Reference ranges for blood tests

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Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.

Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.

Blood test results should always be interpreted using the reference range provided by the laboratory that performed the test.[1]


A reference range is usually defined as the set of values 95 percent of the normal population falls within (that is, 95% prediction interval).[2] It is determined by collecting data from vast numbers of laboratory tests.

Plasma or whole blood[edit]

In this article, all values (except the ones listed below) denote blood plasma concentration, which is approximately 60-100% larger than the actual blood concentration if the amount inside red blood cells (RBCs) is negligible. The precise factor depends on hematocrit as well as amount inside RBCs. Exceptions are mainly those values that denote total blood concentration, and in this article they are:

A few values are for inside red blood cells only:


Arterial or venous[edit]

If not otherwise specified, a reference range for a blood test is generally the venous range, as the standard process of obtaining a sample is by venipuncture. An exception is for acid-base and blood gases, which are generally given for arterial blood.

Still, the blood values are approximately equal between the arterial and venous sides for most substances, with the exception of acid-base, blood gases and drugs (used in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) assays).[5] Arterial levels for drugs are generally higher than venous levels because of extraction while passing through tissues.[5]

Usual or optimal[edit]

Reference ranges are usually given as what are the usual (or normal) values found in the population, more specifically the prediction interval that 95% of the population fall into. This may also be called standard range. In contrast, optimal (health) range or therapeutic target is a reference range or limit that is based on concentrations or levels that are associated with optimal health or minimal risk of related complications and diseases. For most substances presented, the optimal levels are the ones normally found in the population as well. More specifically, optimal levels are generally close to a central tendency of the values found in the population. However, usual and optimal levels may differ substantially, most notably among vitamins and blood lipids, so these tables give limits on both standard and optimal (or target) ranges.

In addition, some values, including troponin I and brain natriuretic peptide, are given as the estimated appropriate cutoffs to distinguish healthy people from specific conditions, which here are myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure, respectively, for the aforementioned substances.


Further information: Reference range

References range may vary with age, sex, race, pregnancy,[6] diet, use of prescribed or herbal drugs and stress. Reference ranges often depend on the analytical method used, for reasons such as inaccuracy, lack of standardisation, lack of certified reference material and differing antibody reactivity.[7] Also, reference ranges may be inaccurate when the reference groups used to establish the ranges are small.

Sorted by concentration[edit]

A separate printable image is available for mass and molarity

Smaller, narrower boxes indicate a more tight homeostatic regulation when measured as standard "usual" reference range.

By mass and molarity[edit]

Reference ranges for blood tests, sorted logarithmically by mass above the scale and by molarity below.

Hormones predominate at the left part of the scale, shown with a red at ng/L or pmol/L, being in very low concentration. There appears to be the greatest cluster of substances in the yellow part (μg/L or nmol/L), becoming sparser in the green part (mg/L or μmol/L). However, there is another cluster containing many metabolic substances like cholesterol and glucose at the limit with the blue part (g/L or mmol/L).

The unit conversions of substance concentrations from the molar to the mass concentration scale above are made as follows:

  • Numerically: molar concentration x molar mass = mass concentration
  • Measured directly in distance on the scales:

\log_{10} \frac{\textit{molar~mass}}{1000} = \textit{distance~to~right~(decades)} , where distance is the direct (not logarithmic) distance in number of decades or "octaves" to the right the mass concentration is found. To translate from mass to molar concentration, the dividend (molar mass and the divisor (1000) in the division change places, or, alternatively, distance to right is changed to distance to left. Substances with a molar mass around 1000g/mol (e.g. thyroxine) are almost vertically aligned in the mass and molar images. Adrenocorticotropic hormone, on the other hand, with a molar mass of 4540,[8] is 0.7 decades to the right in the mass image. Substances with molar mass below 1000g/mol (e.g. electrolytes and metabolites) would have "negative" distance, that is, masses deviating to the left.

Many substances given in mass concentration are not given in molar amount because they haven't been added to the article.

The diagram above can also be used as an alternative way to convert any substance concentration (not only the normal or optimal ones) from molar to mass units and vice versa for those substances appearing in both scales, by measuring how much they are horizontally displaced from one another (representing the molar mass for that substance), and using the same distance from the concentration to be converted to determine the equivalent concentration in terms of the other unit. For example, on a certain monitor, the horizontal distance between the upper limits for parathyroid hormone in pmol/L and pg/mL may be 7 cm, with the mass concentration to the right. A molar concentration of, for example, 5 pmol/L would therefore correspond to a mass concentration located 7 cm to the right in the mass diagram, that is, approximately 45 pg/mL.

By units[edit]

Units don't necessarily imply anything about molarity or mass.

Reference ranges for blood tests - by units.png

A few substances are below this main interval, e.g. thyroid stimulating hormone, being measured in mU/L, or above, like rheumatoid factor and CA19-9, being measured in U/mL.

By enzyme activity[edit]

Reference ranges for blood tests - by enzyme activity.png

White blood cells[edit]

Reference ranges for blood tests - white blood cells.png

Sorted by category[edit]

Ions and trace metals[edit]

Further information: Trace metals

Included here are also related binding proteins, like ferritin and transferrin for iron, and ceruloplasmin for copper.

