Reign (2013 TV series)

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Reign
Reign intertitle.png
Format
Created byLaurie McCarthy
Stephanie SenGupta
Starring
Opening theme"Scotland" by The Lumineers
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons1
No. of episodes10 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)
Production company(s)
Distributor
Broadcast
Original channelThe CW
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
Audio formatDolby Digital 5.1
Original runOctober 17, 2013 (2013-10-17) – present
External links
Official website
 
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Reign
Reign intertitle.png
Format
Created byLaurie McCarthy
Stephanie SenGupta
Starring
Opening theme"Scotland" by The Lumineers
Country of originUnited States
Original language(s)English
No. of seasons1
No. of episodes10 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s)
Production company(s)
Distributor
Broadcast
Original channelThe CW
Picture format1080i (HDTV)
Audio formatDolby Digital 5.1
Original runOctober 17, 2013 (2013-10-17) – present
External links
Official website

Reign is an American historical fiction television series following the early years of Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1557 France.[1] The series created by Stephanie SenGupta and Laurie McCarthy airs on The CW as part of the 2013–14 American television season.[2][3][4] Reign had its series premiere on October 17, 2013 in the US[5] and Canada. In the United States it airs on Thursdays, in the 9/8c timeslot following The Vampire Diaries.[6] In Canada, Reign airs on M3 on Wednesdays in the 8/7c timeslot while CTV Two simulcasts with The CW.[7] In New Zealand, Prime premiered the show at 9:30 p.m. Thursdays from November 21, 2013. In Australia Reign will air on ELEVEN starting in 2014.[8] The leading roles are played by Australian, Canadian, and English actors.

Plot[edit]

Set in 1557 France, the highly fictionalized series follows the life of Mary, Queen of Scots, at French court while she awaits her marriage to the future Francis II of France, to whom she has been engaged since they were six. At court, Mary has to contend with the changing politics and power plays, as well as her burgeoning feelings for Francis and the romantic attentions from Francis' bastard half-brother, Bash. Francis' mother, Catherine de' Medici, is secretly trying to prevent the marriage due to Nostradamus's prediction that the marriage will lead to Francis' death. The series also follows the affairs of Mary's Scottish handmaidens Kenna, Aylee, Lola and Greer, who are searching for husbands of their own at court.

Cast[edit]

Recurring[edit]

Episodes[edit]

