Recurrent corneal erosion

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Recurrent corneal erosion
Classification and external resources
ICD-10H16.0 H18.8
ICD-9371.42
DiseasesDB31285
eMedicineoph/113
 
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Recurrent corneal erosion
Classification and external resources
ICD-10H16.0 H18.8
ICD-9371.42
DiseasesDB31285
eMedicineoph/113

Recurrent corneal erosion is a disorder of the eyes characterized by the failure of the cornea's outermost layer of epithelial cells to attach to the underlying basement membrane (Bowman's layer). The condition is excruciatingly painful because the loss of these cells results in the exposure of sensitive corneal nerves.

Etiology[edit]

There is often a history of previous corneal injury (corneal abrasion or ulcer), but also may be due to corneal dystrophy or corneal disease. In other words, one may suffer from corneal erosions as a result of another disorder, such as map dot fingerprint disease.[1]

Symptoms and signs[edit]

Symptoms include recurring attacks of severe acute ocular pain, foreign-body sensation, photophobia (i.e. sensitivity to bright lights), and tearing often at the time of awakening or during sleep when the eyelids are rubbed or opened. Signs of the condition include corneal abrasion or localized roughening of the corneal epithelium, sometimes with map-like lines, epithelial dots or microcyts, or fingerprint patterns. An epithelial defect may be present, usually in the inferior interpalpebral zone.

Diagnosis[edit]

The erosion may be seen by a doctor using the magnification of an ophthalmoscope, although usually fluorescein stain must be applied first and a blue-light used. Opticians, optometrists and ophthalmologists have use of slit lamp microscopes that allow for more thorough evaluation under the higher magnification. Mis-diagnosis of a scratched cornea is fairly common, especially in younger patients.

Management of episodes[edit]

With the eye generally profusely watering, the type of tears being produced have little adhesive property. Water or saline eye drops tend therefore to be ineffective. Rather a 'better quality' of tear is required with higher 'wetting ability' (i.e. greater amount of glycoproteins) and so artificial tears (e.g. viscotears) are applied frequently.

Whilst individual episodes may settle within a few hours or days, additional episodes (as the name suggests) will recur at intervals.

Prevention[edit]

Given that episodes tend to occur on awakening and managed by use of good 'wetting agents', approaches to be taken to help prevent episodes include:

Environmental
General personal measures
Pre-bed routine
Waking options

Treatment[edit]

Where episodes frequently occur, or there is an underlying disorder, one medical,[3] or three types of surgical curative procedures may be attempted:[4] use of therapeutic contact lens, controlled puncturing of the surface layer of the eye (Anterior Stromal Puncture) and laser phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK). These all essentially try to allow the surface epithelium to reestablish with normal binding to the underlying basement membrane, the method chosen depends upon the location & size of the erosion.

Surgical[edit]

A punctal plug may be inserted into the tear duct by an optometrist or ophthalmologist, decreasing the removal of natural tears from the affected eye.[5]

The use of contact lenses may help prevent the abrasion during blinking lifting off the surface layer and uses thin lenses that are gas permeable to minimise reduced oxygenation. However they need to be used for between 8–26 weeks and such persistent use both incurs frequent follow-up visits and may increase the risk of infections.[2]

Alternatively, under local anaesthetic, the corneal layer may be gently removed with a fine needle, cauterised (heat or laser) or 'spot welding' attempted (again with lasers). The procedures are not guaranteed to work, and in a minority may exacerbate the problem.

Anterior Stromal Puncture with a 20-25 gauge needle is an effective and simple treatment.

An option for minimally invasive and long-term effective therapy[6] is laser phototherapeutic keratectomy. Laser PTK involves the surgical laser treatment of the cornea to selectively ablate cells on the surface layer of the cornea. It is thought that the natural regrowth of cells in the following days are better able to attach to the basement membrane to prevent recurrence of the condition. Laser PTK has been found to be most effective after epithelial debridement for the partial ablation of Bowman's lamella,[7] which performed prior to PTK in the surgical procedure. This is meant to smoothen out the corneal area that the laser PTK will then treat. In some cases, small-spot PTK,[8] which only treats certain areas of the cornea may also be an acceptable alternative.

Medical[edit]

Patients with recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions often show increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes.[9] These enzymes dissolve the basement membrane and fibrils of the hemidesmosomes, which can lead to the separation of the epithelial layer. Treatment with oral tetracycline antibiotics (such as doxycycline or oxytetracycline) together with a topical corticosteroid (such as prednisolone), reduce MMP activity and may rapidly resolve and prevent further episodes in cases unresponsive to conventional therapies.[10][11] Some have now proposed this as the first line therapy after lubricants have failed.[3]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Review of Ophthalmology, Friedman NJ, Kaiser PK, Trattler WB, Elsevier Saunders, 2005, p. 221
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Verma A, Ehrenhaus M (August 25, 2005) Corneal Erosion, Recurrent at eMedicine
  3. ^ a b Wang L, Tsang H, Coroneo M (2008). "Treatment of recurrent corneal erosion syndrome using the combination of oral doxycycline and topical corticosteroid". Clin. Experiment. Ophthalmol. 36 (1): 8–12. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9071.2007.01648.x. PMID 18290949. 
  4. ^ Liu C, Buckley R (January 1996). "The role of the therapeutic contact lens in the management of recurrent corneal erosions: a review of treatment strategies". CLAO J 22 (1): 79–82. PMID 8835075. 
  5. ^ Tai MC, Cosar CB, Cohen EJ, Rapuano CJ, Laibson PR (March 2002). "The clinical efficacy of silicone punctal plug therapy". Cornea 21 (2): 135–9. doi:10.1097/00003226-200203000-00001. PMID 11862081. 
  6. ^ Baryla J, Pan YI, Hodge WG (2006). "Long-term efficacy of phototherapeutic keratectomy on recurrent corneal erosion syndrome.". Cornea 25 (10): 1150–1152. doi:10.1097/01.ico.0000240093.65637.90. PMID 17172888. 
  7. ^ Kampik D, Neumaier K, Mutsch A, Waller W, Geerling G (2008). "Intraepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy and alcohol delamination for recurrent corneal erosions--two minimally invasive surgical alternatives.". Klinische Monatsblätter für Augenheilkunde 225 (4): 276–80. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1027174. PMID 18401793. 
  8. ^ van Westenbrugge JA. (2007). "Small spot phototherapeutic keratectomy for recurrent corneal erosion.". J Refract Surg 23 (7): 721–4. PMID 17912944. 
  9. ^ Ramamurthi S, Rahman M, Dutton G, Ramaesh K (2006). "Pathogenesis, clinical features and management of recurrent corneal erosions.". Eye 20 (6): 635–44. doi:10.1038/sj.eye.6702005. PMID 16021185. 
  10. ^ Hope-Ross M, Chell P, Kervick G, McDonnell P, Jones H (1994). "Oral tetracycline in the treatment of recurrent corneal erosions.". Eye 8 (Pt 4): 384–8. doi:10.1038/eye.1994.91. PMID 7821456. 
  11. ^ Dursun D, Kim M, Solomon A, Pflugfelder S (2001). "Treatment of recalcitrant recurrent corneal erosions with inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-9, doxycycline and corticosteroids.". Am J Ophthalmol 132 (1): 8–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-9394(01)00913-8. PMID 11438047. 

External links[edit]