Reactions to the September 11 attacks

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Reactions to the September 11 attacks included condemnation from world leaders, other political and religious representatives and the international media, as well as numerous memorials and services all over the world. The attacks were widely condemned by the governments of the world, including those traditionally considered hostile to the United States, such as Cuba, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. However, in a few cases celebrations of the attacks were also reported, and some groups and individuals accused the United States in effect of bringing the attacks on itself.[citation needed]

Many countries introduced anti-terrorism legislation[1] and froze the bank accounts[2] of businesses and individuals they suspected of having connections with al-Qaeda and its leader Osama bin Laden, the accused perpetrators of the attacks.

United States[edit]

In the immediate aftermath of the attacks, the Bush administration declared a war on terrorism, with the stated goals of bringing Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda to justice and preventing the emergence of other terrorist networks. These goals were to be accomplished by means including economic and military sanctions against states perceived as harboring terrorists and increasing global surveillance and intelligence sharing. Within hours after the September 11 attacks, Defense Secretary Rumsfeld speculated on possible involvement by Saddam Hussein and ordered his aides to make plans for striking Iraq;[3] although unfounded, the association contributed to public acceptance for the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The second-biggest operation of the US Global War on Terrorism outside of the United States, and the largest directly connected to terrorism, was the overthrow of the Taliban rule from Afghanistan, by a US-led coalition.

Muslim Americans[edit]

In a Joint Statement by the American Muslim Alliance, American Muslim Council, Association of Muslim Scientists and Engineers, Association of Muslim Social Scientists, Council on American-Islamic Relations, Islamic Medical Association of North America, Islamic Circle of North America, Islamic Society of North America, Ministry of Imam W. Deen Mohammed, Muslim American Society and Muslim Public Affairs Council, stated:[4]

American Muslims utterly condemn the vicious and cowardly acts of terrorism against innocent civilians. We join with all Americans in calling for the swift apprehension and punishment of the perpetrators. No political cause could ever be assisted by such immoral acts.

Controversial Christian Americans[edit]

Two days following the attacks, on the Christian television program The 700 Club, television evangelist Jerry Falwell called the event a punishment from God and laid the blame on "paganists", "abortionists", "feminists" and "gays and lesbians", claiming that they "helped this happen". Host Pat Robertson concurred with the statements. Both evangelists came under attack from President George W. Bush for their statements,[5] Falwell subsequently apologized.[6][7]

Western world[edit]

After the attacks many governments and organizations in the West expressed shock and sympathy, and were supportive of burgeoning efforts to combat terrorism. Among them:

A museum panel showing headlines on September 12 in America and around the world. Most of the images on the headlines are images of United Airlines Flight 175 hitting the South Tower.

United Nations[edit]

Then-Secretary General of the UN Kofi Annan, said: "We are all traumatized by this terrible tragedy."[8]

Islamic world[edit]

Almost all Muslim political and religious leaders condemned the attacks. The leaders vehemently denouncing the attacks included the leaders of Egypt (Hosni Mubarak), the Palestinian Authority (Yasser Arafat), Libya (Muammar Gaddafi), Syria (Bashar al-Assad), Iran (Mohamed Khatami) and Pakistan (Pervez Musharraf).[4][20] The sole exception was Iraq, when the then-president Saddam Hussein, said of the attacks that "the American cowboys are reaping the fruit of their crimes against humanity".[21] Saddam would later offer sympathy to the Americans killed in the attacks.[22]


Polls taken by Saudi-owned Al Arabiya and Gallup suggest some support for the September 11 attacks within the Islamic world, with 38% believing the attacks to be not justified, while 36% believing them to be justified.[29] A 2008 study, produced by Gallup, found different results with 7% of the sample of Muslims polled believing the 9/11 attacks were at least 'completely justified', while 23.1% believed them to be 'somewhat justified'.[30]

Palestinian celebrations[edit]

