Rebecca (novel)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia - View original article

Rebecca
First edition cover
First edition cover
AuthorDaphne du Maurier
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreCrime, Gothic, Mystery, Romance
PublisherVictor Gollancz
Publication date
1938
Media typePrint (hard and paperback)
Pages384
ISBNNA
 
Jump to: navigation, search
Rebecca
First edition cover
First edition cover
AuthorDaphne du Maurier
CountryUnited Kingdom
LanguageEnglish
GenreCrime, Gothic, Mystery, Romance
PublisherVictor Gollancz
Publication date
1938
Media typePrint (hard and paperback)
Pages384
ISBNNA

Rebecca is a novel by English author Daphne du Maurier. A moderate best-seller, there were 2,829,313 copies of Rebecca sold between 1938 and 1965[1] and the book has never gone out of print. The novel is remembered for the character Mrs. Danvers, the fictional estate Manderley, and its opening lines:

Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again... I came upon it suddenly; the approach masked by the unnatural growth of a vast shrub that spread in all directions... There was Manderley, our Manderley, secretive and silent as it had always been, the gray stone shining in the moonlight of my dream, the mullioned windows reflecting the green lawns and terrace. Time could not wreck the perfect symmetry of those walls, nor the site itself, a jewel in the hollow of a hand.

"With those famous opening lines of Rebecca... [du Maurier] created one of the classic Gothic romances."[2] Rebecca "remains Daphne du Maurier's best-loved novel."[3]

Plot summary[edit]

"Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again" is the book's famous opening line, and after the first two chapters, its unnamed narrator (only known as Mrs de Winter or the second Mrs. de Winter) reminisces about her past.

While working as the companion to a rich American woman vacationing in Monte Carlo, the narrator, a naive young woman in her early 20s, becomes acquainted with a wealthy Englishman, Maximilian (Maxim) de Winter, a widower aged around 40. After a fortnight of courtship, she agrees to marry him and, after the wedding and honeymoon, accompanies him to his mansion in Cornwall, the beautiful West Country estate Manderley.

Mrs. Danvers, the sinister housekeeper, was profoundly devoted to the first Mrs. de Winter, Rebecca, who died in a boating accident about a year prior to Maxim and the second Mrs. de Winter's meeting in Monte Carlo. She continually attempts to undermine the new Mrs. de Winter psychologically, subtly suggesting to her that she will never attain the beauty, urbanity and charm her predecessor possessed. Whenever the new Mrs. de Winter attempts to make changes at Manderley, Mrs. Danvers describes how Rebecca ran it when she was alive. Each time Mrs. Danvers does this, she implies that the new Mrs. de Winter lacks the experience and knowledge necessary for running an important estate. Cowed by Mrs. Danvers's imposing manner, the new mistress simply caves in.

She is soon convinced that Maxim regrets his impetuous decision to marry her and is still deeply in love with the seemingly perfect Rebecca. The climax occurs at Manderley's annual costume ball. Mrs. Danvers manipulates the protagonist into wearing a replica of the dress shown in a portrait of one of the former inhabitants of the estate—the same costume worn by Rebecca to much acclaim shortly before her death. The narrator has a drummer announce her entrance using the name of the lady in the portrait: Caroline de Winter. When the narrator shows Maxim the dress, he gets very angry at her and orders her to change.

Shortly after the ball, Mrs. Danvers reveals her contempt for our heroine, believing she is trying to replace Rebecca and reveals her deep, unhealthy obsession with the dead woman. Mrs. Danvers attempts to take revenge by encouraging Mrs. de Winter to commit suicide by jumping out the window. However she is thwarted at the last moment by the disturbance occasioned by a nearby shipwreck. A diver investigating the condition of the wrecked ship's hull also discovers the remains of Rebecca's boat.

Maxim confesses the truth to our heroine: how his marriage to Rebecca was nothing but a sham; how from the very first days husband and wife loathed each other. Rebecca, Maxim reveals, was a cruel and selfish woman who manipulated everyone around her into believing her to be the perfect wife and a paragon of virtue. She repeatedly taunted Maxim with sordid tales of her numerous love affairs. The night of her death, she suggested to Maxim that she was pregnant with another man's child, which she would raise under the pretense that it was Maxim's and he would be powerless to stop her. After intentionally being provoked, he shoots her, leading to her death. Then he disposed of her body on her boat and sank it at sea. The second Mrs. de Winter is relieved to hear that Maxim had never loved Rebecca but instead really loves her.

