Reference ranges for blood tests

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Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.



A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[1] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:


Arterial or venous

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[4] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[4]

Usual or optimal

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.


References range may vary with age, sex, race, diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Standard reference ranges should theoretically not vary with the instruments and lab techniques used, but practically it may do so when inaccurate methods are used in establishing standard reference ranges. Finally, the test procedure itself may be erroneous or inaccurate.

Sorted by concentration

A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

By mass and molarity

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

\log_{10} \frac{\textit{molar~mass}}{1000} = \textit{distance~to~right~(decades)} , where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540,[5] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units

Units don't necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Sorted by category

Ions and trace metals

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Sodium (Na)135,[6] 137[7][3]145,[7][3] 147[6]mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
310,[8] 320[8]330,[8] 340[8]mg/dl
Potassium (K)3.5,[6][3] 3.6[7]5.0,[6][7][3] 5.1mmol/L or mEq/L[6]See hypokalemia
or hyperkalemia
Chloride (Cl)95,[6] 98,[10] 100[3]105,[6] 106,[10] 110[3]mmol/L or mEq/L[6]
Ionized calcium (Ca)1.03,[12] 1.10[3]1.23,[12] 1.30[3]mmol/L
4.1,[13] 4.4[13]4.9,[13] 5.2[13]mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca)2.1,[6][14] 2.2[3]2.5,[14][3] 2.6,[14] 2.8[6]mmol/L
8.4,[6] 8.5[15]10.2,[6] 10.5[15]mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - male65,[16] 76[7]176,[16] 198[7]µg/dL
11.6,[17][18] 13.6[18]30,[17] 32,[18] 35[18]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - female26,[7] 50[16]170[7][16]µg/dL
4.6,[18] 8.9[17]30.4[17]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns100[16]250[16]µg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - children50[16]120[16]µg/dL
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)240,[16] 262[7]450,[16] 474[7]μg/dL
43,[18] 47[18]81,[18] 85[18]µmol/L
Transferrin190,[19] 194,[3] 204[7]326,[3] 330,[19] 360[7]mg/dL
Transferrin saturation20[16]50[16] %
Ferritin - Male12[21]300[21]ng/mL
Ferritin - Female12[21]150[21]ng/mL
Ammonia10,[23] 20[24]35,[23] 65[24]μmol/L
17,[25] 34[25]60,[25] 110[25]μg/dL
Phosphate (HPO42−)0.81.5[28]mmol/L
Inorganic phosphorus (serum)1.0[6]1.5[6]mmol/L
Copper (Cu)11[29]24μmol/L
Zinc (Zn)60,[30] 72[31]110,[31] 130[30]μg/dL
9.2,[32] 11[3]17,[3] 20[32]µmol/L
Magnesium1.5,[15] 1.7[33]2.0,[15] 2.3[33]mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6,[34] 0.7[3]0.82,[34] 0.95[3]mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases

If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[4] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[35]

TestArterial/VenousLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
pHArterial7.34,[7] 7.35[6]7.44,[7] 7.45[6]
Base excessArterial & venous[36]-3[36]+3[36]mEq/L
oxygen partial pressure (pO2)Arterial pO210,[6] 11[38]13,[38] 14[6]kPa
75,[6][7] 83[15]100,[7] 105[6]mmHg or torr
30[36]40[36]mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturationArterial94,[36] 95,[10] 96[15]100[10][15] %
VenousApproximately 75[10]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2)Arterial PaCO24.4,[6] 4.7[38]5.9,[6] 6.0[38]kPa
33,[6] 35[7]44,[6] 45[7]mmHg or torr
41[36]51[36]mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2)Arterial23[36]30[36]mmol/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3-)Arterial & venous18[15]23[15]mmol/L
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)Arterial & venous21, 22[6]27, 28[6]mmol/L or mEq/L[6]

