In domestic football, Rangers have won more league titles and trebles than any other club in the world, winning the league title 54 times, the Scottish Cup 33 times and the Scottish League Cup 27 times, and achieving the treble of all three in the same season seven times. In European football, Rangers was the first British club to reach a UEFA tournament final. It won the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 after being runner-up twice in 1961 and 1967. A third runners-up finish in Europe came in the 2008 UEFA Cup.
Rangers have a long-standing rivalry with Celtic, the two Glasgow clubs being collectively known as the Old Firm since the late 19th century.
The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers, by then playing at the first Ibrox Stadium, were one of ten original members. The club's first-ever league match, on 16 August 1890, resulted in a 5–2 victory over Heart of Midlothian. After finishing joint-top with Dumbarton, a play-off held at Cathkin Park finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history. Rangers' first-ever Scottish Cup win came in 1894 after a 3–1 final victory over rivals Celtic. By the start of the 20th century, Rangers had won two league titles and three Scottish Cups.
Bill Struth and Scot Symon
Taking over as manager from William Wilton in 1920, Bill Struth was Rangers' most successful manager, guiding the club to 14 league titles before the onset of the Second World War. On 2 January 1939 a British league attendance record was broken as 118,567 fans turned out to watch Rangers beat Celtic in the traditional New Year's Day Old Firm match. Leading the club for 34 years until 1954, Struth won more trophies than any manager in Scottish Football history, amassing 18 league championships, 10 Scottish Cups, 2 League Cups, 7 war-time championships, 19 Glasgow Cups, 17 Glasgow Merchant Charity Cups and other war-time honours. During the wartime regional league setup, Rangers achieved their highest score against old firm rivals Celtic with an 8–1 win in the Southern Football League.
Scot Symon continued Struth's success, winning six league championships, five Scottish Cups and four League Cups, becoming the second manager to win the domestic treble in 1963–64 season, the era of 'Slim' Jim Baxter, one of the club's greatest players. Rangers also lost by their biggest Old Firm margin of 7–1.
Rangers reached the semi-finals of the European Cup in 1960, losing to German club Eintracht Frankfurt by a record aggregate 12–4 for a Scottish team. In 1961 Rangers became the first British team to reach a European final when they contested the Cup Winners' Cup final against Italian side Fiorentina, only to lose 4–1 on aggregate. Rangers lost again in the final of the same competition in 1967, by a single goal after extra time to Bayern Munich.
Ibrox disaster, European success and Jock Wallace
The Ibrox Disaster memorial statue, commemorating the 1971 tragedy along with previous disasters
The Ibrox disaster occurred on 2 January 1971 when large-scale crushing on a stairway exit at the culmination of the New Year's Day Old Firm game claimed 66 lives. An enquiry concluded that the crush was likely to have happened ten minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs. A benefit match to raise funds for the victims' families took place after the disaster, a joint Rangers and Celtic team playing a Scotland XI at Hampden, watched by 81,405 fans.
In 1972, Rangers emerged from the tragedy of the previous year to finally achieve success on the European stage. A Colin Stein goal and a Willie Johnston double helped secure a 3–2 victory over FC Dynamo Moscow at the Nou Camp, Barcelona, to lift the European Cup Winners' Cup. Captain John Greig received the trophy in a small room within the Nou Camp following pitch invasions and rioting by Rangers fans. Rangers were banned from Europe for two years for the behaviour of their fans, later reduced on appeal to a year.
Emerging from the shadows of Jock Stein's Celtic side, Rangers regained ascendancy with notable domestic success under the stewardship of manager Jock Wallace. In his first season in charge – the club's centenary – Rangers won the Scottish Cup at Hampden in front of 122,714 supporters. In 1974–75, Wallace led Rangers to their first League championship triumph in eleven years, before winning the treble the following season, repeating the historic feat in 1977–78.
Notable seasons included 1990–91, which culminated in a final-day finale, Rangers securing a 2–0 victory at Ibrox over Aberdeen, who needed only a draw to secure the championship. Season 1992–93 was notable for a domestic treble of trophies, as well an extended run in the inaugural UEFA Champions League, the club at one stage only one goal from securing a place in the final.
In 1998, Dutchman Dick Advocaat became the club's first foreign manager. Nine-in-a-row era stalwarts having moved on, Advocaat invested heavily in the team with immediate results, leading the club to their sixth domestic treble. The league championship was won with a 3–0 victory at Celtic Park on 2 May 1999. A second-consecutive league title was won by a record 21-point margin, the club securing a domestic double with a 4–0 Scottish Cup final victory over Aberdeen. Rangers' campaign in the Champions League saw them defeat UEFA Cup winners Parma en route.
Chart of historic table positions of Rangers in the League.