SeasonEpisodesOriginally airedDVD and Blu-ray release dates
Season premiereSeason finaleRegion 1Region 2Region 4
122[9]October 17, 2013 (2013-10-17)TBATBATBATBA
No.TitleDirected byWritten byOriginal air dateU.S. viewers
(in millions)
1"Pilot"Brad SilberlingLaurie McCarthy & Stephanie SenguptaOctober 17, 2013 (2013-10-17)1.98[10]
15-year old Mary Stuart has been living in a convent in France since age nine, in anticipation of her marriage to Francis, heir to the throne of France. After a failed attempt to poison her, Mary is brought to the French court for safety, where she is reunited with her handmaidens and childhood companions Greer, Kenna, Lola and Aylee. At court, Mary discovers that her marriage isn't assured, for it depends on ever-changing politics and alliances. Francis' personal reservations are related to his secret affair with Natalie, a lady of the court, and his doubts about the wisdom of an alliance with Scotland. Mary also catches the eye of Francis' half-brother Bash, son of King Henry with his mistress, Diane de Poitiers. When Queen Catherine's adviser Nostradamus has a vision that the match with Mary will cost Francis his life, she decides to sabotage the marriage. Catherine arranges for Colin (Ashley Charles), a Scot and betrothed of Lola, to rape a drugged Mary in her sleep. Mary is warned not to drink the wine beforehand by an unseen figure, and manages to stop Colin before the rape. Before Mary can question Colin, he is executed by order of the King and Queen. 
2"Snakes in the Garden"Matt HastingsLaurie McCarthyOctober 24, 2013 (2013-10-24)1.83[11]
Francis' younger brother, Charles (Peter DaCunha), is to be betrothed to Madeleine (Vanessa Carter), a French noblewoman. Madeleine arrives by ship, escorted by an unexpected English envoy led by Simon Westbrook (Luke Roberts), who are welcomed at court for helping Madeleine arrive safely. Mary learns from Charles that there is a girl named Clarissa (Katie Boland) who lives in the secret passageways of the castle; Mary suspects she is the one who warned her of the rape plot. When Mary avoids what appears to be another poisoning attempt, she asks Clarissa for information. Mary is led to Simon's rooms, where she learns that the poisoning was faked by Simon in order to scare her out of the alliance with France. Simon points out that Mary already has enemies in French court and will not be safe, but Mary declares her intent to stay and stand against the English. Mary suspects Catherine as being behind the various plots and shares this with Francis. Francis believes Mary, and warns his mother to leave Mary alone. Mary and Francis are for now determined to be a united front against their enemies. 
3"Kissed"Holly DaleDoris EganOctober 31, 2013 (2013-10-31)1.57[12]
When news arrives that English soldiers are amassing near the Scottish border, Mary asks Henry for military aid but is refused. Mary tries to negotiate a deal for troops with the visiting Prince Tomas (Manolo Cardona) of Portugal. Tomas proposes to Mary, promising military aid and an immediate wedding, which Francis cannot give her. Mary tells Francis of Tomas' proposal, which prompts Francis to blackmail Henry, threatening to tell Catherine and Diane of his new affair with Kenna. Henry is pleased by Francis' initiative and agrees to send six companies of troops to Scotland. Bash rides out to deliver the orders to the troops, but he returns gravely wounded, as they were ambushed by the English before they could set sail. Henry and Catherine realize this means the English were warned by a spy at court. A distraught Francis kisses Mary for the first time and tells her to marry Tomas for the sake of Scotland. Mary accepts Tomas' proposal, and Tomas sends a ship of his men immediately to Scotland. 
4"Hearts and Minds"Scott PetersP. K. SimondsNovember 7, 2013 (2013-11-07)1.64[13]
Simon Westbrook is arrested for causing the deaths of the French troops, based on the testimony of a prostitute who claims she saw him bragging about it. Tomas shows his true colours to Mary by threatening her and hitting a whipping boy when Mary talks back to him. After receiving a hint from Clarissa, Mary, Francis and Bash realize that Tomas had the most to gain by warning the English. Mary questions the prostitute, who admits she was paid for her testimony. Francis and Bash find Tomas when he's about to kill his whipping boy in order cover his tracks in the plot; a fight ensues and Francis kills Tomas. Mary, Francis, and Bash return to court in time to prevent Simon's execution. Henry and Catherine, with the King of Portugal's agreement, decide to cover up Tomas' treachery - the official story is that his death was an accident. Simon leaves France as the new English envoy to Portugal. Due to her role in protecting France's ties with Portugal, Mary is able to reopen negotiations for her marriage to Francis, this time pressuring Henry and Catherine for better terms for herself and Scotland. 
5"A Chill in the Air"Bruce McDonaldJennie Snyder UrmanNovember 14, 2013 (2013-11-14)1.73[14]
In the hopes of ousting Mary, Catherine arranges for Francis' former lover, Olivia (Yael Grobglas), to return to court and profess her feelings for Francis. When Francis refuses to send Olivia away, Mary vents her frustrations to Bash and the two kiss, witnessed by Francis. Aylee is caught "stealing" by Catherine, and the Queen blackmails Aylee into letting her read Mary's letters before they are posted. Mary is aware of this arrangement, as she deliberately planted Aylee as her spy for Catherine. Pagans are practicing human sacrifice to appease a creature in the woods; one of the pagans tells Bash he will have to kill someone to replace the victim he'd removed before the ritual was complete. Mary learns that Kenna is having an affair with Henry and advises her to end it but Kenna refuses, claiming that Henry is planning to make her his new mistress, replacing Diane. 