Rebecca's boat is raised and it is discovered that it was deliberately sunk. An inquest brings a verdict of suicide, however, Rebecca's first cousin (and lover) Jack Favell attempts to blackmail Maxim, claiming to have proof that Rebecca could not have intended suicide, based on a note she sent to him the night she died.

It is revealed Rebecca had an appointment with a Doctor Baker in the blue outskirts of London shortly before her death, presumably to confirm her pregnancy. When the doctor is found, he reveals that Rebecca had been suffering from cancer and would have died within a few months; furthermore, due to the malformation of her uterus, she could never have been pregnant. Knowing she was going to die, Rebecca manipulated Maxim into killing her quickly, rather than face a lingering death. Maxim feels a great sense of foreboding and insists on driving through the night to return to Manderley. However, before he comes in sight of the house, it is clear from a glow on the horizon and wind-borne ashes that it is ablaze.

Major characters[edit]

Locations[edit]

Development[edit]

"In 1937, Daphne du Maurier signed a three-book deal with Victor Gollancz" and accepted an advance of £1,000.[3] A 2008 article in The Daily Telegraph indicates she had been toying with the theme of jealousy for the five years since her marriage in 1932.[3] She started "sluggishly" and wrote a desperate apology to Gollancz: 'The first 15,000 words I tore up in disgust and this literary miscarriage has cast me down rather.'"[3] Her husband, Tommy Browning, was Lieutenant Colonel of the Grenadier Guards and they were posted to Alexandria, Egypt with the Second Battalion, leaving Britain on 30 July 1937.[3] Gollancz expected her manuscript on their return to Britain in December but she wrote that she was "ashamed to tell you that progress is slow on the new novel....There is little likelihood of my bringing back a finished manuscript in December."[3] On returning to Britain in December 1937, du Maurier decided to spend Christmas away from her family to write the book and she successfully delivered it to her publisher less than four months later.[3] Du Maurier described the plot as "a sinister tale about a woman who marries a widower....Psychological and rather macabre."[3]

Derivation and inspiration[edit]

Some commentators have noted parallels with Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre.[4][5] Another of du Maurier's works, Jamaica Inn, is also linked to one of the Brontë sisters' works, Emily's Wuthering Heights. Du Maurier commented publicly in her lifetime that the book was based on her own memories of Menabilly and Cornwall, as well as her relationship with her father.[6] While du Maurier "categorised Rebecca as a study in jealousy... she admitted its origins in her own life to few."[3] Her husband had been "engaged before – to glamorous, dark-haired Jan Ricardo. The suspicion that Tommy remained attracted to Ricardo haunted Daphne."[3] In The Rebecca Notebook of 1981, du Maurier "'remembered' Rebecca's gestation ... "Seeds began to drop. A beautiful home... a first wife... jealousy, a wreck, perhaps at sea, near to the house... But something terrible would have to happen, I did not know what..."[3] She wrote in her notes prior to writing: 'I want to built up the character of the first [wife] in the mind of the second... until wife 2 is haunted day and night... a tragedy is looming very close and CRASH! BANG! something happens.'"[3] Du Maurier and her husband, "Tommy Browning, like Rebecca and Maximilian de Winter, were not faithful to one another." Subsequent to the novel's publication, "Jan Ricardo, tragically, died during the Second World War [she] threw herself under a train."[3]

Childhood visits to Milton Hall, Cambridgeshire (then in Northamptonshire) home of the Wentworth-Fitzwilliam family, may have influenced the descriptions of Manderley.[7]

Literary technique[edit]

The famous opening line of the book "Last night I dreamt I went to Manderley again" is an iambic hexameter. The last line of the book "And the ashes blew towards us with the salt wind from the sea" is also in metrical form; almost but not quite an anapestic tetrameter.

Plagiarism allegations[edit]

Shortly after Rebecca was published in Brazil, critic Álvaro Lins pointed out many resemblances between du Maurier's book and the work of Brazilian writer Carolina Nabuco. Nabuco's A Sucessora (The Successor) has a main plot similar to Rebecca, for example a young woman marrying a widower and the strange presence of the first wife – plot features also shared with the far older Jane Eyre.[8] Nina Auerbach alleged in her book, Daphne du Maurier, Haunted Heiress, that du Maurier read the Brazilian book when the first drafts were sent to be published in England and based her famous best-seller on it. According to Nabuco's autobiography, Eight Decades, she (Nabuco) refused to sign a contract brought to her by a United Artists' representative in which she agreed that the similarities between her book and the movie were mere coincidence.[9] Du Maurier denied copying Nabuco's book, as did her publisher, claiming that the plot used in Rebecca was quite common.[citation needed] A further, ironic complication in Nabuco's allegations is the similarity between her novel and the novel Encarnação, written by José de Alencar, Brazil's most celebrated novelist of the nineteenth century, and published posthumously in 1873.[10]

In 1944 in the United States, Daphne du Maurier, her US publishers, Doubleday, and various parties connected with the 1940 film version of the novel, were sued by Edwina L. MacDonald for plagiarism. MacDonald alleged that du Maurier had copied her novel Blind Windows. Du Maurier successfully rebuffed the allegations.

