission.[6] Bruce informed the British officer William Haggard of his intentions in December 1903, and Haggard ratified the terms of Bruce proposition.[7]

The Scotia sailed back for Laurie Island on 14 January 1904 carrying on board Argentinean officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, National Meteorological Office, Ministry of Livestock and National Postal and Telegraphs Office. In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base on South Orkney Islands.

WWII and postwar expansion[edit]

Little happened for the following forty years until the Second World War, when the British launched Operation Tabarin in 1943, to establish a presence on the continent. The chief reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany.

View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947.

Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim, see New Swabia.[8] Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the 14-strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Ernest Shackleton on his Antarctic expeditions in the 1920s.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. These bases were the first ever to be constructed on the mainland Antarctica.[9]

The Operation provoked a massive expansion in international activity after the war. Chile organized its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48. Among other accomplishments, it brought the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla to personally inaugurate one of its bases, thereby becoming the first head of state to set foot on the continent.[10] Signy Research Station (UK) was established in 1947, Dumont d'Urville Station was the first French station in 1956. In the same year McMurdo Station was built by the United States and the Mirny Station was established by the Soviet Union.

Research stations[edit]

BaseOpenCountriesEstablishedOperatorSituationCoordinatesTime zone
AboaSummerFinland Finland1989Finnish Antarctic Research ProgramQueen Maud Land73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Aboa (Finland))
Almirante Brown Antarctic BaseSummerArgentina Argentina1951Argentine Antarctic InstituteAntarctic Peninsula64°53′42.4″S 62°52′16.8″W / 64.895111°S 62.871333°W / -64.895111; -62.871333 (Almirante Brown Antarctic Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Amundsen–Scott South Pole StationPermanentUnited States United States1957United States Antarctic ProgramGeographical South Pole90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (USA))xUTC+12*
Artigas BasePermanentUruguay Uruguay1984Uruguayan Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°11′3.4″S 58°54′11.9″W / 62.184278°S 58.903306°W / -62.184278; -58.903306 (Artigas Base (Uruguay))iUTC-3
Asuka StationSummerJapan Japan1985National Institute of Polar Research
unmanned observation
Queen Maud Land71°31′34″S 24°08′17″E / 71.52611°S 24.13806°E / -71.52611; 24.13806 (Asuka Station (Japan))
Belgrano IIPermanentArgentina Argentina1979Argentine Antarctic InstituteCoats Land77°52′27.8″S 34°37′14.9″W / 77.874389°S 34.620806°W / -77.874389; -34.620806 (General Belgrano II (Argentina))iUTC-3
Bellingshausen StationPermanentRussia Russia1968Russian Antarctic ExpeditionKing George Island62°11′47″S 58°57′39″W / 62.19639°S 58.96083°W / -62.19639; -58.96083 (Bellingshausen Station (Russia))
Bernardo O'Higgins StationPermanentChile Chile1948Chilean Army
Logistics
Antarctic Peninsula63°19′15″S 57°53′56.2″W / 63.32083°S 57.898944°W / -63.32083; -57.898944 (Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme Station (Chile))hUTC-4*
BharatiPermanentIndia India2012Indian Antarctic ProgramLarsemann Hills69°24′28″S 76°11′14″E / 69.40778°S 76.18722°E / -69.40778; 76.18722 (Bharathi Station (India))
Byrd StationSummerUnited States United States1957United States Antarctic ProgramMarie Byrd Land80°01′00″S 119°32′00″W / 80.01667°S 119.53333°W / -80.01667; -119.53333 (Byrd Station (USA))
Captain Arturo Prat BasePermanentChile Chile1947Chilean NavyGreenwich Island62°28′45″S 59°39′51″W / 62.47917°S 59.66417°W / -62.47917; -59.66417 (Captain Arturo Prat Base (Chile))hUTC-4*
Casey StationPermanentAustralia Australia1957Australian Antarctic DivisionVincennes Bay66°16′55.6″S 110°31′31.9″E / 66.282111°S 110.525528°E / -66.282111; 110.525528 (Casey Station (Australia))tUTC+8
Comandante Ferraz Antarctic StationPermanentBrazil Brazil1984Brazilian Antarctic ProgramKing George Island62°05′00″S 58°23′28.2″W / 62.08333°S 58.391167°W / -62.08333; -58.391167 (Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Base (Brazil))iUTC-3
Concordia StationPermanentItaly Italy
France France
2005Concordia Station is a joint french-italian research facility, managed by PNRA (National Antarctic Research Program of Italy) and IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor)