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Sodium (Na)135,[9] 137[4][10]145,[4][10] 147[9]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]
310,[11] 320[11]330,[11] 340[11]mg/dl
Potassium (K)3.5,[4][9] 3.6[10]5.0,[4][9][10] 5.1mmol/L or mEq/L[9]See hypokalemia
or hyperkalemia
Chloride (Cl)95,[9] 98,[13] 100[4]105,[9] 106,[13] 110[4]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]
Ionized calcium (Ca)1.03,[15] 1.10[4]1.23,[15] 1.30[4]mmol/L
4.1,[16] 4.4[16]4.9,[16] 5.2[16]mg/dL
Total calcium (Ca)2.1,[9][17] 2.2[4]2.5,[4][17] 2.6,[17] 2.8[9]mmol/L
8.4,[9] 8.5[18]10.2,[9] 10.5[18]mg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - male65,[19] 76[10]176,[19] 198[10]µg/dL
11.6,[20][21] 13.6[21]30,[20] 32,[21] 35[21]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - female26,[10] 50[19]170[10][19]µg/dL
4.6,[21] 8.9[20]30.4[20]μmol/L
Total serum iron (TSI) - newborns100[19]250[19]µg/dL
Total serum iron (TSI) - children50[19]120[19]µg/dL
Total iron-binding capacity (TIBC)240,[19] 262[10]450,[19] 474[10]μg/dL
43,[21] 47[21]81,[21] 85[21]µmol/L
Transferrin190,[22] 194,[4] 204[10]326,[4] 330,[22] 360[10]mg/dL
Transferrin saturation20[19]50[19] %
Ferritin - Male12[24]300[24]ng/mL
Ferritin - Female12[24]150[24]ng/mL
Ammonia10,[26] 20[27]35,[26] 65[27]μmol/L
17,[28] 34[28]60,[28] 110[28]μg/dL
Copper (Cu)70[18]150[18]µg/dL
Phosphate (HPO42−)0.81.5[32]mmol/L
Inorganic phosphorus (serum)1.0[9]1.5[9]mmol/L
Zinc (Zn)60,[33] 72[34]110,[34] 130[33]μg/dL
9.2,[35] 11[4]17,[4] 20[35]µmol/L
Magnesium1.5,[18] 1.7[36]2.0,[18] 2.3[36]mEq/L or mg/dL
0.6,[37] 0.7[4]0.82,[37] 0.95[4]mmol/L

Acid-base and blood gases[edit]

Further information: Acid-base homeostasis
Further information: Arterial blood gas

If arterial/venous is not specified for an acid-base or blood gas value, then it generally refers to arterial, and not venous which otherwise is standard for other blood tests.

Acid-base and blood gases are among the few blood constituents that exhibit substantial difference between arterial and venous values.[5] Still, pH, bicarbonate and base excess show a high level of inter-method reliability between arterial and venous tests, so arterial and venous values are roughly equivalent for these.[38]

TestArterial/VenousLower limitUpper limitUnit
pHArterial7.34,[10] 7.35[9]7.44,[10] 7.45[9]
Base excessArterial & venous[39]-3[39]+3[39]mEq/L
oxygen partial pressure (pO2)Arterial pO210,[9] 11[41]13,[41] 14[9]kPa
75,[9][10] 83[18]100,[10] 105[9]mmHg or torr
30[39]40[39]mmHg or torr
Oxygen saturationArterial94,[39] 95,[13] 96[18]100[13][18] %
VenousApproximately 75[13]
Carbon dioxide partial pressure (PCO2)Arterial PaCO24.4,[9] 4.7[41]5.9,[9] 6.0[41]kPa
33,[9] 35[10]44,[9] 45[10]mmHg or torr
Venous5.5,[41] 6.8[41]kPa
41[39]51[39]mmHg or torr
Absolute content of carbon dioxide (CO2)Arterial23[39]30[39]mmol/L
Bicarbonate (HCO3)Arterial & venous18[18]23[18]mmol/L
Standard bicarbonate (SBCe)Arterial & venous21, 22[9]27, 28[9]mmol/L or mEq/L[9]

Liver function[edit]

Further information: Liver function tests
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Total Protein60,[9] 63[10]78,[9] 82,[10] 84[18]g/Lsee hypoproteinemia
Albumin35[9][44]48,[10] 55[9]g/Lsee hypoalbuminemia
3.5[10]4.8,[10] 5.5[9]U/L
Total Bilirubin1.7,[46] 2,[9] 3.4,[46] 5[4]17,[9][46] 22,[46] 25[4]μmol/L
0.1,[9] 0.2,[10] 0.29[47]1.0,[9][18] 1.3,[10] 1.4[47]mg/dL
Direct/Conjugated Bilirubin0.0[9] or N/A[4]5,[9] 7[4][46]μmol/L
0[9][10]0.3,[9][10] 0.4[18]mg/dL
Alanine transaminase (ALT/ALAT[4])5,[48] 7,[10] 8[9]20,[9] 21,[13] 56[10]U/LAlso called serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Aspartate transaminase (AST/ASAT[4])Female6[49]34[49]IU/LAlso called
serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT)
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)Female42[48]98[48]U/L
(Enzyme activity)0.6[4]1.8[4]µkat/L
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT)5,[48] 8[10]40,[48] 78[10]U/L

Cardiac tests[edit]

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Creatine kinase (CK)male24,[51] 38,[10] 60[48]174,[18] 320[48]U/L
or ng/mL
female24,[51] 38,[10] 96[18]140,[18] 200[48]U/L
or ng/mL
CK-MB03,[10] 3.8,[4] 5[48]ng/mL or μg/L[4]
MyoglobinFemale1[53]66[53]ng/mL or µg/L
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
-more detailed ranges in BNP article
InterpretationRange / Cutoff
Congestive heart failure unlikely< 100 pg/mL[54][55]
"Gray zone"100-500 pg/mL[54][55]
Congestive heart failure likely>500 pg/mL[54][55]
-more detailed ranges in NT-proBNP article
Congestive heart failure likely< 75years> 125 pg/mL[52]
>75 years>450pg/mL[52]


Further information: Blood lipids
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitTherapeutic target
Triglycerides10 – 39 years54[18]110[18]mg/dL< 100 mg/dL[56]
or 1.1[56] mmol/L
40 – 59 years70[18]150[18]mg/dL
> 60 years80[18]150[18]mg/dL
Total cholesterol3.0,[58] 3.6[9][58]5.0,[4][59] 6.5[9]mmol/L< 3.9[56]
120,[10] 140[9]200,[10] 250[9]mg/dL< 150[56]
HDL cholesterolfemale1.0,[60] 1.2,[4] 1.3[58]2.2[60]mmol/L> 1.0[60] or 1.6[58]  mmol/L
> 40[61] or 60[62] mg/dL
40,[61] 50[63]86[61]mg/dL
HDL cholesterolmale0.9[4][60]2.0[60]mmol/L
LDL cholesterol
(Not valid when
triglycerides >5.0 mmol/L)
2.0,[60] 2.4[59]3.0,[4][59] 3.4[60]mmol/L< 2.5[60]
80,[61] 94[61]120,[61] 130[61]mg/dL< 100[61]
LDL/HDL quotientn/a5[4](unitless)

Tumour markers[edit]