Liver function

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Total Protein60,[6] 63[7]78,[6] 82,[7] 84[15]g/Lsee hypoproteinemia
Albumin35[6][41]48,[7] 55[6]g/Lsee hypoalbuminemia
3.5[7]4.8,[7] 5.5[6]U/L
Total Bilirubin1.7,[43] 2,[6] 3.4,[43] 5[3]17,[6][43] 22,[43] 25[3]μmol/L
0.1,[6] 0.2,[7] 0.29[44]1.0,[6][15] 1.3,[7] 1.4[44]mg/dL
Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin0.0[6] or N/A[3]5,[6] 7[43][3]μmol/L
0[6][7]0.3,[6][7] 0.4[15]mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[3])5,[45] 7,[7] 8[6]20,[6] 21,[10] 56[7]U/LAlso called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[3])Female6[46]34[46]IU/LAlso called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)Female42[45]98[45]U/L
(Enzyme activity)0.6[3]1.8[3]µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)5,[45] 8[7]40,[45] 78[7]U/L

Cardiac tests

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Creatine kinase (CK)male24,[48] 38,[7] 60[45]174,[15] 320[45]U/L
or ng/mL
female24,[48] 38,[7] 96[15]140,[15] 200[45]U/L
or ng/mL
CK-MB03,[7] 3.8,[3] 5[45]ng/mL or μg/L[3]
MyoglobinFemale1[50]66[50]ng/mL or µg/L
Cutoffs and ranges for troponin types, 12 hrs after onset of pain
TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Troponin-I0.2[51]ng/mL or μg/LUpper limit of normal
0.2[51]1.0[51]ng/mL or μg/LAcute Coronary Syndrome
0.4[52]2.0[52]ng/mL or μg/LModerately increased[52]
1.0,[51] 1.5[53]n/a[51][53]ng/mL or μg/LMyocardial Infarction likely
Troponin-T0.02[51]ng/mL or μg/LUpper limit of normal
0.02[51]0.10[51]ng/mL or μg/LAcute Coronary Syndrome
0.10[51]n/a[51]ng/mL or μg/LMyocardial Infarction likely
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
InterpretationRange / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely< 100 pg/mL[54][55]
"Gray zone"100-500 pg/mL[54][55]
Congestive heart failure likely>500 pg/mL[54][55]
Congestive heart failure likely< 75years> 125 pg/mL[49]
>75 years>450pg/mL[49]


TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitTherapeutic target
Triglycerides10 – 39 years54[15]110[15]mg/dL< 100 mg/dL[56]
or 1.1[56] mmol/L
40 – 59 years70[15]150[15]mg/dL
> 60 years80[15]150[15]mg/dL
Total cholesterol3.0,[58] 3.6[6][58]5.0,[3][59] 6.5[6]mmol/L< 3.9[56]
120,[7] 140[6]200,[7] 250[6]mg/dL< 150[56]
HDL cholesterolfemale1.0,[60] 1.2,[3] 1.3[58]2.2[60]mmol/L> 1.0[60] or 1.6[58]  mmol/L
> 40[61] or 60[62] mg/dL
40,[61] 50[63]86[61]mg/dL
HDL cholesterolmale0.9[60][3]2.0[60]mmol/L
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[60] 2.4[59]3.0,[59][3] 3.4[60]mmol/L< 2.5[60]
80,[61] 94[61]120,[61] 130[61]mg/dL< 100[61]
LDL/HDL quotientn/a5[3](unitless)

Tumour markers

Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)44[7]ng/mL or µg/L
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)5[7]IU/l or mU/mlin male and non-pregnant female
CA-12530,[64] 35[65]kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
3.4,[3] 3.6[66]μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers5[67]μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)2.5,[3] 4[7]μg/L[7][3] or ng/mL[15]below age 45 <2.5 μg/L
PAP3[15]units/dL (Bodansky units)
5,[68] 15[68]ng/L or pg/mLCutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[68]