Advocaat's third season saw Rangers fail to compete domestically against Celtic under new manager Martin O’Neill. Despite investment in the team, including Tore Andre Flo for a club-record £12 million, European success beyond the Champions League group stages again proved elusive. After a slow start to the following season, Advocaat resigned from his post in December 2001 and was replaced by Alex McLeish.
In his first full campaign, the 2002–03 season saw McLeish become the sixth Rangers manager to deliver a domestic treble. The championship was won on goal difference during a dramatic final day 6–1 triumph over Dunfermline Athletic at Ibrox, securing Rangers' 50th league title, the first club in the world to achieve the feat. Major expenditure sanctioned by chairmanDavid Murray had burdened Rangers with considerable debts in the region of £52m. The club's worsening financial state saw many of the team's top players leave in the summer of 2003, the following season failing to deliver any trophies, only the second such occasion since 1985–86.
Despite beginning as favourites to retain the championship, Rangers suffered an unprecedented run of poor results between September and November, a club-record run of ten games without a win. Included within this period, a 1–1 draw with Inter Milan took Rangers into the last 16 of the Champions League, the first Scottish team to achieve the feat since 1993, the club eventually exiting on the away goals rule to Villarreal. On 9 February 2006, it was announced by David Murray that McLeish would be standing down as manager at the end of that season.
Paul Le Guen and Walter Smith's return
Card display at Ibrox to welcome Paul Le Guen
Frenchman Paul Le Guen replaced Alex McLeish as manager after season 2005–06. The season started with an early exit from the League Cup whilst Celtic built a commanding lead at the top of the table. In the UEFA Cup, Rangers became the first Scottish side to qualify for the last 32 of the competition, since the introduction of the group phase, after finishing their group unbeaten. However, amid claims of disharmony between the manager and captain Barry Ferguson, it was announced on 4 January 2007 that Le Guen had left Rangers by mutual consent. On 10 January 2007, former boss Walter Smithresigned from his post as Scotland manager to return to the Ibrox helm, with Ally McCoist as assistant manager.
The 2008 UEFA Cup Final in Manchester which Rangers contested.
The 2008–09 season saw Rangers recover from an early exit from the UEFA Champions League to FBK Kaunas of Lithuania. The club secured its 52nd league championship on the last day of the season with a 3–0 victory at Dundee United. Rangers also successfully defended the Scottish Cup, a 33rd competition triumph, defeating Falkirk 1–0 in the final.
The 2009–10 season saw Rangers reach their fifth consecutive domestic final: against St. Mirren in the Scottish League Cup, the club overcame a two-men deficit from red cards, a late deciding goal from Kenny Miller securing a record 27th victory in the competition. The league championship title was retained, with three matches remaining, at Easter Road, defeating Hibernian 1–0 with a Kyle Lafferty goal. The 2010–11 season, Smith's final season in charge, saw Rangers retain the League Cup, defeating Celtic at Hampden with a Nikica Jelavić goal in extra time. A third consecutive title was won by beating Kilmarnock 5–1 on the last day of the season, Smith's final match in charge of the club.
Ally McCoist and insolvency
Ally McCoist took over from Walter Smith in June 2011 but season 2011–12 started with Rangers eliminated from two European competitions before the end of August: losing 2–1 on aggregate to Swedish side Malmö FF in the Champions League third round qualifying match, and then losing 3–2 on aggregate in the Europa League qualifying match against Slovenian side Maribor. While good league form saw Rangers in top spot after being unbeaten for the first 15 games, they were knocked out of the League Cup by Falkirk and the Scottish Cup by Dundee Utd at Ibrox. Rangers was placed into administration on 14 February 2012 as a result of financial problems and a dispute with HMRC, resulting in the club being deducted 10 points as per SPL rules. Rangers' first game in administration was played in front of a sell-out crowd at Ibrox though they lost 1–0 to Kilmarnock, and poor form continued with defeats by Hearts and Dundee United.
Though Rangers avoided Celtic winning the championship at Ibrox on 25 March by winning the game 3–2, Rangers ultimately finished behind Celtic in second place.
A failure to reach agreement with creditors on 14 June 2012 led to The Rangers Football Club Plc (since renamed RFC 2012 Plc) entering the process of liquidation. A new company, Sevco Scotland Ltd, then purchased the business, assets and history of The Rangers Football Club PLC, which then applied unsuccessfully for membership of the Scottish Premier League. An application for membership of the Scottish Football League was accepted, however, with Rangers being awarded associate membership and placed in the lowest division, the Third, rather than the First Division as SPL and SFA had sought. Sevco Scotland Ltd then applied for the transfer of Rangers' SFA membership which was agreed by the SFA upon acceptance of a number of conditions (including a one-year transfer ban taking effect from the end of that summer's transfer window), allowing Rangers to relaunch in time for the start of the 2012–13 season. On 31 July 2012, shareholders of Sevco Scotland Ltd voted to change the company name to The Rangers Football Club Ltd.