research topics: human biology, geomagnetic observations, geodesy, glaciology, meteorological observations, astronomy, seismology and environmental monitoring [11][12][13][14]
Dome C, Antarctic Plateau75°06′00″S 123°20′00″E / 75.10000°S 123.33333°E / -75.10000; 123.33333 (Concordia Station (Italy-France))sUTC+10
Davis StationPermanentAustralia Australia1957Australian Antarctic DivisionPrincess Elizabeth Land68°34′35.3″S 77°58′9.2″E / 68.576472°S 77.969222°E / -68.576472; 77.969222 (Davis Station (Australia))sUTC+7
Dome Fuji StationSummerJapan Japan1995National Institute of Polar ResearchQueen Maud Land77°19′01″S 39°42′12″E / 77.31694°S 39.70333°E / -77.31694; 39.70333 (Dome Fuji Station (Japan))
Dumont d'Urville StationPermanentFrance France1956IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor)Adélie Land66°39′47.3″S 140°00′5.3″E / 66.663139°S 140.001472°E / -66.663139; 140.001472 (Dumont d'Urville Station (France))vUTC+10
Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva and Villa Las EstrellasPermanentChile Chile1969Chilean Air ForceKing George Island62°11.7′S 58°58.7′W / 62.1950°S 58.9783°W / -62.1950; -58.9783 (Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva (Chile))hUTC-4*
Esperanza BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1975Argentine Antarctic InstituteHope Bay63°23′50.3″S 56°59′49.3″W / 63.397306°S 56.997028°W / -63.397306; -56.997028 (Esperanza Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Gabriel de Castilla StationSummerSpain Spain1989CSIC
Marine biology [15]
Deception Island62°58′40.5″S 60°33′38.4″W / 62.977917°S 60.560667°W / -62.977917; -60.560667 (Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Station (Spain))
Gonzalez Videla StationSummerChile Chile1951Chilean Air ForceParadise Bay, Water Boat Point.64°49′24″S 62°51′29″W / 64.82333°S 62.85806°W / -64.82333; -62.85806 (Gonzalez Videla Station (Chile))
Great Wall StationPermanentChina China1985Polar Research Institute of ChinaKing George Island62°13′02″S 58°57′41.5″W / 62.21722°S 58.961528°W / -62.21722; -58.961528 (Great Wall Station (China))
Halley Research StationPermanentUnited Kingdom United Kingdom1956British Antarctic Survey [16]Brunt Ice Shelf75°35′00″S 26°34′00″W / 75.58333°S 26.56667°W / -75.58333; -26.56667 (Halley Research Station (UK))
Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic StationPermanentPoland Poland1977Polish Academy of SciencesKing George Island62°09′0.14″S 058°28′2.1″W / 62.1500389°S 58.467250°W / -62.1500389; -58.467250 (Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station (Poland))
Jang Bogo StationPermanentSouth Korea South Korea2014Korea Antarctic Research ProgramTerra Nova Bay74°37′0″S 164°12′5″E / 74.61667°S 164.20139°E / -74.61667; 164.20139 (Jang Bogo Sceince Station (South Korea))UTC+11