Further information: Tumour markers
Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)44[10]ng/mL or µg/LHepatocellular carcinoma or testicular cancer
Beta Human chorionic gonadotrophin (bHCG)5[10]IU/l or mU/mlin male and non-pregnant female
CA19-940[10]U/mlPancreatic cancer
CA-12530,[64] 35[65]kU/L or U/mL
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 50 years
3.4,[4] 3.6[66]μg/l
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)
non-smokers at 70 years
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) - smokers5[67]μg/l
Prostate specific antigen (PSA)2.5,[4] 4[10]μg/L[4][10] or ng/mL[18]below age 45 <2.5 μg/L
PAP3[18]units/dL (Bodansky units)
-more detailed cutoffs in Calcitonin article
5,[68] 15[68]ng/L or pg/mLCutoff against medullary thyroid cancer[68]


Thyroid hormones[edit]

Further information: Thyroid function tests
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Thyroid stimulating hormone
(TSH or thyrotropin)
Adults -
standard range
0.3,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.5,[18] 0.6[69]4.0,[4] 4.5,[10] 6.0[18]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Adults -
optimal range
0.3,[70] 0.5[71]2.0,[71] 3.0[70]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Infants1.3[72]19[72]mIU/L or μIU/mL
Free thyroxine (FT4)
-more detailed ranges in
Thyroid function tests article
Normal adult0.7,[73] 0.8[10]1.4,[73] 1.5,[10] 1.8[74]ng/dL
9,[4][75] 10,[76] 12[77]18,[4][75] 23[77]pmol/L
31 d - 18 y
Total thyroxine4,[76] 5.5[10]11,[76] 12.3[10]μg/dL
60[76][77]140,[76] 160[77]nmol/L
Free triiodothyronine (FT3)Normal adult0.2[76]0.5[76]ng/dL
Children 2-16 y0.1[79]0.6[79]ng/dL
Total triiodothyronine60,[10] 75[76]175,[76] 181[10]ng/dL
0.9,[4] 1.1[76]2.5,[4] 2.7[76]nmol/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG)12[10]30[10]mg/L
Thyroglobulin (Tg)1.5[76]30[76]pmol/L

Sex hormones[edit]

Further information: Sex steroid
Levels of estradiol (the main estrogen), progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone during the menstrual cycle.

The diagrams at right take inter-cycle and inter-woman variability into account in displaying reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Dihydrotestosteroneadult male30[80]85[80]ng/dL
TestosteroneMale, overall8,[81] 10[82]27,[81] 35[82]nmol/L
230,[83] 300[84]780[83] - 1000[84]ng/dL
Male < 50 years10[4]45[4]nmol/L
Male > 50 years6.2[4]26[4]nmol/L
Female0.7[82]2.8[82] - 3.0[4]nmol/L
20[84]80[84] - 85[83]ng/dL
Female (Follicular phase)0.2[18]1.0[18]mg/L
-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Adult male1[86]8[86]
Adult female (follicular
and luteal phase)
Adult female (Ovulation)6[86]
95% PI (standard)
95% PI)
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Post-menopausal female30[86]118[86]
Luteinizing hormone (LH)
-more detailed menstrual cycle
ranges in separate diagram
Female, peak20[87]
90% PI (used in diagram)
(90% PI)
Female, post-menopausal15[88]60[88]
Male aged 18+2[89]9[89]
(an estrogen)
-more detailed ranges in
estradiol article
Adult male50[90]200[90]pmol/L
Adult female (day 5 of follicular phase,
and luteal phase)
70[90]500,[90] 600[90]pmol/L
19[91]140,[91] 160[91]pg/mL
Adult female - free (not protein bound)0.5[92]9[92]pg/mL
Post-menopausal femaleN/A[90]< 130[90]pmol/L
N/A[91]< 35[91]pg/mL
-more detailed ranges
in Progesterone article
Female in mid-luteal phase (day 21-23)17,[87] 35[93]92[93]nmol/L
6,[87] 11[94]29[94]ng/mL
AndrostenedioneAdult male and female60[88]270[88]ng/dL
Post-menopausal female< 180[88]
Prepubertal< 60[88]
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate
-more detailed ranges
in DHEA-S article
Adult male and female30[95]400[95]µg/dL
-more detailed ranges
in SHBG article
Adult female40[96]120[96]nmol/L
Adult male20[96]60[96]
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)
-more detailed ranges in
AMH article
13–45 years0.7[97]20[97]ng/mL

Other hormones[edit]

Further information: Hormones
TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)4.4[99]18,[100] 22[99]pmol/L
20[10]80,[101] 100[10]pg/mL
Cortisol09:00 am140[102]700[102]nmol/L
Growth hormone (fasting)05[9]ng/mL
Growth hormone (arginine stimulation)7[9]n/ang/mL
-more detailed ranges in
IGF-1 article
Female, 20 yrs110[104]420[104]ng/mL
Female, 75 yrs55[104]220[104]
Male, 20 yrs160[104]390[104]
Male, 75 yrs48[104]200[104]
-more detailed ranges in
Prolactin article
Female71,[105] 105[105]348,[105] 548[105]mIU/L
3.4,[105] 3.9[105]16.4,[105] 20.3[105]µg/L
Male58,[105] 89[105]277,[105] 365[105]mIU/L
2.7,[105] 3.3[105]13.0,[105] 13.5[105]µg/L
Parathyroid hormone (PTH)10,[106] 17[107]65,[106] 70[107]pg/mL
1.1,[4] 1.8[108]6.9,[4] 7.5[108]pmol/L
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)
-Standard reference range
8,[18][109] 9[109]40,[109] 80[18]ng/mL
20,[110] 23[111]95,[111] 150[110]nmol/L
-Therapeutic target range
30,[112] 40[113]65,[113] 100[112]ng/mL
85,[56] 100[113]120,[56] 160[113]nmol/L
Plasma renin activity0.29,[114] 1.9[115]3.7[114][115]ng/(mL*hour)
3.3,[116] 21[117]41[116][117]mcU/mL
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone article
Adult19,[116] 34.0[116]ng/dL
530,[118] 940[118]pmol/L
Aldosterone-to-renin ratio
-more detailed ranges in
Aldosterone/renin ratio article
Adult13.1,[119] 35.0[119]ng/dl per ng/(mL·h)
360,[119] 970[119]pmol/liter per µg/(L·h)


Also including the vitamin B12)-related amino acid homocysteine.