6"Chosen"Bradley WalshWendy RissNovember 21, 2013 (2013-11-21)1.81[15]
The pagans mark Mary as their next sacrifice, planting a necklace and a stag's head in her room. One of Catherine's guards and one of Mary's servants are revealed as the culprits, and they are captured and burned to death. Diane (Anna Walton), who secretly practised the pagan religion in her past, advises Bash to sacrifice someone else in Mary's stead. Bash prepares to sacrifice a thief, but when a pagan priest arrives Bash reveals it as a trap and kills the pagan instead. Bash almost lets the thief free, but when the thief identifies him as the King's son, Bash pushes him off a cliff. Henry publically declares that Kenna is his mistress, but unknown to Kenna, Henry is still keeping Diane. Francis tells Mary that in order to prevent other people from using their feelings against them, they should be free to be with other people; the only exception is that Mary cannot be with Bash. Francis sleeps with Olivia, who is hoping to get pregnant and in that course become his wife. 
7"Left Behind"Jeremiah ChechikDrew LindoDecember 5, 2013 (2013-12-05)1.66[16]
While Henry and his troops are away, the castle is taken hostage by Count Vincent (Michael Aronov) of Italy, who seeks revenge for the death of his son. Mary and Catherine form a plan together to get everyone out of the castle before Count Vincent leaves with Francis as a hostage. While Catherine, Mary and Mary's ladies are feasting with the Italians, Francis sneaks everyone else out through the castle's secret passageways that have been marked for safety by Clarissa. Olivia is left behind to open the passage door for Mary but leaves her post; she gets lost in the tunnels and is not seen again. Mary and her ladies are unable to escape, but Catherine successfully poisons the Count's men, who die before they can rape the ladies. Count Vincent dies when Mary stabs him. Mary and Francis reconcile, and they make love. Bash learns that Diane was working together with Count Vincent, as part of her plan to remove Henry's other sons, and have Bash legitimized and become Henry's heir. 
8"Fated"Fred GerberLaurie McCarthyDecember 12, 2013 (2013-12-12)1.86[17]
News arrives that the queen of England is dying and hasn't named her heir. Henry announces that it's time for Mary and Francis to wed, because Mary is a strong claimant to the English throne and Henry wants to take England for France. Catherine tells Mary about Nostradamus' vision that her marriage will cost Francis his life, asking her to leave Francis for his sake. Mary confronts Nostradamus, who adds that one of Mary's ladies will die soon. Kenna learns about Diane's plot to legitimize Bash and tells Catherine. Catherine threatens Diane, ordering her to poison Kenna and leave Henry for good. Diane refuses to poison Kenna but leaves the castle. Clarissa poisons Aylee and pushes her down the stairs, killing her, in order to make Mary believe Nostradamus' prophecy. Mary declares she will not claim the English throne and flees the castle with Bash. 
9"For King and Country"Helen ShaverStory by: Alan McCullough
Teleplay by: Alan McCullough & Edgar Lyall
January 23, 2014 (2014-01-23)1.74[18]
Mary and Bash are captured by Henry's men after a week of being on the run together. They are brought back to the castle, where Mary tells a disbelieving Francis about Nostradamus' prophecy. Henry threatens to execute Bash if Mary won't marry Francis. Mary counterproposes that Bash be legitimized as the new heir to the throne and she marry him instead; if Henry agrees, Mary will claim the English throne as Henry wants. As this would require an annulment of Henry and Catherine's marriage, and would turn Francis and his brothers into bastards, Catherine sends an assassin to kill Mary and Bash. Henry has the assassin killed before he can complete his task, and Catherine is imprisoned. Henry agrees to Mary's terms and leaves for Rome to seek the Pope's approval for Bash's legitimization. Clarissa is chained in a cell by Nostradamus as punishment for killing Aylee, but she stabs him and escapes. 
10"Sacrifice"Rachel TalalayP. K. Simonds & Daniel SinclairJanuary 30, 2014 (2014-01-30)1.62[19]
Catherine conspires with nobleman Lord Hugo (Ted Atherton) to remove Bash, who is acting as regent in Henry's absence. Their poisoning attempt fails when Bash is protected by his new bodyguard, Alec (Daniel Fathers). Their second attempt involves trying to expose Bash's connection to a pregnant peasant named Isobel (Amy Forsyth), Bash's cousin, whose father was executed for being a pagan. Bash, Alec and Mary sneak Isobel out of the castle but make camp in the woods when Isobel goes into labor. A group of pagans surround their tent, but leave them unharmed when Bash, Alec and Isobel perform a pagan chant. Bash explains to Mary about his pagan heritage, and that the blood pagans of the wood are a different sect. Isobel dies giving birth to a daughter, and the group return to the castle, where the baby is secretly given to the castle's communal wet nurse. Lola, Kenna and Greer are unable to find evidence of Catherine's involvement in the plots, but forge letters in Catherine's handwriting to blackmail her to stop. Bash declares his feelings for Mary; the pair kiss and privately honor Isobel's grave with a pagan ceremony. 
11"Inquisition"[20]Mike RohlDoris EganFebruary 6, 2014 (2014-02-06)TBA
When King Henry accuses Queen Catherine of treason and adultery, she sets out to save her life by exposing Bash's dark past. Mary and Bash go on a quest to expose an even more deadly secret from Catherine's past. Meanwhile, Nostradamus reveals the truth about the castle ghost, Clarissa, which shocks everyone. 
12"Royal Blood"[9]TBATBAFebruary 27, 2014 (2014-02-27)TBA
13"The Consummation"[9]TBATBAMarch 6, 2014 (2014-03-06)TBA