Unusually for a football club, Rangers have two different official crests. Today the original scroll crest appears on the club's strips whereas the lion rampant club crest is used by the media, on club merchandise and on official club documents. Both crests have undergone minor variations since their introduction. It is believed that the scroll crest, representing the letters RFC overlapping, has been used since the club's formation in 1872, although the oldest remaining piece of memorabilia containing this crest is from the 1881–82 season. The scroll crest was replaced in 1959 with the lion rampant club crest which featured a lion rampant, an old-style football and the club's motto Ready, which was shortened from Aye Ready (meaning Always Ready in Scots), all surrounded by the team name, Rangers Football Club. The lion rampant club crest was modernised in 1968; the lion rampant, team name, club motto and old style football all remained. It was again updated ever so slightly in the early 1990s to the current version. The modern circular crest is regularly used on club merchandise and by the media; it has never featured prominently on the club strip. Since 1968 Rangers have had two crests, the scroll crest made a return appearing on the chest of the club shirt for the first time while the modernised club crest was still the club's official logo. The scroll crest first appeared on the teams shorts for the start of the 1978–79 season.
The way the scroll crest has appeared on the club shirt has varied slightly through the years. Between 1990 and 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto appeared above and below the Crest respectively. Between 1997 and 1999 the scroll crest featured within a shield. After a successful end to the season in 2003, which delivered Rangers a Domestic Treble and their 50th league title; five stars were added to the top of the scroll crest, one for every ten titles won by the club. The team wore a special crest on 8 December 2012 in a home league match against Stirling Albion, to commemorate the 140th anniversary of their formation. '1872–2012' appeared above the scroll crest with the words '140 years' featuring below.
Lion rampant club crest 1959–1968. Never appeared on the shirt.
Lion rampant club crest 1968–1991. Never appeared on the shirt.
Scroll crest. Appeared on the chest of the Rangers shirt since 1968.
Scroll crest with 5 stars. Worn on the Rangers shirt since 2003.
The club colours of Rangers F.C. are royal blue, white and red. However, for the majority of the first forty-eight years of Rangers existence the club played in a plain lighter blue home shirt. The only deviation from this was a four season period from 1879 when the side wore the lighter shade of blue and white in a hooped style. Traditionally this is accompanied by white shorts (often with royal blue and/or red trim) and black socks with red turn-downs. Rangers moved from the lighter shade of blue to royal blue in 1921, and have had a royal blue home shirt every year since. Black socks were first included in 1883 for five seasons before disappearing for eight years but became a more permanent fixture from 1896 onwards. When the red turn-downs were added to the socks in 1904, the strip began to look more like the modern day Rangers home kit. Occasionally the home kit will be altered by the shorts and socks, sometimes replacing the black socks with white ones; or replacing the white shorts and black socks combination with royal blue shorts and socks.
The basic design of Rangers away strips has changed far more than the traditional home strip. Rangers original change strip, used between 1876 and 1879, was all white featuring blue and white hooped socks and a light blue six pointed star on the chest. White and red have been the most common colours for Rangers alternate strips, though dark and light blue have also featured highly. In 1994 Rangers introduced a third kit. This is usually worn if both the home and away kits clash with their opponents. The colours used in the third kits have included combinations of white, red, dark and light blue as well as black.
The club used a variety of grounds in Glasgow as a venue for home matches in the years between 1872 and 1899. The first was Flesher's Haugh, situated on Glasgow Green, followed by Burnbank in the Kelvinbridge area of the city, and then Kinning Park for ten years from the mid-1870s to the mid-1880s. From February of the 1886–87 season, Cathkin Park was used until the first Ibrox Park, in the Ibrox area of south-west Glasgow, was inaugurated for the following season. Ibrox Stadium in its current incarnation was originally designed by the architect Archibald Leitch, a Rangers fan who also played a part in the design of, among others, Old Trafford in Manchester and Highbury in London. The stadium was inaugurated on 30 December 1899, and Rangers defeated Hearts 3–1 in the first match held there.
A panorama of Ibrox Stadium from the Broomloan Road End. This picture was taken during the first match of the 2011/12 SPL season, Rangers vs Heart of Midlothian.
Rangers' training facility is located in Auchenhowie, Glasgow. The facility is known as Murray Park after former chairman and owner Sir David Murray. It was proposed by then-manager Dick Advocaat upon his arrival at the club in 1998. It was completed in 2001 at a cost of £14 million. Murray Park was the first purpose-built facility of its kind in Scotland, and incorporates features including nine football pitches, a state of the art gym, a hydrotherapy pool, and a video-editing suite. Rangers' youth teams are also accommodated at Murray Park, with around 140 players between under-10 and under-19 age groups using the training centre. Various first-team players have come through the ranks at Murray Park, including Alan Hutton, Chris Burke, Stevie Smith, John Fleck and Charlie Adam. International club teams playing in Scotland, as well as national sides, have previously used Murray Park for training, and Advocaat's South Korea team used it for training prior to the 2006 World Cup.