TestPatient typeStandard rangeUnitOptimal range
Lower limitUpper limitLower limitUpper limit
Vitamin A30[18]65[18]µg/dL
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Serum
Age > 1year3.0[120]16[120]ng/mL or μg/L5[121]
Vitamin B9
(Folic acid/Folate) - Red blood cells
200[120]600[120]ng/mL or μg/L
Pregnantng/mL or μg/L400[120]
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)130,[123] 160[124]700,[123] 950[124]ng/L
100,[125] 120[4]520,[125] 700[4]pmol/L
-more detailed ranges in
Homocysteine article
3.3,[126] 5.9[126]7.2,[126] 15.3[126]μmol/L6.3[56]
45,[127] 80[127]100,[127] 210[127]μg/dL85[56]
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)0.4[18]1.5[18]mg/dL0.9[56]
25-hydroxycholecalciferol (a vitamin D)8,[18][109] 9[109]40,[109] 80[18]ng/mL30,[112] 40[113]65,[113] 100[112]
20,[110] 23[111]95,[111] 150[110]nmol/L85,[56] 100[113]120,[56] 160[113]
Vitamin Eμmol/L28[56]


TestLimit typeLimitUnit
LeadOptimal health range< 20[13] or 40[18]µg/dL
Blood ethanol contentLimit for drunk driving0,[129] 0.2,[129] 0.8[129] or g/L


Red blood cells[edit]

These values (except Hemoglobin in plasma) are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Hemoglobin (Hb)male2.0,[131] 2.1[9][132]2.5,[131] 2.7[9][132]mmol/LHigher in neonates, lower in children.
130,[4] 132,[10] 135[9]162,[10] 170,[4] 175[9]g/L
female1.8,[131] 1.9[9][132]2.3,[131] 2.5[9][131][132]mmol/LSex difference negligible until adulthood.
120[4][9][10]150,[4] 152,[10] 160[9][18]g/L
Hemoglobin subunits (sometimes displayed simply as "Hemoglobin")male8.0,[133] 8.4[133]10.0,[133] 10.8[133]mmol/L4 per hemoglobin molecule
female7.2,[133] 7.6[133]9.2,[133] 10.0[133]
Hemoglobin in plasma0.16[9]0.62[9]μmol/LNormally diminutive compared with inside red blood cells
Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c)< 50 years3.6[4]5.0[4] % of Hb
> 50 years3.9[4]5.3[4]
Haptoglobin< 50 years0.35[4]1.9[4]g/L
> 50 years0.47[4]2.1[4]
Hematocrit (Hct)male0.39,[4] 0.4,[10] 0.41,[9] 0.45[18]0.50,[4] 0.52,[10] 0.53,[9] 0.62[18]
female0.35,[4] 0.36,[9] 0.37[10][18]0.46,[4][9][10] 0.48[18]
Mean cell volume (MCV)Male76,[18] 82[10]100,[18] 102[10]fLCells are larger in neonates, though smaller in other children.
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)11.5[10]14.5[10] %
Mean cell hemoglobin (MCH)0.39[9]0.54[9]fmol/cell
25,[9] 27[4][18]32,[18] 33,[4] 35[9]pg/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)31,[10] 32[4][18]35,[10] 36[4][18]g/dL or %[note 1]
4.8,[134] 5.0[134]5.4,[134] 5.6[134]mmol/L
Erythrocytes/Red blood cells (RBC)male4.2,[18] 4.3[4][9][10]5.7,[4] 5.9,[9] 6.2,[10] 6.9[18]x1012/L
Female3.5,[9] 3.8,[10] 3.9[4]5.1,[4] 5.5[9][10]
Adult0.5[9][10]1.5[9][10] % of RBC
Newborn1.1[10]4.5[10] % of RBC
Infant0.5[10]3.1[10] % of RBC

White blood cells[edit]

These values are for total blood and not only blood plasma.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnit
White Blood Cell Count (WBC)Adult3.5,[4] 3.9,[135] 4.1,[10] 4.5[9]9.0,[4] 10.0,[135] 10.9,[10] 11[9]
  • x109/L
  • x103/mm3 or
  • x103/μL
1 year old6[136]18[136]
Neutrophil granulocytes
(A.K.A. grans, polys, PMNs, or segs)
Adult1.3,[4] 1.8,[135] 2[136]5.4,[4] 7,[135] 8[136]x109/L
45-54[9]62,[9] 74 % of WBC
Neutrophilic band formsAdult0.7[136]x109/L
3[9]5[9] % of WBC
LymphocytesAdult0.7,[4] 1.0[135][136]3.5,[135] 3.9,[4] 4.8[136]x109/L
16-25[9]33,[9] 45 % of WBC
MonocytesAdult0.1,[4] 0.2[137][123]0.8[4][123][136]x109/L
3,[9] 4.07,[9] 10 % of WBC
Mononuclear leukocytes
(Lymphocytes + monocytes)
2035 % of WBC
CD4+ T cellsAdult0.4,[10] 0.5[13]1.5,[13] 1.8[10]x109/L
Eosinophil granulocytesAdult0.0,[4] 0.04[123]0.44,[123] 0.45,[136] 0.5[4]x109/L
1[9]3,[9] 7 % of WBC
Basophil granulocytesAdult40[135]100,[4][123] 200,[136] 900[135]x106/L
0.00.75,[9] 2 % of WBC


TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Thrombocyte/Platelet count (Plt)140,[10] 150[4][9]350,[4][18] 400,[9] 450[10]x109/L or
Mean platelet volume (MPV)7.4[138]10.4[138]fL
Prothrombin time (PT)10,[13] 11,[9][139] 12[10]13,[13] 13.5,[139] 14,[10] 15[9]sPT reference varies between laboratory kits - INR is standardised
INR0.9[4]1.2[4]The INR is a corrected ratio of a patient's PT to normal
Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT)18,[10] 30[4][13]28,[10] 42,[4] 45[13]s
Thrombin clotting time (TCT)1118s
Fibrinogen1.7,[10] 2.0[4]3.6,[4] 4.2[10]g/L
0.15,[140] 0.17[141]0.2,[140] 0.39[141]mg/mL
Bleeding time29minutes


Acute phase proteins[edit]

Acute phase proteins are markers of inflammation.

TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Male0Age÷2[143]mm/hESR increases with age and tends to be higher in females.[144]
C-reactive protein (CRP)n/a5,[4][145] 6[146]mg/L
200,[147] 240[147]nmol/L
Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT)20,[148] 22[149]38,[149] 53[148]μmol/L
89,[150] 97[4]170,[4] 230[150]mg/dL

Isotypes of antibodies[edit]

Further information: Antibody
TestPatientLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
IgAAdult70,[4] 110[151]360,[4] 560[151]mg/dL


For clinical associations, see Autoantibody.

Autoantibodies are usually absent or very low, so instead of being given in standard reference ranges, the values usually denote where they are said to be present, or whether the test is a positive test. There may also be an equivocal interval, where it is uncertain whether there is a significantly increased level. All included values[152] are given for the ELISA test.

anti-SS-A (Ro)< 15[153]15-25[153]> 25[153]Units
anti-SS-B (La)< 3[153]3 – 4[153]> 4[153]
Anti ds-DNA< 40[153]40 – 60[153]> 60[153]
Anti ss-DNA< 8[153]8 - 10[153]> 10[153]
Anti-histone antibodies< 25[153]n/a[153]> 25[153]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
< 20[153]21 - 30[153]> 30[153]
anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic
antibodies (p-ANCA)
< 5[153]n/a> 5[153]
Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)< 10[153]n/a[153]> 10[153]
Rheumatoid factor (RF)< 2020 - 30> 30[10]
Antistreptolysin O titre
(ASOT) in
> 100
ASOT at school age> 250[10]
ASOT in adults> 125[10]
TestNegativeLow/weak positiveModerate positiveHigh/strong positiveUnit
Anti-phospholipid IgG< 20[153]20 –30[153]31 – 50[153]> 51[153]GPLU/ml[153]
Anti-phospholipid IgM< 1.5[153]1.5 –2.5[153]2 – 9.9[153]> 10[153]MPL /ml[153]
Anti-phospholipid IgA< 10[153]10 -20[153]21 – 30[153]> 31[153]arb U/ml[153]
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies< 20[153]20 – 39[153]40 - 59[153]> 60[153]EU[153]

Other enzymes and proteins[edit]

TestLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)50[18]150[18]U/L
1.8[4]3.4[4]µkat/L< 70 years old[4]
Amylase25,[9] 30,[10] 53[18]110,[10] 120,[154] 123,[18] 125,[9] 190[48]U/L
-more detailed ranges in D-dimer article
n/a500[155]ng/mLHigher in pregnant women[156]
Lipase7,[10] 10,[18] 23[48]60,[10] 150,[18] 208[48]U/L
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)23[48]57[48]U/L
Acid phosphatase3.0[48]ng/mL
Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)2.3[4]16[4]µg/L

Other electrolytes and metabolites[edit]

Electrolytes and Metabolites: For iron and copper, some related proteins are also included.

TestPatient typeLower limitUpper limitUnitComments
Osmolality275,[9] 280,[18] 281[4]295,[9] 296,[18] 297[4]mOsm/kgPlasma weight excludes solutes
OsmolaritySlightly less than osmolalitymOsm/lPlasma volume includes solutes
Urea3.0[157]7.0[157]mmol/LBUN - blood urea nitrogen
7[9]18,[9] 21[10]mg/dL
* Uric acid[10]0.18[9]0.48[9]mmol/L
Creatininemale60,[4] 68[158]90,[4] 118[158]μmol/LMay be complemented with creatinine clearance
0.7,[159] 0.8[159]1.0,[159] 1.3[159]mg/dL
female50,[4] 68[158]90,[4] 98[158]μmol/L
0.6,[159] 0.8[159]1.0,[159] 1.1[159]mg/dL
BUN/Creatinine Ratio5[18]35[18]-
Plasma glucose (fasting)3.8,[9] 4.0[4]6.0,[4] 6.1[160]mmol/LSee also glycosylated hemoglobin (in hematology)
65,[10] 70,[9] 72[161]100,[160] 110[18]mg/dL
Full blood glucose (fasting)3.3[4]5.6[4]mmol/L
Lactate (Venous)4.5[18]19.8[18]mg/dL
Lactate (Arterial)4.5[18]14.4[18]mg/dL

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The MCHC in g/dL and the mass fraction of hemoglobin in red blood cells in % are numerically identical in practice, assuming a RBC density of 1g/mL and negligible hemoglobin in plasma.