Development and production[edit]

The CW first announced its order of a pilot for a TV series about on the life of Mary, Queen of Scots in February 2013, created by Stephanie Sengupta and Laurie McCarthy, and produced by CBS Studios.[21] The pilot was directed by Brad Silberling, with Sengupta and McCarthy as the writers and executive directors; Sengupta left the team in May 2013, leaving Laurie McCarthy as the sole showrunner.[22] On February 9, 2013, it was announced that Australian actress Adelaide Kane would be playing the main character.[23] Kane auditioned when she was filming a recurring role on the third season of MTV TV series Teen Wolf. When Kane got the part, the Teen Wolf writers wrote her character leaving the series.[24] Kane is part Scottish on her mother's side, and did research on the historical Mary Stuart in preparing for the role.[25]

Reign was announced on The CW's 2013 autumn line-up on May 10, 2013, placing it in the Thursday timeslot following The Vampire Diaries, its biggest hit in young women demographic.[2][3] The show's pilot was distributed on May 20, 2013 to advertisers and critics for promotion and to generate hype.[26] Afterward the pilot was edited due to its sexual content before final airing on October 13, trimming the scene where Kenna masturbates after witnessing a bedding ceremony.[27][28]

Showrunner McCarthy describes the show as deliberately taking liberties with history, and that it's more "entertainment" than history,[25] while actress Anna Popplewell refers to the show as "fantasy history", exploring the characters in hypothetical situations.[29] McCarthy adds that the show is designed to be interesting to a contemporary audience, so viewers who aren't familiar with history will be able to watch and relate to the characters.[30] Among the creative choices is the use of modern music in the show soundtrack, and its costumes.[30] The show's costumes are designed by Meredith Markworth-Pollack, who worked on the CW's other shows Hart of Dixie and Gossip Girl, who created different looks for Mary and her ladies, each to complement their differing personalities.[31] The ladies in question: Lola, Kenna, Greer, and Aylee, are loosely based on Mary Beaton, Mary Seton, Mary Fleming, and Mary Livingston who were ladies-in-waiting to Mary, Queen of Scots.