A group of Palestinians were filmed celebrating in the street in celebration of the attacks on the World Trade Center and the deaths of Americans. Fox News reported that in Ein el-Hilweh, Lebanon's largest Palestinian refugee camp, revelers fired weapons in the air, with similar celebratory gunfire heard at the Rashidiyeh camp near the southern city of Tyre as well.[25] The Palestinian National Authority (PNA) condemned the attacks and attempted to censure and discredit broadcasts and other news reports.[25] with many newspapers, magazines,websites and wire services running photographs.[31][32] The PNA claimed such celebrations were not representative of the sentiments of the Palestinian people, and the Information Minister Yasser Abed Rabbo said the PNA would not allow "a few kids" to "smear the real face of the Palestinians". In an attempt to quash further reporting, Ahmed Abdel Rahman, Arafat's Cabinet secretary, said the Palestinian Authority could not "guarantee the life" of an Associated Press (AP) cameraman if footage he filmed of post-9/11 celebrations in Nablus was broadcast. Rahman's statement prompted a formal protest from the AP bureau chief, Dan Perry.[33][32]

Annette Krüger Spitta of the ARD's (German public broadcasting) TV magazine Panorama states that footage not aired shows that the street surrounding the celebration in Jerusalem is quiet. Furthermore, she states that a man in a white T-shirt incited the children and gathered people together for the shot. The Panorama report, dated September 20, 2001, quotes Communications Professor Martin Löffelholz explaining that in the images one sees jubilant Palestinian children and several adults but there is no indication that their pleasure is related to the attack. The woman seen cheering (Nawal Abdel Fatah) stated afterwards that she was offered cake if she celebrated on camera, and was frightened when she saw the pictures on television afterward.[34]

There was also rumour that the footage of some Palestinians celebrating the attacks was stock footage of Palestinian reactions to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990.[35] This rumour was proven false shortly afterwards,[36] and CNN issued a statement to that effect.[37] A poll conducted by the Fafo Foundation in the Palestinian Authority in 2005 found that 65% of respondents supported the September 11 attacks.[38]