  1. ^ "Reference Ranges and What They Mean". Lab Tests Online (USA). Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  2. ^ Page 19 in: Stephen K. Bangert MA MB BChir MSc MBA FRCPath; William J. Marshall MA MSc PhD MBBS FRCP FRCPath FRCPEdin FIBiol; Marshall, William Leonard (2008). Clinical biochemistry: metabolic and clinical aspects. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 0-443-10186-8. 
  3. ^ Page 34: Units of measurement in Medical toxicology By Richard C. Dart Edition: 3, illustrated Published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004 ISBN 0-7817-2845-2, ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4 1914 pages
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx Reference range list from Uppsala University Hospital ("Laborationslista"). Artnr 40284 Sj74a. Issued on April 22, 2008
  5. ^ a b c Arterial versus venous reference ranges - Brief Article Medical Laboratory Observer, April, 2000 by D. Robert Dufour
  6. ^ Abbassi-Ghanavati, M.; Greer, L. G.; Cunningham, F. G. (2009). "Pregnancy and Laboratory Studies". Obstetrics & Gynecology 114 (6): 1326. doi:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181c2bde8.  edit
  7. ^ Armbruster, David; Miller (August 2007). "The Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM): A Global Approach to Promote the Standardisation of Clinical Laboratory Test Results". The Clinical Biochemist Reviews 28 (3): 105–114. PMC 1994110. PMID 17909615. Retrieved 23 June 2013. 
  8. ^ PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db Last page of Deepak A. Rao; Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas (2007). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2008 (First Aid for the Usmle Step 1). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-149868-0. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da Normal Reference Range Table from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Used in Interactive Case Study Companion to Pathologic basis of disease.
  11. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 22.99 g•mol−1
  12. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 39.10 g•mol−1
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m MERCK MANUALS > Common Medical Tests > Blood Tests Last full review/revision February 2003
  14. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 35.45 g•mol−1
  15. ^ a b Larsson L, Ohman S (November 1978). "Serum ionized calcium and corrected total calcium in borderline hyperparathyroidism". Clin. Chem. 24 (11): 1962–5. PMID 709830. 
  16. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  17. ^ a b c Derived from mass values using molar mass of 40.08  g•mol−1
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by Blood Test Results - Normal Ranges Bloodbook.Com
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Slon S (2006-09-22). "Serum Iron". University of Illinois Medical Center. Retrieved 2006-07-06. 
  20. ^ a b c d Diagnostic Chemicals Limited > Serum Iron-SL Assay July 15, 2005
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Derived from mass values using molar mass of 55.85 g•mol−1
  22. ^ a b Table 1. Page 133" Clinical Chemistry 45, No. 1, 1999 (stating 1.9–3.3 g/L)
  23. ^ a b Derived by dividing mass values with molar mass
  24. ^ a b c d Ferritin by: Mark Levin, MD, Hematologist and Oncologist, Newark, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network
  25. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 450,000 g•mol−1
  26. ^ a b Mitchell ML, Filippone MD, Wozniak TF (August 2001). "Metastatic carcinomatous cirrhosis and hepatic hemosiderosis in a patient heterozygous for the H63D genotype". Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 125 (8): 1084–7. doi:10.1043/0003-9985(2001)125&lt;1084:MCCAHH&gt;2.0.CO;2. PMID 11473464. 
  27. ^ a b Diaz J, Tornel PL, Martinez P (July 1995). "Reference intervals for blood ammonia in healthy subjects, determined by microdiffusion". Clin. Chem. 41 (7): 1048. PMID 7600690. 
  28. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 17.03 g/mol
  29. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 63.55 g•mol−1
  30. ^ Reference range for copper at GPnotebook
  31. ^ a b Derived from mass using molar mass of 151kDa
  32. ^ Walter F., PhD. Boron (2005). Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approaoch. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.  Page 849
  33. ^ a b
  34. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  35. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 65.38 g/mol
  36. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  37. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 24.31 g/mol
  38. ^ Middleton P, Kelly AM, Brown J, Robertson M (August 2006). "Agreements between arterial and central venous values for pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate". Emerg Med J 23 (8): 622–4. doi:10.1136/emj.2006.035915. PMC 2564165. PMID 16858095. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l The Medical Education Division of the Brookside Associates--> ABG (Arterial Blood Gas) Retrieved on Dec 6, 2009
  40. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 1.01 g•mol−1
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from mmHg values using 0.133322 kPa/mmHg
  42. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44.010 g/mol
  43. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 61 g/mol
  44. ^ Reference range (albumin) at GPnotebook
  45. ^ a b Derived from mass using molecular weight of 65kD
  46. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  47. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 585g/mol
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Fachwörterbuch Kompakt Medizin E-D/D-E. Author: Fritz-Jürgen Nöhring. Edition 2. Publisher:Elsevier, Urban&FischerVerlag, 2004. ISBN 3-437-15120-7, ISBN 978-3-437-15120-0. Length: 1288 pages
  49. ^ a b c d GPnotebook > reference range (AST) Retrieved on Dec 7, 2009
  50. ^ a b "Gamma-GT". Leistungsverzeichnis. Medizinisch-Diagnostische Institute. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  51. ^ a b Creatine kinase at GPnotebook
  52. ^ a b c d e f Page 585 in: Lee, Mary Ann (2009). Basic Skills in Interpreting Laboratory Data. Amer Soc of Health System. ISBN 1-58528-180-8. 
  53. ^ a b c d Muscle Information and Courses from MediaLab, Inc. > Cardiac Biomarkers Retrieved on April 22, 2010
  54. ^ a b c Brenden CK, Hollander JE, Guss D, et al. (May 2006). "Gray zone BNP levels in heart failure patients in the emergency department: results from the Rapid Emergency Department Heart Failure Outpatient Trial (REDHOT) multicenter study". American Heart Journal 151 (5): 1006–11. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2005.10.017. PMID 16644322. 
  55. ^ a b c Strunk A, Bhalla V, Clopton P, et al. (January 2006). "Impact of the history of congestive heart failure on the utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in the emergency diagnosis of heart failure: results from the Breathing Not Properly Multinational Study". The American Journal of Medicine 119 (1): 69.e1–11. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2005.04.029. PMID 16431187. 
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Adëeva Nutritionals Canada > Optimal blood test values Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  57. ^ a b c d e f Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, by dividing by 89, according to What are mg/dl and mmol/l? How to convert? Glucose? Cholesterol? Last Update July 21, 2009. Retrieved on July 21, 2009
  58. ^ a b c d Derived from values in mg/dl to mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  59. ^ a b c Reference range (cholesterol) at GPnotebook
  60. ^ a b c d e f g h Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia; Cholesterol (HDL and LDL) - plasma or serum Last Updated: Monday, 6 August 2007