Thyroid hormones

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3,[3] 0.4,[7] 0.5,[15] 0.6[69]4.0,[3] 4.5,[7] 6.0[15]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3,[70] 0.5[71]2.0,[71] 3.0[70]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants1.3[72]19[72]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4)
Normal adult0.7,[73] 0.8[7]1.4,[73] 1.5,[7] 1.8[74]ng/dL
9,[75][3] 10,[76] 12[77]18,[3][75] 23[77]pmol/L
31 d - 18 y
Total thyroxine4,[76] 5.5[7]11,[76] 12.3[7]μg/dL
60[76][77]140,[76] 160[77]nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3)Normal adult0.2[76]0.5[76]ng/dL
Children 2-16 y0.1[79]0.6[79]ng/dL
Total triiodothyronine60,[7] 75[76]175,[76] 181[7]ng/dL
0.9,[3] 1.1[76]2.5,[3] 2.7[76]nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)12[7]30[7]mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg)1.5[76]30[76]pmol/L

Sex hormones

Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle.[80]

The diagrams at right take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.[80]

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Dihydrotestosteroneadult male30[81]85[81]ng/dL
TestosteroneMale, overall8,[82] 10[83]27,[82] 35[83]nmol/L
230,[84] 300[85]780[84] - 1000[85]ng/dL
Male < 50 years10[3]45[3]nmol/L
Male > 50 years6.2[3]26[3]nmol/L
Female0.7[83]2.8[83] - 3.0[3]nmol/L
20[85]80[85] - 85[84]ng/dL
Female (Follicular phase)0.2[15]1.0[15]mg/L
Adult male1[87]8[87]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
Adult female (Ovulation)6[87]
95% PI (standard)
95% PI)
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female30[87]118[87]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
Female, peak20[88]
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Female, post-menopausal15[89]60[89]
Male aged 18+2[90]9[90]
(an estrogen)
Adult male50[91]200[91]pmol/L
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[91]500,[91] 600[91]pmol/L
19[92]140,[92] 160[92]pg/mL
Adult female - free (not protein bound)0.5[93]9[93]pg/mL
Post-menopausal femaleN/A[91]< 130[91]pmol/L
N/A[92]< 35[92]pg/mL
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23)17,[88] 35[94]92[94]nmol/L
6,[88] 11[95]29[95]ng/mL
AndrostenedioneAdult male and female60[89]270[89]ng/dL
Post-menopausal female< 180[89]
Prepubertal< 60[89]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateAdult male and female30[96]400[96]µg/dL
Adult female40[97]120[97]nmol/L
Adult male20[97]60[97]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
13–45 years0.7[98]20[98]ng/mL

Other hormones

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)4.4[99]18,[100] 22[99]pmol/L
20[7]80,[101] 100[7]pg/mL
Cortisol09:00 am140[102]700[102]nmol/L
Growth hormone (fasting)05[6]ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)7[6]n/ang/mL
Female, 20 yrs110[104]420[104]ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs55[104]220[104]
Male, 20 yrs160[104]390[104]
Male, 75 yrs48[104]200[104]
Female71,[105] 105[105]348,[105] 548[105]mIU/L
3.4,[105] 3.9[105]16.4,[105] 20.3[105]µg/L
Male58,[105] 89[105]277,[105] 365[105]mIU/L
2.7,[105] 3.3[105]13.0,[105] 13.5[105]µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)10,[106] 17[107]65,[106] 70[107]pg/mL
1.1,[3] 1.8[108]6.9,[3] 7.5[108]pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8,[15][109] 9[109]40,[109] 80[15]ng/mL
20,[110] 23[111]95,[111] 150[110]nmol/L
-Therapeutic target range
30,[112] 40[113]65,[113] 100[112]ng/mL
85,[56] 100[113]120,[56] 160[113]nmol/L
Plasma renin activity0.29,[114] 1.9[115]3.7[114][115]ng/(mL*hour)
3.3,[116] 21[117]41[116][117]mcU/mL
Adult19,[116] 34.0[116]ng/dL
530,[118] 940[118]pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
Adult13.1,[119] 35.0[119]ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[119] 970[119]pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)


Also including the vitamin B12)-related enzyme homocysteine.