Jinnah Antarctic StationSummerPakistan Pakistan1991Pakistan Antarctic ProgrammeSør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land70°24′S 25°45′E / 70.400°S 25.750°E / -70.400; 25.750 (Jinnah Antarctic Station (Pakistan))
Juan Carlos I StationSummerSpain Spain1988CSIC
Laboratory, investigation and meteorogical station.[17]
South Bay, Livingston Island62°39′45.9″S 60°23′25.3″W / 62.662750°S 60.390361°W / -62.662750; -60.390361 (Juan Carlos I Base (Spain))
JubanyPermanentArgentina Argentina1953Argentine Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°14′16.7″S 58°40′0.2″W / 62.237972°S 58.666722°W / -62.237972; -58.666722 (Jubany (Argentina))iUTC-3
King Sejong StationPermanentSouth Korea South Korea1988Korea Antarctic Research ProgramKing George Island62°13′23.2″S 58°47′13.4″W / 62.223111°S 58.787056°W / -62.223111; -58.787056 (King Sejong Station (South Korea))UTC-3
Kohnen-StationSummerGermany Germany2001Alfred Wegener InstituteQueen Maud Land75°00′S 00°04′E / 75.000°S 0.067°E / -75.000; 0.067 (Kohnen-Station (Germany))
Kunlun StationSummerChina China2009Polar Research Institute of ChinaDome A80°25′01″S 77°06′58″E / 80.41694°S 77.11611°E / -80.41694; 77.11611 (Kunlun Station (China))
Law-Racoviţă StationPermanentRomania Romania1986Romanian Polar Research InstituteLarsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land69°23′18.9″S 76°22′50.75″E / 69.388583°S 76.3807639°E / -69.388583; 76.3807639 (Law-Racoviţă Station (Romania))
Leningradskaya StationSummerRussia Russia1971-1991
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic ExpeditionOates Coast, Victoria Land69°30′00″S 159°23′00″E / 69.50000°S 159.38333°E / -69.50000; 159.38333 (Leningradskaya Station (Russia))
Machu Picchu Research StationSummerPeru Peru1989Peruvian Antarctic Institute (INANPE) [18]Admiralty Bay, King George Island62°05′29.9″S 58°28′15.4″W / 62.091639°S 58.470944°W / -62.091639; -58.470944 (Machu Picchu Research Station (Peru))
Maitri StationPermanentIndia India1989Indian Antarctic ProgramSchirmacher Oasis70°45′57.7″S 11°43′56.2″E / 70.766028°S 11.732278°E / -70.766028; 11.732278 (Maitri Station (India))
Maldonado BaseSummerEcuador Ecuador1990Ecuadorian Antarctic InstituteGreenwich Island62°26′56.6″S 59°44′29″W / 62.449056°S 59.74139°W / -62.449056; -59.74139 (Maldonado Base (Ecuador))
Marambio BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1969Argentine Antarctic InstituteSeymour-Marambio Island64°14′27.1″S 56°37′26.7″W / 64.240861°S 56.624083°W / -64.240861; -56.624083 (Marambio Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Mario Zucchelli StationPermanentItaly Italy1986National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA)
with the collaboration of ENEA and CNR

