Reading, Massachusetts

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Reading, Massachusetts
Town
Downtown Reading
Downtown Reading
Reading, Massachusetts is located in Massachusetts
Reading, Massachusetts
Reading, Massachusetts
Location of Reading within Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°31′32″N 71°05′45″W / 42.52556°N 71.09583°W / 42.52556; -71.09583Coordinates: 42°31′32″N 71°05′45″W / 42.52556°N 71.09583°W / 42.52556; -71.09583
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1644
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
Area
 • Total9.9 sq mi (25.7 km2)
 • Land9.9 sq mi (25.7 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation127 ft (39 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total24,747
 • Density2,500/sq mi (960/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01867
Area code(s)339 / 781
FIPS code25-56130
GNIS feature ID0618232
Websitehttp://www.ci.reading.ma.us/
 
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Reading, Massachusetts
Town
Downtown Reading
Downtown Reading
Reading, Massachusetts is located in Massachusetts
Reading, Massachusetts
Reading, Massachusetts
Location of Reading within Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°31′32″N 71°05′45″W / 42.52556°N 71.09583°W / 42.52556; -71.09583Coordinates: 42°31′32″N 71°05′45″W / 42.52556°N 71.09583°W / 42.52556; -71.09583
CountryUnited States
StateMassachusetts
CountyMiddlesex
Settled1644
Government
 • TypeRepresentative town meeting
Area
 • Total9.9 sq mi (25.7 km2)
 • Land9.9 sq mi (25.7 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation127 ft (39 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total24,747
 • Density2,500/sq mi (960/km2)
Time zoneEastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST)Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code01867
Area code(s)339 / 781
FIPS code25-56130
GNIS feature ID0618232
Websitehttp://www.ci.reading.ma.us/

Reading (Listeni/ˈrɛdɪŋ/ RED-ing) is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States, 10 miles (16 km) north of central Boston. The population was 24,747 at the 2010 census.[1]

History[edit]

Settlement and American independence[edit]

Many of the Massachusetts Bay Colony's original settlers arrived from England in the 1630s through the ports of Lynn and Salem. In 1639 some citizens of Lynn petitioned the government of the colony for a "place for an inland plantation". They were initially granted six square miles, followed by an additional four. The first settlement in this grant was at first called "Lynn Village" and was located on the south shore of the "Great Pond", now known as Lake Quannapowitt. On June 10, 1644 the settlement was incorporated as the town of Reading, taking its name from the town of Reading in England.[2]

The first church was organized soon after the settlement, and the first parish, later known as "South Reading", became the separate town of Wakefield in 1868. Thomas Parker was one of the founders of Reading. He also was a founder of the 12th Congregational Church (now the First Parish Congregational Church), and served as deacon there.[3][4][5] He was a selectman of Reading and was appointed a judicial commissioner.[6] There is evidence that Parker was "conspicuous in naming the town" and that he was related to the Parker family of Little Norton, England, who owned land by the name of Ryddinge.[7][8][9]

A special grant in 1651 added land north of the Ipswich River to the town of Reading. In 1853 this area became the separate town of North Reading. The area which currently comprises the town of Reading was originally known as "Wood End", or "Third Parish".[2]

The Parker Tavern, built 1694, is the oldest surviving building in Reading.

The town of Reading was initially governed by an open town meeting and a board of selectmen, a situation that persisted until the 1940s. In 1693, the town meeting voted to fund public education in Reading, with grants of four pounds for three months school in the town, two pounds for the west end of the town, and one pound for those north of the Ipswich River. In 1769, the meeting house was constructed, in the area which is now the Common in Reading. A stone marker commemorates the site.[2]

Reading played an active role in the American Revolutionary War. It was prominently involved in the engagements pursuing the retreating British Army after the battles of Lexington and Concord. John Brooks, later to become Governor of Massachusetts, was captain of the "Fourth Company of Minute" and subsequently served at the Battle of White Plains and at Valley Forge. Only one Reading soldier was killed in action during the Revolution; Joshua Eaton died in the Battle of Saratoga in 1777.[2]

In 1791, sixty members started the Federal Library. This was a subscription Library with each member paying $1.00 to join, and annual dues of $.25. The Town's public library was created in 1868.[2]

1852 map of Boston area, showing Reading and its rail lines

19th century[edit]

