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At the start of World War II (1939), the United Kingdom imported 20 million long tons (20 Mt) of food per year (70%), including more than 50% of its meat, 70% of its cheese and sugar, nearly 80% of fruits and about 70% of cereals and fats. The population was between 46 million (46,038 thousand as measured in the 1931 census) and 52 million (53,225 thousand as measured in the 1951 census). It was one of the principal strategies of the Axis to attack shipping bound for the United Kingdom, restricting British industry and potentially starving the nation into submission.
To deal with sometimes extreme shortages, the Ministry of Food instituted a system of rationing. To buy most rationed items, each person had to register at chosen shops, and was provided with a ration book containing coupons. The shopkeeper was provided with enough food for registered customers. Purchasers had to take ration books with them when shopping, so the relevant coupon or coupons could be cancelled.
|This section requires expansion with: 1914-1919 war. (December 2009)|
During World War I, the United Kingdom declared a blockade of the North Sea, to which Germany responded by using its U-boats (submarines) to sink ships carrying military equipment or food to the United Kingdom, food becoming the more important as the war continued, especially after the declaration of unlimited U-boat warfare. In about two years, the United Kingdom had just six weeks' food left and, therefore, had to ration its food supplies. Rationing started at the end of 1917 with sugar and butter remaining on ration until 1920.
The government made preparations to ration food in 1925, in advance of an expected general strike and appointed Food Control Officers for each region. In the event, the Trades Unions of the London docks organized blockade by crowds, but convoys of lorries under military escort took the heart out of the strike, so that the measures did not have to be implemented.
After World War II started in September 1939 the first commodity to be controlled was petrol, but food rationing was introduced quite soon. On 8 January 1940, bacon, butter and sugar were rationed. This was followed by meat, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, lard, milk and canned and dried fruit. Strict rationing inevitably created a black market.
Almost all controlled items were rationed by weight, but meat, exceptionally, was rationed by price. (All prices need to be considered in the values of the time: the buying power of one shilling was much more than its equivalent (5p) in modern British currency.)
Fresh vegetables and fruit were not rationed but supplies were limited. Some types of imported fruit all but disappeared. Lemons and bananas became virtually unobtainable for most of the war; oranges continued to be sold but greengrocers customarily reserved them for children and pregnant women, who could prove their status by producing their distinctive ration books. Other domestically grown fruit such as apples still appeared from time to time, but again the sellers imposed their own restrictions so that customers were often not allowed to buy, for example, more than one apple each. Very many people grew their own vegetables: see digging for victory.
Bread was reduced in quality during the war but not formally controlled. An order was passed that bread must not be sold to a customer until the day after it was baked: the stated reasons were to reduce usage because (1) it is difficult to slice just-baked bread thinly; (2) the tastiness of just-baked bread is likely to encourage people to eat it immoderately.
In May 1942 an order was passed that meals served in hotels and restaurants must not cost over 5 shillings per customer, and must not be of more than three courses; at most one course could contain meat or fish or poultry (but not more than one of these).
Fish was not rationed but price increased considerably as the war progressed. The government initially allowed this, since it realised that fishermen would need to be able to collect a premium for their catch if they were at risk of enemy attack while at sea, but prices were controlled from 1941. However, like other non-rationed items fish was rarely freely available as supplies dropped to 30% of pre-war levels, and long queues built up at fishmongers and at fish and chip shops. The quality of wartime chips was often felt to be below standard, because of the low-quality fat available to fish fryers.
As the war progressed most basic foods were rationed, as were other commodities such as clothing.
Clothing was rationed on a points system. When it was introduced, on 1 June 1941, no clothing coupons had been issued, and at first the unused margarine coupons in ration books were valid for clothing. Initially the allowance was for approximately one new outfit per year; as the war progressed the points were reduced until buying a coat used almost a year's clothing coupons.
On 1 July 1942 the basic civilian petrol ration was abolished; this was announced on 13 March 1942. (See Ivor Novello#Second World War and last years for a British public figure sent to prison for 4 weeks for misusing petrol coupons.) After that, vehicle fuel was only available to "official" users, such as the emergency services, bus companies and farmers. The priority users of fuel were always, of course, the armed forces. Fuel supplied to approved users was dyed, and use of this fuel for non-essential purposes was an offence.
Certain foodstuffs that the 1940s British consumer would find unusual, for example whale meat and canned snoek fish from South Africa, were not rationed. However, despite this they did not prove popular.
Even though rationing formally ended in 1954, cheese production remained dramatically affected for decades afterward. During rationing, most milk in Britain was used to make just one kind of cheese, nicknamed "Government Cheddar" (not to be confused with the "government cheese" issued by the US welfare system). This wiped out nearly all other cheese production in the country, and some indigenous varieties of cheese almost disappeared. Later government controls on milk prices continued to discourage production of other varieties of cheese until well into the 1980s.