research topics: offshore marine biology, terrestrial biology, oceanography, geomagnetic observations, geodesy, onshore geology, glaciology, meteorological observations, ionospheric/auroral observations, cosmic ray observations, seismology and environmental monitoring [19][20][21]
Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea74°41′39.9″S 164°06′46.5″E / 74.694417°S 164.112917°E / -74.694417; 164.112917 (Mario Zucchelli Station (Italy))xUTC+12
Mawson StationPermanentAustralia Australia1954Australian Antarctic DivisionMac Robertson Land67°36′10.1″S 62°52′22.8″E / 67.602806°S 62.873000°E / -67.602806; 62.873000 (Mawson Station (Australia))rUTC+6
McMurdo StationPermanentUnited States United States1956United States Antarctic ProgramRoss Island77°50′43.4″S 166°40′11.2″E / 77.845389°S 166.669778°E / -77.845389; 166.669778 (McMurdo Station (USA))xUTC+12*
Mendel Polar StationSummerCzech Republic Czech Republic2006Masaryk University
​biological, geological and climate research
James Ross Island63°48′6.5″S 57°53′7.9″W / 63.801806°S 57.885528°W / -63.801806; -57.885528 (Mendel Polar Station (Czech Republic))
Mirny StationPermanentRussia Russia1956Russian Antarctic Expedition
glaciology, seismology, meteorology, polar lights, cosmic radiation, and marine biology
Davis Sea66°33′10.4″S 93°00′34.8″E / 66.552889°S 93.009667°E / -66.552889; 93.009667 (Mirny Station (Russia))
Mizuho StationSummerJapan Japan1970National Institute of Polar Research
Transshipment station
70°41′53″S 44°19′54″E / 70.69806°S 44.33167°E / -70.69806; 44.33167 (Mizuho Station (Japan))
Molodyozhnaya StationSummerRussia Russia
Belarus Belarus
1962-1990
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic Expedition
Meteorology [22]
67°39′57.0″S 45°50′33.2″E / 67.665833°S 45.842556°E / -67.665833; 45.842556 (Molodyozhnaya Station (Russia))
Neumayer-Station IIIPermanentGermany Germany2009Alfred Wegener InstituteAtka Bay70°40′8″S 08°16′1.95″W / 70.66889°S 8.2672083°W / -70.66889; -8.2672083 (Neumayer-Station III (Germany))lUTC
Novolazarevskaya StationPermanentRussia Russia1961Russian Antarctic ExpeditionQueen Maud Land70°49′21.1″S 11°38′40.1″E / 70.822528°S 11.644472°E / -70.822528; 11.644472 (Novolazarevskaya Station (Russia))
Orcadas BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1904Argentine Antarctic Institute, Argentine NavyLaurie Island, South Orkney Islands60°44′15.5″S 44°44′22″W / 60.737639°S 44.73944°W / -60.737639; -44.73944 (Orcadas Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
Palmer StationPermanentUnited States United States1968United States Antarctic Program
Science labs, a dock and a helicopter pad.
Anvers Island64°46′27.1″S 64°03′11″W / 64.774194°S 64.05306°W / -64.774194; -64.05306 (Palmer Station (USA))hUTC-4
Princess Elisabeth BasePermanentBelgium Belgium2007Belgium Polar Secretariat
Energy-passive research station.
Queen Maud Land71°34′12″S 23°12′00″E / 71.57000°S 23.20000°E / -71.57000; 23.20000 (Princess Elisabeth Base (Belgium))
Professor Julio Escudero BasePermanentChile Chile1994Chilean Antarctic InstituteKing George Island62°12′4.2″S 58°57′45.3″W / 62.201167°S 58.962583°W / -62.201167; -58.962583 (Professor Julio Escudero Base (Chile))hUTC-4*
Progress StationSummerRussia Russia1988Russian Antarctic ExpeditionPrydz Bay69°22′48.2″S 76°23′19.1″E / 69.380056°S 76.388639°E / -69.380056; 76.388639 (Progress Station (Russia))
Rothera Research StationPermanentUnited Kingdom United Kingdom1975British Antarctic SurveyAdelaide Island67°34′08.3″S 68°07′29.1″W / 67.568972°S 68.124750°W / -67.568972; -68.124750 (Rothera Research Station (UK))
Russkaya StationSummerRussia Russia1980-1990
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic ExpeditionMarie Byrd Land74°46′00″S 136°52′00″W / 74.76667°S 136.86667°W / -74.76667; -136.86667 (Russkaya Station (Russia))fUTC-6[23]
San Martín BasePermanentArgentina Argentina1951Argentine Antarctic InstituteBarry Island68°07′48.9″S 67°06′7.2″W / 68.130250°S 67.102000°W / -68.130250; -67.102000 (San Martín Base (Argentina))iUTC-3
SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition)PermanentSouth Africa South Africa1962
(SANAE I)
South African National Antarctic ProgrammeVesleskarvet in Queen Maud Land71°40′21.9″S 2°50′24.9″W / 71.672750°S 2.840250°W / -71.672750; -2.840250 (SANAE IV (South Africa))iUTC+2
St. Kliment Ohridski BasePermanentBulgaria Bulgaria1988Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
Biological research, laboratorial and meteorological measurements. First Eastern Orthodox chapel, St. Ivan Rilski