Publishing history and reception[edit]

Du Maurier delivered the manuscript to her publisher, Victor Gollancz, in April 1938. On receipt, the book was read in Gollancz's office and her "editor, Norman Collins, reported simply: 'The new Daphne du Maurier contains everything that the public could want.'"[3] Gollancz's "reaction to Rebecca was relief and jubilation" and "a 'rollicking success' was predicted by him."[11] He "did not hang around" and "ordered a first print run of 20,000 copies and within a month Rebecca had sold more than twice that number."[3] The novel has been continuously in print since 1938 and in 1993 "du Maurier's US publishers Avon estimated ongoing monthly paperback sales of Rebecca at more than 4,000 copies."[3]

Promotion[edit]

Du Maurier "did several radio interviews with BBC and other stations" and "attended Foil's Literary Lunch" in August 1938 while Good Housekeeping, Ladies Home Journal, and House & Garden published articles on du Maurier.[12]

Contemporary reception in the professional and popular press[edit]

The Times said that "the material is of the humblest...nothing in this is beyond the novelette." In the Christian Science Monitor of 14 September 1938, V. S. Pritchett predicted the novel "would be here today, gone tomorrow."[3]

Few critics saw in the novel what the author wanted them to see: the exploration of the relationship between a man who was powerful and a woman who was not.[13]

Subsequent popular reception[edit]

Print history[edit]

Rebecca is listed in the 20th-Century American Bestsellers descriptive bibliography database maintained by the University of Illinois. The entry, by Katherine Huber, provided the detailed information on the English and American editions as well as translations listed below.

English editions[edit]

EditionEdition date and placePublisher and press# ImpressionsPrinting/ImpressionDate of Printing# CopiesPrice
English 1stAugust 1938, LondonGollanczAt least 91stAugust 193820,000
English 1stAugust 1938, LondonGollanczAt least 92nd193810,000
English 1stAugust 1938, LondonGollanczAt least 93rd193815,000
English 1stAugust 1938, LondonGollanczAt least 94th193815,000
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 101stBefore publication in 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 102ndBefore publication in 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 103rdBefore publication in 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 104th4 October 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 105th7 October 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 106th17 October 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 107thBetween 18 October and 10 November 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 108th11 November 1938$2.75 US
American 1stSeptember 1938, NYDoubleday Doran and Company, Inc. at the Country Life Press in Garden City,NYAt least 109th18 November 1938$2.75 US
29 subsequent editionsBetween 1939–1993Doubleday Doran and Company, Inc.
1938Blakiston Co.
1938Book League of America
1938J.G. Ferguson
1938Literary Guild of America
1938P.F. Collier & Son, Corp
1939Ladies' Home Journal (condensed)
1940Garden City Publishing Co.
1941Editions for the Armed Services
1941Sun Dial Press
1942Triangle Books
1943The Modern Library
1943Pocket Books
1945Ryeson Press
1947Albatross
1950Studio
1953Cardinal
1954International Collector's Library
1957Longmans
1960Ulverscroft
1962Penguin Books
1965Washington Square Press
1971Avon Books
1975Pan Books
1980Octopus/Heinemann (published with Jamaica Inn and My Cousin Rachel, also by du Maurier)
1987The Franklin Library
1991The Folio Society
1992Arrow
1993Compact
1994Reader's Digest Association (condensed)

Translations[edit]