  61. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Derived from values in mmol/l, using molar mass of 386.65 g/mol
  62. ^ What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean. American Heart Association. Retrieved on September 12, 2009
  63. ^ American Association for Clinical Chemistry; HDL Cholesterol
  64. ^ GP Notebook > range (reference, ca-125) Retrieved on Jan 5, 2009
  65. ^ ClinLab Navigator > Test Interpretations > CA-125 Retrieved on March 8, 2011
  66. ^ a b Bjerner J, Høgetveit A, Wold Akselberg K, et al. (June 2008). "Reference intervals for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, MUC1, Alfa-foeto-protein (AFP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and CA19.9 from the NORIP study". Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 68 (8): 1–12. doi:10.1080/00365510802126836. PMID 18609108. 
  67. ^ Carcinoembryonic Antigen(CEA) at MedicineNet
  68. ^ a b c Basuyau JP, Mallet E, Leroy M, Brunelle P (October 2004). "Reference intervals for serum calcitonin in men, women, and children". Clinical Chemistry 50 (10): 1828–30. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963. PMID 15388660. 
  69. ^ The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006. Health's Disease and Condition
  70. ^ a b 2006 Press releases: Thyroid Imbalance? Target Your Numbers Contacts: Bryan Campbell American] Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  71. ^ a b The TSH Reference Range Wars: What's "Normal?", Who is Wrong, Who is Right... By Mary Shomon, Updated: June 19, 2006
  72. ^ a b Demers, Laurence M.; Carole A. Spencer (2002). "LMPG: Laboratory Support for the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Thyroid Disease". National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (USA). Retrieved 2007-04-13.  - see Section 2. Pre-analytic factors
  73. ^ a b c d e f Free T4; Thyroxine, Free; T4, Free UNC Health Care System
  74. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  75. ^ a b c d e f Derived from mass values using molar mass of 776.87 g/mol
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Table 4: Typical reference ranges for serum assays - Thyroid Disease Manager
  77. ^ a b c d van der Watt G, Haarburger D, Berman P (July 2008). "Euthyroid patient with elevated serum free thyroxine". Clinical Chemistry 54 (7): 1239–41. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2007.101428. PMID 18593963. 
  78. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 650.98 g/mol
  79. ^ a b Cioffi M, Gazzerro P, Vietri MT, et al. (2001). "Serum concentration of free T3, free T4 and TSH in healthy children". Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism 14 (9): 1635–9. doi:10.1515/jpem.2001.14.9.1635. PMID 11795654. INIST:13391788. 
  80. ^ a b Life Extension Foundation > Blood Testing Protocols
  81. ^ a b Andrology Australia: Your Health > Low Testosterone > Diagnosis
  82. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  83. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 288.42g/mol
  84. ^ a b c d MedlinePlus > Testosterone Update Date: 3/18/2008. Updated by: Elizabeth H. Holt, MD, PhD, Yale University. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director
  85. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 330.46g/mol
  86. ^ a b c d e f g h i j reference range (FSH) GPnotebook. Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  87. ^ a b c d e f Values taken from day 1 after LH surge in: Stricker R, Eberhart R, Chevailler MC, Quinn FA, Bischof P, Stricker R (2006). "Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 44 (7): 883–7. doi:10.1515/CCLM.2006.160. PMID 16776638. 
  88. ^ a b c d e f New York Hospital Queens > Services and Facilities > Patient Testing > Pathology > New York Hospital Queens Diagnostic Laboratories > Test Directory > Reference Ranges Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  89. ^ a b Mayo Medical Laboratories > Test ID: LH, Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Serum, retrieved December 2012
  90. ^ a b c d e f g GPNotebook - reference range (oestradiol) Retrieved on September 27, 2009
  91. ^ a b c d e f g Derived from molar values using molar mass of 272.38g/mol
  92. ^ a b c d Total amount multiplied by 0.022 according to 2.2% presented in: Wu CH, Motohashi T, Abdel-Rahman HA, Flickinger GL, Mikhail G (August 1976). "Free and protein-bound plasma estradiol-17 beta during the menstrual cycle". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 43 (2): 436–45. doi:10.1210/jcem-43-2-436. PMID 950372. 
  93. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 314.46 g/mol
  94. ^ a b Bhattacharya Sudhindra Mohan (July/August 2005) Mid-luteal phase plasma progesterone levels in spontaneous and clomiphene citrate induced conception cycles J Obstet Gynecol India Vol. 55, No. 4 : July/August 2005 Pg 350-352
  95. ^ a b Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEA-S), Serum at Mayo Foundation For Medical Education And Research. Retrieved July 2012
  96. ^ a b c d Unit Code 91215 at Mayo Clinic Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2011
  97. ^ a b Antimullerian Hormone (AMH), Serum from Mayo Medical Laboratories. Retrieved April 2012.
  98. ^ a b Derived from mass values using 140,000 g/mol, as given in:
  99. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  100. ^ "Adrenocorticotropic Hormone:Normal". WebMD. 09-03-2006. Retrieved 2008-11-09.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  101. ^ Derived from molar values using molar mass of 4540g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: PROOPIOMELANOCORTIN; NCBI --> POMC Retrieved on September 28, 2009
  102. ^ a b c d Biochemistry Reference Ranges at Good Hope Hospital Retrieved on Nov 8, 2009
  103. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar mass of 362 g/mol
  104. ^ a b c d e f g h Friedrich N, Alte D, Völzke H, et al. (June 2008). "Reference ranges of serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in a general adult population: results of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)". Growth Hormone & IGF Research : Official Journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society 18 (3): 228–37. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2007.09.005. PMID 17997337. 
  105. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Taken from the assay method giving the lowest and highest estimate, respectively, from Table 2 in: Beltran L, Fahie-Wilson MN, McKenna TJ, Kavanagh L, Smith TP (October 2008). "Serum total prolactin and monomeric prolactin reference intervals determined by precipitation with polyethylene glycol: evaluation and validation on common immunoassay platforms". Clinical Chemistry 54 (10): 1673–81. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2008.105312. PMID 18719199. 
  106. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  107. ^ a b Table 2 in: Aloia JF, Feuerman M, Yeh JK (2006). "Reference range for serum parathyroid hormone". Endocr Pract 12 (2): 137–44. doi:10.4158/ep.12.2.137. PMC 1482827. PMID 16690460. 
  108. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 9.4 kDa
  109. ^ a b c d e f Derived from molar values using molar mass 400.6 g/mol
  110. ^ a b c d Bender, David A. (2003). "Vitamin D". Nutritional biochemistry of the vitamins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80388-8.  Retrieved December 10, 2008 through Google Book Search.
  111. ^ a b c d Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Dietrich T, Orav EJ, et al. (September 2004). "Higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with better lower-extremity function in both active and inactive persons aged > or &#61;60 y". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80 (3): 752–8. PMID 15321818. 