The Andover-Medford Turnpike was built by a private corporation in 1806-7. This road, now known as Massachusetts Route 28, provided the citizens of Reading with a better means of travel to the Boston area. In 1845, the Boston and Maine Railroad came to Reading and improved the access to Boston, and the southern markets. During the first half of the 19th century, Reading became a manufacturing town. Sylvester Harnden's furniture factory, Daniel Pratt's clock factory, and Samuel Pierce's organ pipe factory were major businesses. By the mid-19th century, Reading had thirteen establishments that manufactured chairs and cabinets. The making of shoes began as a cottage industry and expanded to large factories. Neckties were manufactured here for about ninety years. During and after Civil War the southern markets for Reading's products declined and several of its factories closed. For many years, Reading was an important casket manufacturing center.[2]

During the Civil War, members of the Richardson Light Guard of South Reading fought at the First Battle of Bull Run. A second company was formed as part of the Army of the Potomac, and a third company joined General Bank's expedition in Louisiana. A total of 411 men from Reading fought in the Civil War, of whom 15 died in action and 33 died of wounds and sickness. A memorial exists in the Laurel Hill Cemetery commemorating those who died in the Civil War.[2]

20th century[edit]

Post Office Square c. 1905

In the 20th century, Reading became a residential community with commuter service to Boston on the Boston and Maine Railroad and the Eastern Massachusetts Street Railway. Both commuter services were later taken over by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, and for many years, there was discussion of extending the MBTA Orange Line to Reading. Industrial expansion during that time included the Goodall-Sanford Co. off Ash Street, later sold to General Tire & Rubber Company, later known as GenCorp. Additional businesses created after World War I included the Boston Stove Foundry, Roger Reed Waxes, Ace Art, Addison-Wesley Publishing and several other companies. For many years, Wes Parker's Fried Clams was a landmark off state Route 128.

Military installations also came to the town, with two Nike missile sites, one on Bear Hill and the other off Haverhill Street, and the opening of Camp Curtis Guild, a National Guard training facility. The business community currently consists of a number of retail and service businesses in the downtown area, a series of commercial businesses in and around the former town dump on Walker's Brook Road (formerly John Street) as well as the Analytical Sciences Corporation (TASC).[2]

In 1944, Reading adopted the representative town meeting model of local government in place of the open town meeting. This retained the representative town meeting and board of selectmen, but focused policy and decision making in a smaller number of elected boards and committees whilst providing for the employment of a town manager to be responsible for day to day operations of the local government.[2]

Basketball player Bill Russell lived in Reading in the 1960s next to a gas station on Main Street, but later moved to Haverhill Street. Vandals broke into the basketball player's home and damaged his property, leaving racial epithets in their wake. Russell left Reading after retiring as coach of the Boston Celtics in 1969.

In recent years the town of Reading struggled with the decisions to build a new elementary school, to cope with the influx of new families to the community, and renovate Reading Memorial High School which was opened in 1954 with an addition added in 1971. Both of these projects were approved and in August 2007 the new $57 million renovation at the High School was completed.

Geography[edit]

Reading is located at 42°31′33″N 71°6′35″W / 42.52583°N 71.10972°W / 42.52583; -71.10972 (42.52585, −71.109939).[10] According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 9.9 square miles (25.7 km²). No significant amount of land is covered permanently by water, although there is a plethora of vernal pools in various areas of conservation land.[citation needed]

Reading borders the towns of Woburn, Stoneham, Wakefield, Lynnfield, North Reading, and Wilmington.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.  ±%  
18503,108—    
18602,662−14.4%
18702,664+0.1%
18803,181+19.4%
18904,088+28.5%
19004,969+21.6%
19105,818+17.1%
19207,439+27.9%
19309,767+31.3%
194010,866+11.3%
195014,006+28.9%
196019,259+37.5%
197022,539+17.0%
198022,678+0.6%
199022,539−0.6%
200023,708+5.2%
201024,747+4.4%
Population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

As of the census[21] of 2010, there were 24,747 people, 9,617 households, and 6,437 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,486.1 people per square mile (921.8/km²). There were 9,617 housing units at an average density of 888.8 per square mile (343.1/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.4% White, 0.8% Black or African American, 0.1% Native American, 4.2% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, and 0.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population.

There were 8,688 households out of which 36.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.5% were married couples living together, 8.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.9% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.22.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.3% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, and 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 93.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males.