Emona Anchorage, Livingston Island62°38′29″S 60°21′53″W / 62.64139°S 60.36472°W / -62.64139; -60.36472 (St. Kliment Ohridski Base (Bulgaria))
Scott BasePermanentNew Zealand New Zealand1957Antarctica New Zealand
Antarctic physical environments, Southern Ocean and Antarctic ecosystems.
Ross Island77°50′58.5″S 166°46′5.9″E / 77.849583°S 166.768306°E / -77.849583; 166.768306 (Scott Base (New Zealand))xUTC+12
Showa StationPermanentJapan Japan1957National Institute of Polar ResearchEast Ongul Island69°00′15.6″S 39°34′48.9″E / 69.004333°S 39.580250°E / -69.004333; 39.580250 (Showa Station (Japan))oUTC+3
Signy Research StationSummer (Permanent 1947-1995)United Kingdom United Kingdom1947British Antarctic SurveySigny Island, South Orkney Islands60°43′S 45°36′W / 60.717°S 45.600°W / -60.717; -45.600 (Signy Research Station (UK))
Svea Research StationSummerSweden Sweden1988Swedish Polar Research SecretariatQueen Maud Land74°34′34″S 11°13′31″W / 74.57611°S 11.22528°W / -74.57611; -11.22528 (Svea (Sweden))
Taishan Station[24]SummerChina China2014Polar Research Institute of ChinaPrincess Elizabeth Land73°51′S 76°58′E / 73.850°S 76.967°E / -73.850; 76.967 (Taishan Station (China))
Tor StationSummerNorway Norway1993Norwegian Polar InstituteQueen Maud Land71°53′20″S 05°09′30″E / 71.88889°S 5.15833°E / -71.88889; 5.15833 (Tor Station (Norway))
Troll StationPermanentNorway Norway1990Norwegian Polar InstituteQueen Maud Land72°00′43.5″S 2°31′56″E / 72.012083°S 2.53222°E / -72.012083; 2.53222 (Troll Station (Norway))
WAIS Divide CampSummerUnited States United States2005United States Antarctic Program
Collect a deep ice core
West Antarctic Ice Sheet79°28′S 112°04′W / 79.467°S 112.067°W / -79.467; -112.067 (WAIS Divide Camp)
Wasa Research StationSummerSweden Sweden1989Swedish Polar Research SecretariatQueen Maud Land73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Wasa Station (Sweden))
Vernadsky Research BasePermanentUkraine Ukraine1994National Antarctic Scientific CenterGalindez Island65°14′44.6″S 64°15′26″W / 65.245722°S 64.25722°W / -65.245722; -64.25722 (Vernadsky Research Base (Ukraine))iUTC-3
Vostok StationPermanentRussia Russia1957Russian Antarctic ExpeditionAntarctic Ice Sheet78°27′51.8″S 106°50′14″E / 78.464389°S 106.83722°E / -78.464389; 106.83722 (Vostok Station (Russia))rUTC+6
Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) StationPermanentChina China1989Polar Research Institute of ChinaLarsemann Hills in Prydz Bay69°22′24″S 76°22′12″E / 69.37333°S 76.37000°E / -69.37333; 76.37000 (Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) Station (China))
* Observes daylight saving time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 4.0 Antarctica - Past and Present
  2. ^ a b Rudmose Brown, R. N.; Pirie, J. H.; Mossman, R. C. (2002). The Voyage of the Scotia. Edinburgh: Mercat Press. pp. 34–57. ISBN 1-84183-044-5. 
  3. ^ Rudmose Brown, p. 57.
  4. ^ "Voyage of the Scotia 1902–04: The Antarctic". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  5. ^ Speak, Peter (2003). William Speirs Bruce: Polar Explorer and Scottish Nationalist. Edinburgh: NMS Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 1-901663-71-X. 
  6. ^ Escude, Carlos; Cisneros, Andres. "Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina" (in Spanish). Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ Moneta, Jose Manuel (1954). Cuatro Años en las Orcadas del Sur (9th ed.). Ediciones Peuser. 
  8. ^ HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943
  9. ^ "Spirit of Scott 2012: Britain’s polar interests lie under a cloud". The Daily Telegraph. 
  10. ^ Antarctica and the Arctic: the complete encyclopedia, Volume 1, by David McGonigal, Lynn Woodworth, page 98
  11. ^ Concordia Station (English Text - Polar Network-Cnr)
  12. ^ Concordia Station (English Text pdf - PNRA)
  13. ^ Chronicles from Concordia Station (English Text - ESA)
  14. ^ Concordia Station structure (IPEV)
  15. ^ BAE Gabriel de Castilla
  16. ^ Halley VI Antarctic Research Station
  17. ^ SAS Juan Carlos I
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Mario Zucchelli Station on Polar Network - Cnr
  20. ^ A window on Antarctica (Italiantartide)
  21. ^ Mario Zucchelli Station on National Antarctic Programs
  22. ^ http://www.tvr.by/eng/news.asp?id=15751&date=17.03.2006%2019:31:00#1
  23. ^ http://www.french-polar-team.fr/R1_Russkaya_Station_Antarctica.php
  24. ^ "中国正式建成南极泰山科考站". 

External links[edit]