  112. ^ a b c d Reusch J, Ackermann H, Badenhoop K (May 2009). "Cyclic changes of vitamin D and PTH are primarily regulated by solar radiation: 5-year analysis of a German (50 degrees N) population". Horm. Metab. Res. 41 (5): 402–7. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1128131. PMID 19241329. 
  113. ^ a b c d e f g h Vasquez A, Cannell J (July 2005). "Calcium and vitamin D in preventing fractures: data are not sufficient to show inefficacy". BMJ 331 (7508): 108–9; author reply 109. doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7508.108-b. PMC 558659. PMID 16002891. 
  114. ^ a b Converted from values in mcU/mL by dividing with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  115. ^ a b Pratt RE, Flynn JA, Hobart PM, Paul M, Dzau VJ (March 1988). "Different secretory pathways of renin from mouse cells transfected with the human renin gene". The Journal of Biological Chemistry 263 (7): 3137–41. PMID 2893797. 
  116. ^ a b c d New Assays for Aldosterone, Renin and Parathyroid Hormone University of Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  117. ^ a b Converted from values in ng/(mL*hour) by multiplying with a factor of 11.2 mcU/mL per ng/(mL*hour), as given in:Washington, Department of Laboratory Medicine. Retrieved Mars 2011
  118. ^ a b Converted from mass values using molar mass of 360.44 g/mol
  119. ^ a b c d Tiu SC, Choi CH, Shek CC, et al. (January 2005). "The use of aldosterone-renin ratio as a diagnostic test for primary hyperaldosteronism and its test characteristics under different conditions of blood sampling". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 90 (1): 72–8. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-1149. PMID 15483077. 
  120. ^ a b c d e f Central Manchester University Hospitals --> Reference ranges Retrieved on July 9, 2009
  121. ^ University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center > Clinical Lab Reference Range Guide Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  122. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using molar mass of 441 mol−1
  123. ^ a b c d e f g GPnotebook > B12 Retrieved on April 28, 2009
  124. ^ a b Derived form molar values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  125. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 1355g/mol
  126. ^ a b c d The Doctor's Doctor: Homocysteine
  127. ^ a b c d Derived from molar values using molar massof 135 g/mol
  128. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 176 grams per mol
  129. ^ a b c For Driving under the influence by country, see Drunk driving law by country
  130. ^ Derived from mass values using molar mass of 46g/mol
  131. ^ a b c d e Derived from mass values using 64,500 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. 
  132. ^ a b c d Normal Lab Values at Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine. Retrieved July 2013
  133. ^ a b c d e f g h molar concentration as given for hemoglobin above, but multiplied by 4, according to: Lodemann P, Schorer G, Frey BM (February 2010). "Wrong molar hemoglobin reference values-a longstanding error that should be corrected". Annals of Hematology 89 (2): 209. doi:10.1007/s00277-009-0791-x. PMID 19609525. 
  134. ^ a b c d Derived from mass concentration, using molar mass of 64,458 g/mol. This molar mass was taken from: Van Beekvelt MC, Colier WN, Wevers RA, Van Engelen BG (2001). "Performance of near-infrared spectroscopy in measuring local O2 consumption and blood flow in skeletal muscle". J Appl Physiol 90 (2): 511–519. PMID 11160049. . Subsequently, 1 g/dL = 0.1551 mmol/L
  135. ^ a b c d e f g h > Tests & Imaging > Labs > Complete Blood Count Retrieved on May 14, 2009
  136. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Clinical Laboratory Medicine. By Kenneth D. McClatchey. Page 807.
  137. ^ Determination of monocyte count by hematological analyzers, manual method and flow cytometry in polish population Central European Journal of Immunology 1-2/2006. (Centr Eur J Immunol 2006; 31 (1-2): 1-5) authors: Elżbieta Górska, Urszula Demkow, Roman Pińkowski, Barbara Jakubczak, Dorota Matuszewicz, Jolanta Gawęda, Wioletta Rzeszotarska, Maria Wąsik,
  138. ^ a b Normal Values: RBC, Hgb, Hct, Indices, RDW, Platelets, and MPV (Conventional Units) From labcareplus. Retrieved 4 nov, 2010
  139. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia 003652
  140. ^ a b Antithrombin III in Emedicine. By Jun Teruya and Vadim Kostousov. Updated: Jan 30, 2014
  141. ^ a b Antithrombin CO000300 in Coagulation Test Handbook at Massachusetts General Hospital. In turn citing:
    • Elizabeth M. Van Cott, M.D., and Michael Laposata, M.D., Ph.D., "Coagulation." In: Jacobs DS et al, ed. The Laboratory Test Handbook, 5th Edition. Lexi-Comp, Cleveland, 2001; 327-358.
  142. ^ a b [1] Retrieved on November 20, 2009
  143. ^ a b Miller A, Green M, Robinson D (January 1983). "Simple rule for calculating normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate". British Medical Journal 286 (6361): 266. doi:10.1136/bmj.286.6361.266. PMC 1546487. PMID 6402065. 
  144. ^ Böttiger LE, Svedberg CA (1967). "Normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age". Br Med J 2 (5544): 85–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5544.85. PMC 1841240. PMID 6020854. 
  145. ^ C-reactive protein at GPnotebook
  146. ^ 2730 Serum C-Reactive Protein values in Diabetics with Periodontal Disease A.R. Choudhury, and S. Rahman, Birdem, Diabetic Association of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh. (the diabetics were not used to determine the reference ranges)
  147. ^ a b c d Derived from mass using molar mass of 25,106 g/mol
  148. ^ a b Sipahi T, Kara C, Tavil B, Inci A, Oksal A (March 2003). "Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: an overlooked cause of late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn". Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology 25 (3): 274–5. doi:10.1097/00043426-200303000-00019. PMID 12621252. 
  149. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  150. ^ a b Derived from molar values using molar mass of 44324.5 g/mol
  151. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Society for American Clinical Laboratory Science > Chemistry Tests > Immunoglobulins Retrieved on Nov 26, 2009
  152. ^ All values cited from Chronolab are given for ELISA
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  154. ^ Reference range (amylase) at GPnotebook
  155. ^ Ageno W, Finazzi S, Steidl L, et al. (2002). "Plasma measurement of D-dimer levels for the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke subtypes". Archives of Internal Medicine 162 (22): 2589–93. doi:10.1001/archinte.162.22.2589. PMID 12456231. 
  156. ^ Kline JA, Williams GW, Hernandez-Nino J (May 2005). "D-dimer concentrations in normal pregnancy: new diagnostic thresholds are needed". Clinical Chemistry 51 (5): 825–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2004.044883. PMID 15764641. 
  157. ^ a b Gardner MD, Scott R (April 1980). "Age- and sex-related reference ranges for eight plasma constituents derived from randomly selected adults in a Scottish new town". Journal of Clinical Pathology 33 (4): 380–5. doi:10.1136/jcp.33.4.380. PMC 1146084. PMID 7400337. 
  158. ^ a b c d Finney H, Newman DJ, Price CP (January 2000). "Adult reference ranges for serum cystatin C, creatinine and predicted creatinine clearance". Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 37 (1): 49–59. doi:10.1258/0004563001901524. PMID 10672373. 
  159. ^ a b c d e f g h Derived from molar values by multiplying with the molar mass of 113.118 g/mol, and divided by 10.000 to adapt from μg/L to mg/dL
  160. ^ a b MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Glucose tolerance test
  161. ^ a b c Derived from molar values using molar mass of 180g/mol
  162. ^ a b c d Derived from mass values using molar mass of 90.08 g/mol
  163. ^ a b Derived from mass values using molar mass of 88.06 g/mol

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