A large part of the filming for the first season took place in Canada and Ireland.[32][33]

Reception[edit]

Response to the show has been mixed, with various critics highlighting the show's focus on romance and teenage drama instead of historical accuracy. A number reviewers have compared it to Gossip Girl, with similar emphasis on fashion, teenage drama and soap opera antics.[34][35][36][37] The review of the pilot by The New York Times described Reign a strong candidate as a "camp classic", calling it fun and acknowledging its historical inaccuracies.[38] The reviewer of The A.V. Club described the show as "an alternate-universe fanfiction than anything pretending to approach history", calling the show camp and fun.[34] The Miami Herald describes the show's opening episodes as "surprisingly entertaining", with Adelaide Kane's portrayal of Mary as "a teenager with a dawning realization that her royal caprices can have unexpectedly grim consequences offers an interesting take on the traditional coming-of-age story".[35] Community Voices highlighted Reign as an interesting departure from The CW's other shows, but describes it as stuck in a rut, making it difficult to sustain a show that's "built on a binary premise: either Mary and Francis are coming together or they are drifting apart."[37] A review by a The Los Angeles Times critic is more critical, saying that the "sexed-up version of high school with horses" show "does not deserve" its main character, who is described as a "The Princess Diaries knock-off", but acknowledges that the show is self-aware of its position as a guilty pleasure.[39] USA Today is also critical, describing the show as anachronistic and "dumbing down" history for the sake of entertainment.[36]

Accolades[edit]

YearResultAwardCategoryRecipients
2014WonPeople's Choice AwardFavorite New TV DramaReign