TestPatient typeStandard rangeUnitOptimal range
Lower limitUpper limitLower limitUpper limit
Vitamin A30[15]65[15]µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year3.0[120]16[120]ng/mL or μg/L5[121]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[120]600[120]ng/mL or μg/L
Pregnantng/mL or μg/L400[120]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)130,[123] 160[124]700,[123] 950[124]ng/L
100,[125] 120[3]520,[125] 700[3]pmol/L
3.3,[126] 5.9[126]7.2,[126] 15.3[126]μmol/L6.3[56]
45,[127] 80[127]100,[127] 210[127]μg/dL85[56]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)0.4[15]1.5[15]mg/dL0.9[56]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)8,[15][109] 9[109]40,[109] 80[15]ng/mL30,[112] 40[113]65,[113] 100[112]
20,[110] 23[111]95,[111] 150[110]nmol/L85,[56] 100[113]120,[56] 160[113]
Vitamin Eμmol/L28[56]


TestLimit typeLimitUnit
LeadOptimal health range< 20[10] or 40[15]µg/dL
Blood ethanol contentLimit for drunk driving0,[129] 0.2,[129] 0.8[129] or g/L


Red blood cells

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Hemoglobin (Hb)male2.0,[131] 2.1[6]2.5,[131] 2.7[6]mmol/LHigher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[3] 132,[7] 135[6]162,[7] 170,[3] 175[6]g/L
female1.8,[131] 1.9[6]2.3,[131] 2.5[6][131]mmol/LSex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[3][6][7]150,[3] 152,[7] 160[6][15]g/L
Hemoglobin in plasma0.16[6]0.62[6]μmol/LNormally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)< 50 years3.6[3]5.0[3] % of Hb
> 50 years3.9[3]5.3[3]
Haptoglobin< 50 years0.35[3]1.9[3]g/L
> 50 years0.47[3]2.1[3]
Hematocrit (Hct)male0.39,[3] 0.4,[7] 0.41,[6] 0.45[15]0.50,[3] 0.52,[7] 0.53,[6] 0.62[15]
female0.35,[3] 0.36,[6] 0.37[7][15]0.46,[6][7][3] 0.48[15]
Mean cell volume (MCV)Male76,[15] 82[7]100,[15] 102[7]fLCells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)11.5[7]14.5[7] %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)0.39[6]0.54[6]fmol/cell
25,[6] 27[15][3]32,[15] 33,[3] 35[6]pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)31,[7] 32[15][3]35,[7] 36[15][3]g/dL or %[note 1]
4.8,[132] 5.0[132]5.4,[132] 5.6[132]mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC)male4.2,[15] 4.3[6][7][3]5.7,[3] 5.9,[6] 6.2,[7] 6.9[15]x1012/L
Female3.5,[6] 3.8,[7] 3.9[3]5.1,[3] 5.5[6][7]
Adult0.5[6][7]1.5[6][7] % of RBC
Newborn1.1[7]4.5[7] % of RBC
Infant0.5[7]3.1[7] % of RBC

White blood cells

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)Adult3.5,[3] 3.9,[133] 4.1,[7] 4.5[6]9.0,[3] 10.0,[133] 10.9,[7] 11[6]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
1 year old6[134]18[134]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult1.3,[3] 1.8,[133] 2[134]5.4,[3] 7,[133] 8[134]x109/L
45-54[6]62,[6] 74 % of WBC
Neutrophilic band formsAdult0.7[134]x109/L
3[6]5[6] % of WBC
LymphocytesAdult0.7,[3] 1.0[133][134]3.5,[133] 3.9,[3] 4.8[134]x109/L
16-25[6]33,[6] 45 % of WBC
MonocytesAdult0.1,[3] 0.2[135][123]0.8[123][134][3]x109/L
3,[6] 4.07,[6] 10 % of WBC
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
2035 % of WBC
CD4+ cellsAdult0.4,[7] 0.5[10]1.5,[10] 1.8[7]x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytesAdult0.0,[3] 0.04[123]0.44,[123] 0.45,[134] 0.5[3]x109/L
1[6]3,[6] 7 % of WBC
Basophil granulocytesAdult40[133]100,[123][3] 200,[134] 900[133]x106/L
0.00.75,[6] 2 % of WBC


TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt)140,[7] 150[6][3]350,[15][3] 400,[6] 450[7]x109/L or
Mean platelet volume (MPV)7.4[136]10.4[136]fL
Prothrombin time (PT)10,[10] 11,[6][137] 12[7]13,[10] 13.5,[137] 14,[7] 15[6]sPT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR0.9[3]1.2[3]The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)18,[7] 30[10][3]28,[7] 42,[3] 45[10]s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT)1118s
Fibrinogen1.7,[7] 2.0[3]3.6,[3] 4.2[7]g/L
Bleeding time29minutes


Acute phase proteins

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Male0Age÷2[139]mm/hrESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[140]
C-reactive protein (CRP)n/a5,[141][3] 6[142]mg/L
200,[143] 240[143]nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT)20,[144] 22[145]38,[145] 53[144]μmol/L
89,[146] 97[3]170,[3] 230[146]mg/dL

Isotypes of antibodies

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
IgAAdult70,[3] 110[147]360,[3] 560[147]mg/dL


Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[148] are given for the ELISA test.

anti-SS-A (Ro)< 15[149]15-25[149]> 25[149]Units
anti-SS-B (La)< 3[149]3 – 4[149]> 4[149]
Anti ds-DNA< 40[149]40 – 60[149]> 60[149]
Anti ss-DNA< 8[149]8 - 10[149]> 10[149]
Anti-histone antibodies< 25[149]n/a[149]> 25[149]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
< 20[149]21 - 30[149]> 30[149]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[149]n/a> 5[149]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)< 10[149]n/a[149]> 10[149]
Rheumatoid factor (RF)< 2020 - 30> 30[7]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
> 100
ASOT at school age> 250[7]
ASOT in adults> 125[7]
TestNegativeLow/weak positiveModerate positiveHigh/strong positiveUnit
Anti-phospholipid IgG< 20[149]20 –30[149]31 – 50[149]> 51[149]GPLU/ml[149]
Anti-phospholipid IgM< 1.5[149]1.5 –2.5[149]2 – 9.9[149]> 10[149]MPL /ml[149]
Anti-phospholipid IgA< 10[149]10 -20[149]21 – 30[149]> 31[149]arb U/ml[149]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies< 20[149]20 – 39[149]40 - 59[149]> 60[149]EU[149]

Other enzymes and proteins

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)50[15]150[15]U/L
1.8[3]3.4[3]µkat/L< 70 years old[3]
Amylase25,[6] 30,[7] 53[15]110,[7] 120,[150] 123,[15] 125,[6] 190[45]U/L
D-dimern/a500[151]ng/mLHigher in pregnant women[152]
Lipase7,[7] 10,[15] 23[45]60,[7] 150,[15] 208[45]U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)23[45]57[45]U/L
Acid phosphatase3.0[45]ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)2.3[3]16[3]µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Osmolality275,[6] 280,[15] 281[3]295,[6] 296,[15] 297[3]mOsm/kgPlasma weight excludes solutes
OsmolaritySlightly less than osmolalitymOsm/lPlasma volume includes solutes
Urea3.0[153]7.0[153]mmol/LBUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[6]18,[6] 21[7]mg/dL
* Uric acid[7]0.18[6]0.48[6]mmol/L
Creatininemale60,[3] 68[154]90,[3] 118[154]μmol/LMay be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[155] 0.8[155]1.0,[155] 1.3[155]mg/dL
female50,[3] 68[154]90,[3] 98[154]μmol/L
0.6,[155] 0.8[155]1.0,[155] 1.1[155]mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio5[15]35[15]-
Plasma glucose (fasting)3.8,[6] 4.0[3]6.0,[3] 6.1[156]mmol/LSee also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[7] 70,[6] 72[157]100,[156] 110[15]mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting)3.3[3]5.6[3]mmol/L
Lactate (Venous)4.5[15]19.8[15]mg/dL
Lactate (Arterial)4.5[15]14.4[15]mg/dL

See also


  1. ^ The MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of hemoglobin in red blood cells in % are numerically identical in practice, assuming a RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible hemoglobin in plasma.