Rest of the world[edit]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Hamilton, Stuart (August 18–24, 2002). "September 11, the Internet, and the effects on information provision in Libraries" (PDF). 68th IFLA Council and Conference. Retrieved September 8, 2006. 
  2. ^ "G8 counter-terrorism cooperation since September 11 backgrounder". Site Internet du Sommet du G8 d'Evian. Retrieved September 14, 2006. 
  3. ^ "Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11". CBS News. September 4, 2002. Retrieved January 8, 2007. 
  4. ^ a b "CrescentLife – Muslim Reactions to September 11". Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  5. ^ David John Marley, Pat Robertson: an American life (2007) p 273
  6. ^ "Falwell apologizes to gays, feminists, lesbians". CNN. September 14, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  7. ^  . "Top Stories". NY1. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "NY Times – Reaction From Around the World". New York Times (New York City; Washington (Dc)). September 12, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  9. ^ Johnston, Tim (November 25, 2007). "Ally of Bush Is Defeated in Australia". The New York Times. p. 8. Retrieved May 6, 2008. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "We Are All Americans: The World's Response to 9/11". Mental Floss. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ "The mutilated world: 9/11 in Poland". openDemocracy. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ floss.com/article/28724/we-are-all-americans-worlds-response-911 http://mental floss.com/article/28724/we-are-all-americans-worlds-response-911.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ deTraci Regula (9/11/2001). "Greece Decries Attack On U.S.". Retrieved September 8, 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  14. ^ "World leaders united in condemnation – 12 Sep 2001 – NZ Herald: World / International News". The New Zealand Herald. September 12, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Pledge NZ forces says poll – 01 Oct 2001 – NZ Herald: New Zealand National news". The New Zealand Herald. October 1, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  16. ^ "Pacific – Security – NZ Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Mfat.govt.nz. November 12, 2010. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  17. ^ Graves, David (Sep 14, 2001) Palace breaks with tradition in musical tribute The Telegraph. Retrieved August 24, 2011
  18. ^ "Thousands mourn at UK cathedral". CNN. 14 September 2001. 
  19. ^ "Security Council Condemns, ‘In Strongest Terms’, Terrorist Attacks On United States". United Nations. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  20. ^ Webmanship. "International Reaction – The 09-11-2001 Attacks on the USA With Archived News, Images, Photos, & Newspapers from the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks on New York City & the Pentagon". September 11 News.com. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  21. ^ "Attacks draw mixed response in Mideast". CNN. September 12, 2001. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  22. ^ Whitaker, Brian (October 22, 2001). "Saddam Hussein offers sympathy in email to US". The Guardian (London). Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  23. ^ a b c d e f "We Are All Americans: The World's Response to 9/11". Mental Floss. Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  24. ^ Islam Online- News Section
  25. ^ a b c d "Arafat Horrified by Attacks, but Thousands of Palestinians Celebrate; Rest of World Outraged". Fox News. September 12, 2001. 
  26. ^ Corera, Gordon (September 25, 2006). "Iran's gulf of misunderstanding with US". BBC News. Retrieved May 22, 2010. 
  27. ^ Iran mourns America's dead Time Inc.
  28. ^ The Polisario Front National Secretariat's Bureau, meeting under the chairmanship of Mohamed Abdelaziz, head of state and secretary-general of the Polisario Front, condemned the criminal attacks against the World Trade Center and the Pentagon in the USA and, particularly, against defenceless innocent civilians. It expressed the Saharan people's solidarity with the people of the USA and their government.(Sahrawi national radio) ARSO, September 12, 2001
  29. ^ Arab polling, Al Arabiya
  30. ^ Just Like Us! Really?, Washington Institute for Near East Policy
  31. ^ "BBC: In pictures: Atrocities' aftermath". BBC News. September 12, 2001. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  32. ^ a b Donaldson, Catherine (September 13, 2001). "'Palestinian Officials Quash Pictures of Arab Celebrations' by Catherine Donaldson-Evans". Fox News. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  33. ^ Personal website at Tripod.com:
    'Attacks celebrated in West Bank' by The Times, UK
    'Palestinians in Lebanon Celebrate Anti-US Attacks' by Ain-al-Helweh, Lebanon (AFP)
    'Palestinians Celebrate Attacks with Gunfire' by Joseph Logan (Reuters)
    'AP protests threats to freelance cameraman who filmed Palestinian rally' (The Associated Press)
    'Foreign journalists 'deeply concerned' by PA harassment' (The Associated Press)
    'Palestinian Authority has muzzled coverage of Palestinian celebrations' (MIDDLE EAST NEWSLINE)
    'Israel to AP: Release film of Palestinian celebrations' (Jerusalem Post/The Associated Press)
    'Bin-Laden Poster Seen at Gaza Rally' (The Associated Press)
    .
  34. ^ 'Pictures, reports, embarrassment – the media and the disaster' by Annette Krüger Spitta for Panorama (ARD, Germany) (Babelfish translated), (Google translated), (source article)(German)[dead link]
  35. ^ 'The power of the TV-pictures, What is the truth?' by Lisa Erdmann (Der Spiegel) (Google Translated), (translation original)(source article)(German)
  36. ^ "'Claim: CNN used old footage to fake images. Status: False.'". Snopes.com. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  37. ^ CNN statement about false claim it used old video, CNN.
  38. ^ "Table 2.22(2) - Support to Al Qaeda's actions like bombings in USA and Europe". September 18, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2014. 
  39. ^ http://www.history.com/topics/reaction-to-9-11.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ "Indian Newspaper Highlights – Sept 12, 2001". AsiaPulse News. September 12, 2001. 
  41. ^ "DPRK stance towards terrorist attacks on U.S.". Korean Central News Agency. September 12, 2001. Retrieved November 7, 2010. 
  42. ^ "Politics". Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  43. ^ http://avalon.law.yale.edu/sept11/president_065.asp
  44. ^ "FATF sanctions to result in P34M daily losses for". Retrieved October 9, 2014. 
  45. ^ "Kenyan Masai donate cows to US". BBC News. 3 June 2002. 
  46. ^ "Congressman Schaffer Commends Ukraine for 9/11 Support". Retrieved October 9, 2014.