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "REIGN (CW)". The Futon Critic. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b James Hibberd (May 9, 2013). "CW orders 3 new sci-fi shows". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b Nellie Andreeva (May 9, 2013). "UPDATE: CW's 'The Tomorrow People', 'The 100', 'Reign' & 'Oxygen' Ordered To Series". Deadline.com. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  4. ^ Cynthia Littleton (May 9, 2013). "CW Orders 4 Dramas; Renews 'Carrie Diaries,' 'Nikita'". Variety. Retrieved May 10, 2013. 
  5. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (July 29, 2013). "The CW Moves Up 'The Originals' Premiere to Follow 'The Vampire Diaries' + 'Supernatural' Gets Earlier Start". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved July 29, 2013. 
  6. ^ "The CW Announces 2013-2014 Fall Schedule". The Futon Critic. May 16, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2013. 
  7. ^ Reign on CTV
  8. ^ "TEN Upfronts: Sport, Kylie Kwong, and 6pm entertainment". TVtonight. November 19, 2013. Retrieved November 19, 2013. 
  9. ^ a b c "Shows A–Z – reign on cw". The Futon Critic. Retrieved January 18, 2014. 
  10. ^ Bibel, Sara (October 18, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Big Bang Theory' & 'Grey's Anatomy' Adjusted Up; 'The Crazy Ones' & 'Elementary' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved October 18, 2013. 
  11. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (October 25, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Big Bang Theory' & 'The Vampire Diaries' Adjusted Up; 'The Millers' and 'Scandal' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. 
  12. ^ Bibel, Sara (November 1, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Vampire Diaries', 'The Millers' & 'Elementary' Adjusted Up; 'Sean Saves the World' & 'Parenthood' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved November 1, 2013. 
  13. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (November 8, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'Elementary', 'Scandal', 'The Vampire Diaries', & 'The Big Bang Theory' Adjusted Up; 'The Voice', 'The Millers', 'Sean Saves the World', 'Parenthood', & 'The Michael J Fox Show' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved November 8, 2013. 
  14. ^ Bibel, Sara (November 15, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Big Bang Theory' Adjusted Up; 'The X Factor', 'Parks and Recreation', 'The Millers', 'Sean Saves the World', 'Glee', 'The Michael J. Fox Show' & 'Parenthood' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved November 15, 2013. 
  15. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (November 22, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'Big Bang Theory' & 'Grey's Anatomy Adjusted Up; 'The X Factor', 'Reign' & 'Glee' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (December 6, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Big Bang Theory' & 'The X Factor' Adjusted Up; 'Once Upon a Time', 'The Millers', 'Grey's Anatomy' & Scandal' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved December 6, 2013. 
  17. ^ Bibel, Sara (December 13, 2013). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Vampire Diaries' Adjusted Up; 'The Big Bang Theory', 'The Sing-Off', 'Once Upon a Time in Wonderland', 'The Millers', 'The Crazy Ones', 'Two and a Half Men' & 'Elementary' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved December 13, 2013. 
  18. ^ Bibel, Sara (January 24, 2014). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'The Vampire Diaries' & 'American Idol' Adjusted Up; 'Reign' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved January 24, 2014. 
  19. ^ Kondolojy, Amanda (January 31, 2014). "Thursday Final Ratings: 'Big Bang Theory', 'American Idol', 'The Taste', 'Vampire Diaries', 'Parks & Recreation', 'Two and a Half Men' Adjusted Up; 'The Millers', 'Elementary', & Reign' Adjusted Down". TV by the Numbers. Retrieved January 31, 2014. 
  20. ^ "(#111) "Inquisition"". The Futon Critic. Retrieved January 20, 2013. 
  21. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (February 24, 2013). "Alex Graves, Bharat Nalluri & Brad Silberling To Direct CW Pilots". deadline. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  22. ^ "‘Reign’ Co-Creator Stephanie SenGupta Exits". deadline. May 23, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  23. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (February 9, 2013). "The CW Casts Its Mary Queen Of Scots". deadline. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  24. ^ Radish, Christina (October 10, 2013). "Adelaide Kane Talks REIGN, How She Joined the Series, How the Role Affects Her Part on TEEN WOLF, and Her Character’s Sense of Duty and Loyalty". Collider.com. Retrieved December 19, 2013. 
  25. ^ a b De Moraes, Lisa (July 30, 2013). "TCA: CW’s First Crunchy-Gravel Drama ‘Reign’ Flirts With History". deadline. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  26. ^ Kaye, Dierdre (May 20, 2013). "The CW makes it Reign". She Knows Entertainment. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  27. ^ Hibberd, James (2013-10-14). "The CW trims 'Reign' masturbation scene". InsideTV.com. Retrieved 2014-01-29. 
  28. ^ Steinberg, Brian (2013-10-11). "Sex on Broadcast TV Needs Plot: Networks that use intimacy merely to titillate are stripping themselves of integrity". Variety.com. Retrieved 2014-01-29. 
  29. ^ Swift, Andy (October 18, 2013). "Mary Queen Of Scots: ‘Reign’ Stars Separate Historical Fact From Fiction". Hollywood Life. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  30. ^ a b Hinckley, David (July 30, 2013). "'Reign,' a prime-time soap about Mary, Queen of Scots, is a royal departure for CW". NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  31. ^ Bricker, Tierney (November 22, 2013). "All Hail Reign's Fashion! The CW Hit's Costume Designer Breaks Down Mary and Her Ladies-in-Waiting's Looks". E Online. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  32. ^ CW 'Reign': Canada's Whizbang Films and Take 5 Productions to Co-Produce
  33. ^ M3 - Details
  34. ^ a b Valentine, Genevieve (November 21, 2013). "Reign: "Chosen"". A.V. Club. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  35. ^ a b Garvin, Glenn (October 16, 2013). "Think of CW’s ‘Reign’ as ‘Mary, Teen of Scots’". Miami Herald. Retrieved 13 @ERROR@ 2013. 
  36. ^ a b Robert, Bianco (October 16, 2013). "Wrong as 'Reign': CW ignores history, insults viewers". USA Today. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  37. ^ a b Owen, Rob (November 14, 2013). "There will be no reining in of 'Reign'". Community Voices. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  38. ^ Hale, Mike (October 16, 2013). "Even a Doomed Queen Just Wants to Have Fun". NY Times. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 
  39. ^ McNamara, Mary (October 17, 2013). "Review: The CW's 'Reign' sexes up, dumbs down Mary, Queen of Scots". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 9, 2013. 

External links[edit]