LanguageTranslatorYearTitlePublisher
Chinese1972Hi Tieh MengTíai-nan, Tíai-wan: Hsin shih chi chíu pan she
Chinese1979Hu die mengTaibie, Taiwan: Yuan Jing
Chinese1980Hu tieh meng: RebeccaHsin-chich (Hong Kong): Hung Kuang she tien
11 other editions in Chinese
French1939Rebecca: romanParis: A. Michel
French1975RebeccaParis: Club Chez Nous
French1984RebeccaParis: Librairie Generale Francaise
Italian1940Rebecca: la prima moglieMilano: A. Mondadori
Japanese1939RebekkaTokyo: Mikasa Shobo
Japanese1949Rebekka: Wakaki Musume No ShukiTokyo: Daviddosha
Japanese1971RebekkaTokyo: Shincosta
Russian1991Rebekka: romanRiga: Folium
Russian1992RebekkaRiga: Riya
Russian1992Rebekka: romanIzhevsk: Krest
Russian1992RebekkaMoska. Dom
Russian1992Rebekka: romanKiev: muza
German1940Rebecca: RomanHamburg: Deutsch Hausbucherei
German1940Rebecca: RomanSaarbrücken: Clubder Buchfreunde
German1946Rebecca: RomanHamburg: Wolfgang Kruger
German1994Rebecca: RomanWien: E. Kaiser
8 other German editions
Portuguese1977Rebecca, a mulher inesquecivelSão Paulo: Companhia Editura Nacional
Spanish1965Rebeca, una mujer inolvidableMexico: Editora Latin Americana
Spanish1969RebecaMexico: Eiditorial Diana
Spanish1971RebecaBarcelona: Plaza and Jane
Spanish1976RebecaBarcelona: Orbis
Spanish1991RebecaMadrid: Ediciones La Nave
Persian1980RebeccaIran: Amir Kabir Brinting Co.
Persian1990RibikaTehran: Nashr-i Jahnnama
Romanian1993Rebecca: RomanBucuresti: Editura Orizonturi
Polish1993RebekaKatowice: Od Nowa
Greek1960Revekka: mytgustiremaAthenai: Ekdosies Dem, Darema
Latvian1972Rebeka: romansBruklina: Gramatudraugs
Dutch1941RebeccaLeiden: AW Sijhoff
1977RebeccaTihran: Amir Kabir
1996Mrtva a Ziva: [Rebeka]Liberac: Dialog

Awards[edit]

In the US, Du Maurier won the National Book Award for favourite novel of 1938, voted by members of the American Booksellers Association.[14] In 2003, the novel was listed at number 14 on the UK survey The Big Read.[15]

Dramatic adaptations[edit]

Film[edit]

Rebecca has been adapted several times. The best known of these is the Academy Award winning 1940 Alfred Hitchcock film version Rebecca, the first film Hitchcock made under his contract with David O. Selznick. The film, which starred Sir Laurence Olivier as Max, Joan Fontaine as the Heroine, and Dame Judith Anderson as Mrs. Danvers, was based on the novel. However, the Hollywood Production Code required that if Max had murdered his wife, he would have to be punished for his crime. Therefore, the key turning point of the novel – the revelation that Max, in fact, murdered Rebecca – was altered so that it seemed as if Rebecca's death was accidental. At the end of the film version, Mrs. Danvers perishes in the fire, which she had started. The film quickly became a classic and, at the time, was a major technical achievement in film-making.[citation needed]

Recently[when?] it was reported a remake/new adaptation of Rebecca is in the works and will be produced by DreamWorks. The script is expected to be written by Steven Knight.[16]

Pan UK paperback edition cover (showing Joanna David as Mrs. de Winter from the BBC television production. Jeremy Brett played the role of Maxim de Winter.)

Television[edit]

Rebecca has been adapted for television both by the BBC and by Carlton Television. The 1979 BBC version starred Jeremy Brett as Maxim, Joanna David as the second Mrs. de Winter; it was broadcast in the United States on PBS as part of its Mystery! series. The 1997 Carlton production starred Emilia Fox (Joanna David's daughter) in the same role, Charles Dance as de Winter, and Dame Diana Rigg as Mrs. Danvers; it was broadcast in the United States by PBS as part of its Masterpiece Theatre series.

Theatre[edit]

Du Maurier herself adapted Rebecca as a stage play in 1939; it had a successful London run in 1940 of over 350 performances.[17][18]

On 28 September 2006 a musical version of Rebecca premièred at the Raimund Theater in Vienna, Austria. The new musical was written by Michael Kunze (book and lyrics) and Sylvester Levay (music) and directed by the American director Francesca Zambello. The cast includes Uwe Kröger as Max de Winter, Wietske van Tongeren as "Ich" ("I", the narrator) and Susan Rigvava-Dumas as Mrs. Danvers. Before 2008 there was talk of moving the musical to the Broadway stage, but the original plans were cancelled due to the complexity of the sets, scenery, and special effects – including a grand staircase that twirls down into the stage and a finale in which the entire stage – including Mrs. Danvers – is engulfed in flames. The musical was scheduled to open on Broadway on 18 November 2012, with Jill Paice as "I", Ryan Silverman as Max de Winter, and Karen Mason as Mrs. Danvers, but funding difficulties led to last-minute cancellation.