  1. ^ Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc PhD MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-10186-8.
  2. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0-7817-2845-2, ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4 1914 pages
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  4. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  5. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  8. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  9. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  11. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). "Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism". Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–5. PMID 709830.
  13. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  14. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Slon S (2006-09-22). "Serum Iron". University of Illinois Medical Center. Retrieved 2006-07-06.
  17. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  19. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133. Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  20. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  21. ^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  22. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  23. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125<1084:MCCAHH>2.0.CO;2. PMID 11473464.
  24. ^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). "Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion". Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690.
  25. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  26. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  27. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  28. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3. Page 849
  29. ^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook
  30. ^ a b
  31. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  32. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  33. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  34. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  35. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreements between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165. PMID 16858095. //
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  37. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  39. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  40. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  41. ^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook
  42. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  43. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  44. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3-437-15120-7, ISBN 978-3-437-15120-0. Length: 1288 pages
  46. ^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  47. ^ a b "Gamma-GT". Leistungsverzeichnis. Medizinisch-Diagnostische Institute. Retrieved 20 November 2011.
  48. ^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook
  49. ^ a b c d e f Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN 1-58528-180-8.
  50. ^ a b c d Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j South London Healthcare NHS Trust
  52. ^ a b c Moderately Elevated Serum Troponin Concentrations Are Associated With Increased Morbidity and Mortality Rates in Surgical Intensive Care Unit Patients Rene P. Relos, MD; Ian K. Hasinoff, MD; Greg J. Beilman, MD. Posted: 12/05/2003; Crit Care Med. 2003;31(11)
  53. ^ a b Kay SE, Doery J, Sholl D (February 2002). "Clozapine associated pericarditis and elevated troponin I". Aust N Z J Psychiatry 36 (1): 143–4. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.0988f.x. PMID 11929456.
  54. ^ a b c Brenden, C.; Hollander, J.; Guss, D.; McCullough, P.; Nowak, R.; Green, G.; Saltzberg, M.; Ellison, S. et al. (2006). "Gray zone BNP levels in heart failure patients in the emergency department: Results from the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) multicenter study". American Heart Journal 151 (5): 1006–1011. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.017. PMID 16644322. edit
  55. ^ a b c Strunk, A.; Bhalla, V.; Clopton, P.; Nowak, R.; McCord, J.; Hollander, J.; Duc, P.; Storrow, A. et al. (2006). "Impact of the History of Congestive Heart Failure on the Utility of B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in the Emergency Diagnosis of Heart Failure: Results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study". The American Journal of Medicine 119 (1): 69.e1–69.e11. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.04.029. PMID 16431187. edit
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  57. ^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  58. ^ a b c d Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  59. ^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  62. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  63. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  64. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  65. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on March 8, 2011
  66. ^ a b Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). "Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study". Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 68 (8): 1–12. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108.
  67. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  68. ^ a b c Basuyau, J. -P.; Mallet, E.; Leroy, M.; Brunelle, P. (2004). "Reference Intervals for Serum Calcitonin in Men, Women, and Children". Clinical Chemistry 50 (10): 1828–1830. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963. PMID 15388660. edit
  69. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006. Health's Disease and Condition
  70. ^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  71. ^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006
  72. ^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). "LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease". National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). Retrieved 2007-04-13. - see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  73. ^ a b c d e f Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  74. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  75. ^ a b c d e f Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays - Thyroid Disease Manager
  77. ^ a b c d Euthyroid Patient with Elevated Serum Free Thyroxine George van der Watt1,a, David Haarburger1 and Peter Berman
  78. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  79. ^ a b Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children Cioffi Michele; Gazzerro Patrizia; Vietri Maria Teresa; Magnetta Rosa; Durante Adriana; D'Auria Annamaria; Puca Giovanni Alfredo; Molinari Anna Maria ;
  80. ^ a b References and further description of values are given in image page in Wikimedia Commons at Commons:Hormones estradiol, progesterone, LH and FSH during menstrual cycle.svg.
  81. ^ a b Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
  82. ^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  83. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  84. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  85. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  86. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  88. ^ a b c d e f Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Stricker R, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Quinn FA, Bischof P, Stricker R (2006). "Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer". Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 44 (7): 883–7. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.160. PMID 16776638. Alternative link: [1]