Restaurants were initially exempt from rationing, but this was resented, as the rich could supplement their food allowance by eating out frequently and extravagantly. So new rules were introduced: no meal could cost more than five shillings; no meal could have more than three courses; meat and fish could not be served at the same sitting. Establishments known as British Restaurants supplied another almost universal experience of eating away from home. British Restaurants were run by local authorities, who set them up in various premises such as schools and church halls. They evolved from the London County Council's Londoners' Meals Service which originated in September 1940 as a temporary emergency system for feeding those who had been bombed out. By mid-1941 the London County Council was operating 200 of these restaurants; from 1942 to 1944 there were around 2,000 of them. Here a three-course meal cost only 9d. Standards varied, but the best were greatly appreciated and had a large regular clientele. Similar schemes were run in other towns and cities.
The average standard rations during World War II are as follows. Quantities are per week unless otherwise stated.
|Item||Maximum level||Minimum level||Rations (April 1945)|
|Bacon and Ham||8 oz (227 g)||4 oz (113 g)||4 oz (113 g)|
|Sugar||16 oz (454 g)||8 oz (227 g)||8 oz (227 g)|
|Loose Tea||4 oz (113 g)||2 oz (57 g)||2 oz (57 g)|
|Meat||1 s. 2d.||1s||1s. 2d.|
|Cheese||8 oz (227 g)||1 oz (28 g)||2 oz (57 g) |
Vegetarians were allowed an extra 3 oz (85 g) cheese
|Preserves||1 lb (0.45 kg) per month|
2 lb (0.91 kg) marmalade
|8 oz (227 g) per month||2 lb (0.91 kg) marmalade|
or 1 lb (0.45 kg) preserve
or 1 lb (0.45 kg) sugar
|Butter||8 oz (227 g)||2 oz (57 g)||2 oz (57 g)|
|Margarine||12 oz (340 g)||4 oz (113 g)||4 oz (113 g)|
|Lard||3 oz (85 g)||2 oz (57 g)||2 oz (57 g)|
|Sweets||16 oz (454 g) per month||8 oz (227 g) per month||12 oz (340 g) per month|
Eggs were rationed and "allocated to ordinary consumers as available"; in 1944 thirty allocations of one egg each were made. Children and some invalids were allowed three a week; expectant mothers two on each allocation.
Milk was supplied at 3 imp pt (1.7 l) each week for priority to expectant mothers and children under 5; 3.5 imp pt (2.0 l) for those under 18; children unable to attend school 5 imp pt (2.8 l), certain invalids up to 14 imp pt (8.0 l). Each consumer got one tin of milk powder (equivalent to 8 imperial pints or 4.5 litres) every 8 weeks.
Clothes rationing ended on 15 March 1949.
No points were required for second-hand clothing or fur coats, but their prices were fixed. Before rationing lace and frills were popular on knickers but these were soon banned so that material could be saved. From March to May 1942 austerity measures were introduced which restricted the number of buttons, pockets and pleats (among other things) on clothes.
All types of soap were rationed. Coupons were allotted by weight or (if liquid) by quantity. In 1945, the ration gave four coupons each month; babies and some workers and invalids were allowed more. A coupon would yield:
The Fuel and Lighting (Coal) Order 1941 came into force in January 1942. Central heating was prohibited "in the summer months".
Domestic coal was rationed to 15 long hundredweights (1,700 lb; 760 kg) for those in London and the south of England; 20 long hundredweights (2,200 lb; 1,000 kg) for the rest (the southern part of England having generally a milder climate). Some kinds of coal such as anthracite were not rationed, and in the coal-mining areas were eagerly gathered as they were in the Great Depression (see Road to Wigan Pier).
Newspapers were limited from September 1939, at first to 60% of their pre-war consumption of newsprint. Paper supply came under the No 48 Paper Control Order, September 4, 1942 and was controlled by the Ministry of Production. By 1945 newspapers were limited to 25% of their pre-war consumption. Wrapping paper for most goods was prohibited.
The paper shortage often made it more difficult than usual for authors to get work published. In 1944, George Orwell wrote:
In Mr Stanley Unwin's recent pamphlet Publishing in Peace and War, some interesting facts are given about the quantities of paper allotted by the Government for various purposes. Here are the present figures:-
Newspapers 250,000 tons H. M. Stationery Office 200,000 " Periodicals (nearly) 50,000 " Books 22,000 "
A particularly interesting detail is that out of the 100,000 tons allotted to the Stationery Office, the War Office gets no less than 25,000 tons, or more than the whole of the book trade put together. [...] At the same time paper for books is so short that even the most hackneyed "classic" is liable to be out of print, many schools are short of textbooks, new writers get no chance to start and even established writers have to expect a gap of a year or two years between finishing a book and seeing it published.
Whether rationed or not, many consumer goods became difficult to obtain because of shortages of components. Examples included razor blades, baby bottles, alarm clocks, and frying pans and saucepots. Balloons and sugar for cakes for birthday parties were partially or completely unavailable. Many fathers saved bits of wood to build toys for Christmas presents,:112-113 and Christmas trees were almost impossible to obtain due to timber rationing.
Food rationing in World War II improved the health of British people; infant mortality declined and life expectancy rose, discounting deaths caused by hostilities. This was because it ensured that everyone had access to a varied diet with enough vitamins.