Opera[edit]

Rebecca was adapted as an opera with music by Wilfred Josephs, premiered by Opera North in Leeds, England, 15 October 1983[19]

Sequels and related works[edit]

The novel has inspired three additional books approved by the du Maurier estate:

Rebecca as a WWII code key[edit]

One edition of the book was used by the Germans in World War II as the key to a book code.[20] Sentences would be made using single words in the book, referred to by page number, line and position in the line. One copy was kept at Rommel's headquarters,[20] and the other was carried by German Abwehr agents infiltrated into Cairo after crossing Egypt by car, guided by Count László Almásy.[citation needed] This code was never used, however, because the radio section of the HQ was captured in a skirmish and hence the Germans suspected that the code was compromised.[21] This use of the book is referred to in Ken Follett's novel The Key to Rebecca – where a (fictional) spy does use it to pass critical information to Rommel.[22]

This use of the novel was also referred to in Michael Ondaatje's novel The English Patient.[23]

Popular recognition[edit]

The novel, and the character of Mrs. Danvers in particular, have entered many aspects of popular culture.

In literature[edit]

The character of Mrs. Danvers is alluded to numerous times throughout Stephen King's Bag of Bones. In the book, Mrs. Danvers serves as something of a boogeyman for the main character Mike Noonan. King also uses the character name for the chilly, obedient servant in "Father's Day," a tale in his 1982 film Creepshow.

In Jasper Fforde's Thursday Next series, in the bookworld, they have accidentally made thousands of Mrs. Danvers clones, which they use as troops against The Mispeling Vyrus and other threats.

In The Maxx issue No. 31, a teenage Julie Winters watches a black-and-white version of the movie.

In Danielle Steel's novel Vanished, it is mentioned that the main character is reading Rebecca. This was most likely deliberate on Steele's part, considering that the novel has many of the same elements as Rebecca.

In Linda Howard's Veil of Night, Eric compares an assistant to Danvers as well as stating he read the book under protest to pass a high school literature class. (2010)

The book was the inspiration for Paige Harbison's 2012 young adult novel, New Girl.

In film[edit]

The 1983 science fiction comedy film The Man with Two Brains gives a brief nod to aspects of Rebecca. After falling for Dolores Benedict, Dr. Hfuhruhurr (Steve Martin) intends to marry her and seeks a sign from the portrait of his deceased wife, Rebecca. The supernatural reaction of the portrait doesn't convince him and so he places her in a cupboard.

The novel is mentioned in Flower Girl, 2009 .

In television[edit]

The 1970 Parallel Time storyline of the Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows was heavily inspired by Rebecca. Also the second Dark Shadows motion picture, Night of Dark Shadows took inspiration from the novel.

In the television series The Sopranos, Meadow compares her mother Carmela to Danvers for her perceived controlling behaviour.

The fifth episode of the second series of That Mitchell and Webb Look contains an extended sketch parodying the 1940 film, in which Rebecca is unable to live up to Maxim's and Mrs. Danvers's expectations for the Second Mrs. DeWynter – described as "TBA".

The plots of certain Latin-American soap operas have also been inspired by this story, such as Manuela (Argentina),[24] Infierno en el paraíso (Mexico),[25] the Venezuelan telenovela Julia and its remake El Fantasma de Elena on Telemundo.

On an episode of The Carol Burnett Show, the cast did a parody of the film titled "Rebecky", with Carol Burnett as the heroine, Daphne; Harvey Korman as Max "de Wintry" and in the guise of Mother Marcus as Rebecky de Wintry; and Vicki Lawrence as Mrs. Danvers. The story was again referenced in an episode of the series "Mama's Family" (a spinoff of the Burnett show) titled "I Do, I Don't." In it, Bubba, Iola, and Mama each have nightmares about married life. Mama's dream is a parody of the Rebecca scenario.

In 1986, an episode of The Comic Strip called "Consuela" parodied Rebecca. It was written by French and Saunders, and starred Dawn French as the maid and Jennifer Saunders as the new wife of Adrian Edmondson.

Music[edit]

Meg & Dia's Meg Frampton penned a song entitled "Rebecca", inspired by the novel.

Sondre Lerche's song, "She's Fantastic" makes a reference to Rebecca. In it he says, "In that old movie 'bout Rebecca's spell I feel like Max never felt, minus the drama and the fraud...".