  89. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  90. ^ a b Mayo Medical Laboratories > Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum, retrieved December 2012
  91. ^ a b c d e f g GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  92. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  93. ^ a b c d Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). "Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372.
  94. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  95. ^ a b Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  96. ^ a b Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum at Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research. Retrieved July 2012
  97. ^ a b c d Unit Code 91215 at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  98. ^ a b Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum from Mayo Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2012.
  99. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  100. ^ "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. Retrieved 2008-11-09.
  101. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  102. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  103. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  104. ^ a b c d e f g h Ranges estimated from quantile regression as showwn in table 4 in: Friedrich n, A. D.; Alte, D.; Völzke, H.; Spilcke-Liss, E.; Lüdemann, J.; Lerch, M. M.; Kohlmann, T.; Nauck, M. et al. (2008). "Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: Results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)". Growth Hormone & IGF Research 18 (3): 228–237. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337. edit
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran, L; Fahie-Wilson, MN; McKenna, TJ; Kavanagh, L; Smith, TP (2008 Oct). "Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms". Clinical Chemistry 54 (10): 1673–81. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312. PMID 18719199. edit
  106. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  107. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract 12 (2): 137–44. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460. //
  108. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  109. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  110. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8. Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  111. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari H.A., Dietrich T., Orav J.E., Hu F.B., Zhang Y., Karlson E., Dawson-Hughes B. (2004). "Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with better lower extremity function in both active and inactive adults 60+ years of age". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80: 752–758.
  112. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329.
  113. ^ a b c d e f g h Letter: Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures. Data are not sufficient to show inefficacy Alex Vasquez, researcher. BMJ 2005;331:108-109 (9 July), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b.
  114. ^ a b Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  115. ^ a b Pratt, R.; Flynn, J.; Hobart, P.; Paul, M.; Dzau, V. (1988). "Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 263 (7): 3137–3141. PMID 2893797. edit
  116. ^ a b c d New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  117. ^ a b Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  118. ^ a b Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  119. ^ a b c d Tiu, S. -C.; Choi, C. -H.; Shek, C. -C.; Ng, Y. -W.; Chan, F. K. W.; Ng, C. -M.; Kong, A. P. S. (2004). "The Use of Aldosterone-Renin Ratio as a Diagnostic Test for Primary Hyperaldosteronism and Its Test Characteristics under Different Conditions of Blood Sampling". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 90: 72–78. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1149. PMID 15483077. edit [2]
  120. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  121. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  122. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  123. ^ a b c d e f g GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  124. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  125. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  126. ^ a b c d The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  127. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  128. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  129. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  130. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  131. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049.
  132. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049.. Subsequently, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  134. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  135. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  136. ^ a b Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  137. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  138. ^ a b [3] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  139. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 1546487. PMID 6402065. //
  140. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 1841240. PMID 6020854. //
  141. ^ C-reactive protein at GPnotebook
  142. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  143. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  144. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252.
  145. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  146. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  147. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  148. ^ All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
  149. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq > Autoantibodies associated with rheumatic diseases > Reference ranges Retrieved on April 29, 2010
  150. ^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook
  151. ^ Plasma Measurement of D-Dimer Levels for the Early Diagnosis of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes Walter Ageno, MD; Sergio Finazzi, MD; Luigi Steidl, MD; Maria Grazia Biotti, MD; Valentina Mera, MD; GianVico Melzi d'Eril, MD; Achille Venco, MD. Arch Intern Med. 2002;162:2589-2593.
  152. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical chemistry 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641.
  153. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". J. Clin. Pathol. 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084. PMID 7400337.
  154. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Ann. Clin. Biochem. 37 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373.
  155. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  156. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  157. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  158. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  159. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol

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