According to the Census Bureau,[22] the median income for a household in the town was $99,131, and the median income for a family was $117,477. The per capita income for the town was $44,949. Of the families in Reading, 1.0% were below the poverty line, as opposed to 1.9% of the general population. 2.7% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over were under the poverty line.

Government[edit]

Town Hall

The municipal government of the town of Reading comprises a representative town meeting, whose members are elected from eight precincts.[23]

The town elects a five member board of selectmen by general election, who serve for overlapping three-year terms. The selectmen are responsible for calling the elections for the town meeting, and for calling town meetings. They initiate legislative policy by proposing legislative changes to the town meeting, and then implement the votes subsequently adopted. They also review fiscal guidelines for the annual operating budget and capital improvements program and make recommendations on these to the town meeting. In addition the board serves as the local road commissioners and licensing board, and appoints members to most of the town's other boards, committees, and commissions.[24]

The day to day running of the town government is the responsibility of a town manager, appointed by the board of selectmen.[24]

Transportation[edit]

Reading is located close to the junction of Interstate 93 and Interstate 95/Massachusetts Route 128 to the north of Boston. I-93 provides a direct route south to central Boston and beyond via the Big Dig, whilst I-95/128 loops around Boston to the west, crosses Interstate 90/Massachusetts Turnpike, and then continues south before meeting up with I-93 again at Canton.

Reading is served by Reading station on the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority's Haverhill/Reading commuter rail line, which links the town to Boston's North Station. Plans existed during the 1970's, when this line of track was bought by the MBTA, to extend the Orange Line rapid transit service out as far as Reading. Although new stations were successfully constructed at Malden Center and Oak Grove station, residents just past Oak Grove complained and such plans were put on hold.[citation needed]

Education[edit]

Reading's public school system, managed by Reading Public Schools, comprises:[25]

Reading was an early and active participant in Boston's METCO program, which brought African American and inner-city students from Boston to attend grades K-12.[citation needed]

Austin Preparatory School, is a co-ed, independent school, in the Augustinian Catholic tradition, founded in 1962. It is located on 55 acres of land and has an enrollment of 700 students, providing instruction for students in grades 6–12.

Points of interest[edit]

Local media[edit]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (DP-1): Reading town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved April 6, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The Town of Reading – History". The Town of Reading. Retrieved 2007-11-07. 
  3. ^ Our History. First Parish Congregational Church. fpccwakefield.com
  4. ^ Parker, Theodore, John Parker of Lexington and his Descendants, Showing his Earlier Ancestry in America from Dea. Thomas Parker of Reading, Mass. from 1635 to 1893, pp. 15–16, 468–470, Press of Charles Hamilton, Worcester, MA, 1893.
  5. ^ About Wakefield. wakefield.ma.us
  6. ^ Cutter, William Richard, Historic Homes and Places and Genealogical and Personal Memoirs Relating to the Families of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, p. 1860, Lewis Historical Publishing Co., New York, NY, 1908.
  7. ^ Parker, Theodore, John Parker of Lexington and his Descendants, Showing his Earlier Ancestry in America from Dea. Thomas Parker of Reading, Mass. from 1635 to 1893, pp. 21–36, Press of Charles Hamilton, Worcester, MA, 1893.
  8. ^ Parker, Augustus G., Parker in America, 1630–1910, pp. 5, 27, 49, 53–54, 154, Niagara Frontier Publishing Co., Buffalo, NY, 1911.
  9. ^ A Brief History. wakefieldhistory.org
  10. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  11. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  12. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  13. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  14. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  15. ^ "1950 Census of Population". 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  18. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  21. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  22. ^ "Selected Economic Characteristics". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 11, 2013. 
  23. ^ "The Town of Reading – Voting Precincts". The Town of Reading. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  24. ^ a b "The Town of Reading – Board of Selectmen". The Town of Reading. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  25. ^ "Directory List". Reading Public Schools. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 
  26. ^ Missile Sites. Ed-thelen.org. Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  27. ^ Nike Sites of Boston: Reading B-03 CL. Ed-thelen.org (2000-05-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-21.
  28. ^ "Reading Chronicle". Woburn Chronicle. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  29. ^ "Reading Advocate". Gatehouse Media. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  30. ^ "Reading Community Television". Retrieved 2011-11-16. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]