Kansas alumnus Steve Walsh's solo recording Glossolalia includes a song entitled "Rebecca", with lyrics seemingly composed from Maxim de Winter's point of view: "I suppose I was the lucky one, returning like a wayward son to Manderley, I'd never be the same...".

The Pet Shop Boys' song "King of Rome" includes the "Rebecca"-inspired line: "I'm here and there/or anywhere/away from Manderley...".

Fashion[edit]

In 2013, Devon watchmakers Du Maurier Watches, founded by the grandson of Daphne du Maurier, released a limited edition collection of two watches inspired by the characters from the novel – The Rebecca and The Maxim.[26]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hackett, Alice Payne (70 Years of Bestsellers, 1895–1965),   Missing or empty |title= (help).
  2. ^ Mitgang, Herbert (20 April 1989), "Daphne du Maurier, 81, Author of Many Gothic Romances, Dies", The New York Times, retrieved 4 July 2013 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Dennison, Matthew (19 April 2008), "How Daphne Du Maurier Wrote Rebecca", The Telegraph .
  4. ^ Yardley, Jonathan (16 March 2004). "Du Maurier's 'Rebecca,' A Worthy 'Eyre' Apparent". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 June 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2006. 
  5. ^ "Presence of Orson Welles in Robert Stevenson's Jane Eyre (1944)". Literature Film Quarterly. Retrieved 1 2 December 2006.  [dead link]
  6. ^ "Bull's-Eye for Bovarys". Time. 2 February 1942. Archived from the original on 27 January 2012. Retrieved 26 October 2007. 
  7. ^ "Milton Park and the Fitzwilliam Family". Five Villages, Their People and Places: A History of the Villages of Castor, Ailsworth, Marholm with Milton, Upton and Sutton. p. 230. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  8. ^ Lins, Álvaro (1941), Jornal de crítica [Journal of criticism] (in Portuguese), BR: José Olympio, pp. 234–36 .
  9. ^ "Tiger in a Lifeboat, Panther in a Lifeboat: A Furor Over a Novel", The New York Times, 6 November 2002 .
  10. ^ Souza, Daniel Nolasco, and Borges, Valdeci Rezende, "Intertextualidade em ' ' Encarnação ' ' de José de Alencar e ' ' Sucessora' ' de Carolina de Nabuco", http://200.137.221.67/conpeex/2006/porta_arquivos/pibic/010853-DanielNolascodeSouza.pdf
  11. ^ Beauman, Sally (2003), "Introduction", Rebecca, London: Virago .
  12. ^ Huber, Katherine, "Du Maurier, Daphne: Rebecca", 20th-Century American Bestsellers, University of Illinois, retrieved 4 July 2013 .
  13. ^ Forster, Margaret, Daphne du Maurier .
  14. ^ "Book About Plants Receives Award: Dr. Fairchild's 'Garden' Work Cited by Booksellers", The New York Times (ProQuest Historical Newspapers 1851–2007), 15 February 1939: 20, "Du Maurier participating in the Hotel Astor luncheon by transatlantic telephone from London to New York. She called for writers and distributors to offset, in the literary world, the contemporary trials of civilization in the political world." 
  15. ^ The Big Read, BBC, April 2003, retrieved 19 October 2012 .
  16. ^ "DreamWorks Plans Rebecca Remake", ComingSoon .
  17. ^ "Rebecca", Reviews, du Maurier .
  18. ^ "du Maurier", Classic Movies (profile), Turner 
  19. ^ The Times, 17 October 1983: 15, col A, article CS252153169 .
  20. ^ a b Andriotakis, Pamela (15 December 1980). "The Real Spy's Story Reads Like Fiction and 40 Years Later Inspires a Best-Seller". People archive. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  21. ^ "KV 2/1467". The National Archives. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  22. ^ "The Key to Rebecca". Ken Follett. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  23. ^ "The English Patient – Chapter VI". Spark Notes. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  24. ^ "Manuela". Il Mondo dei doppiatori, Zona soup opera e telenovelas (in Italian). Genna. Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  25. ^ "Telenovelas A–Z: Infierno en el paraíso" [Soap operas A–Z: Hell in paradise]. Univision (in Castilan). Retrieved 28 February 2010. 
  26. ^ House, Christian. "Daphne du Maurier always said her novel Rebecca was a study in jealousy", The Telegraph, London, 17 August 2013. Retrieved on 6 October 2013.

External links[edit]