Rangers FC are one of the best supported clubs in Europe, with an average attendance that is consistently one of the highest on the continent, the figure for the 2012–13 season being the 17th largest home league attendance. The club's website lists over 150 supporters' clubs in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, with 95 further clubs spread across over 20 countries around the world. Rangers fans have contributed to several records for high attendances, including the highest home attendance for a league fixture, 118,567 on 2 January 1939. Rangers record highest attendance was against Hibernian on 27 March 1948 in the Scottish Cup semi-final at Hampden Park. Rangers beat Hibernian 1–0 in front of a packed 143,570 crowd.
A panorama of Rangers supporters at the 2008 UEFA Cup final, in the Piccadilly Gardens fan zone. This picture was taken during the day before the match against Zenit Saint Petersburg on 14 May 2008.
The club's most distinct rivalry is with Glasgow neighbours Celtic F.C.; the two clubs are collectively known as the Old Firm, though they are not currently playing in the same league. Rangers' traditional support is largely drawn from the ProtestantUnionist community, whilst Celtic's traditional support is largely drawn from the Catholic community. The first Old Firm match was won by Celtic and there have been nearly four hundred matches played to date. The Old Firm rivalry has fuelled many assaults, sometimes leading to deaths, on Old Firm derby days; an activist group that monitors sectarian activity in Glasgow has reported that on Old Firm weekends, admissions to hospital emergency rooms have increased over normal levels and journalist Franklin Foer noted that in the period from 1996 to 2003, eight deaths in Glasgow were directly linked to Old Firm matches, as well as hundreds of assaults.
The bitter rivalry with Aberdeen developed following an incident in the 1979 League Cup final when Rangers' Derek Johnstone provoked the fury of the Dons support with what they believed was a blatant dive but which resulted in the dismissal of Aberdeen's Doug Rougvie and a Rangers victory. Then, the following season, Aberdeen's John McMaster had to be given the kiss of life at Ibrox after a vicious stamp on his throat. Relations between fans were further soured during a league match on 8 October 1988, when Aberdeen player Neil Simpson's tackle on Rangers' Ian Durrant resulted in Durrant being injured for two years. Resentment continued and in 1998 an article in Rangers match programme branded Aberdeen fans "scum", although Rangers later issued a "full and unreserved apology" to Aberdeen and their supporters, which was accepted by Aberdeen. Fixtures have been described as "even more of a powderkeg than Old Firm games".
Rangers' relaunch in the Third Division in season 2012/13 led to the club's original rivalry with Queen's Park being renewed for the first time since 1958 in the league. Rangers and Queen's Park first played each other in March 1879 some nine years before the start of the Old Firm rivalry. Matches with Queen's Park were advertised as the "Original Glasgow Derby" by Rangers and the Scottish media; and as the "Oldest Derby in the World" by Queen's Park.
Sectarian chanting by supporters incurs criticism and sanctions upon the club as well as convictions against individuals identified. In 1999, the vice chairman of The Rangers Football Club Ltd, Donald Findlay, resigned after being filmed singing sectarian songs during a supporters club event. UEFA's Control and Disciplinary Body has punished Rangers for incidents during European ties, most notably Villarreal in 2006,Osasuna in 2007, and PSV Eindhoven in 2011. In 2013, allegations were made that members of the armed forces were involved in sectarian singing at Ibrox at a weekend set up by the club to celebrate the British armed forces.
During the 19th century, many immigrants came to Glasgow from Ireland – this was a time of considerable anti-Catholic and anti-Irish sentiment in Scotland. The early success of Celtic, a club associated with the Irish and Catholic community, has been described as sharpening Rangers' Protestant Unionist identity, contributing to the eventual absence of openly Catholic players from the team. From the early 20th century onwards, Catholics were not knowingly signed by the club, nor employed in other prominent roles as an 'unwritten rule'.
In 1989, Rangers signed Maurice "Mo" Johnston, "their first major Roman Catholic signing". Johnston was the highest-profile Catholic to sign for the club since the World War I era, though other Catholics had signed for Rangers before. Since Johnston's signing, an influx of overseas footballers has contributed to Catholic players becoming common place at Rangers. In 1999 Lorenzo Amoruso became the first Catholic captain of the club.
Rangers partnered with Celtic to form the 'Old Firm Alliance', an initiative aimed at educating children from across Glasgow about issues like healthy eating and fitness, as well as awareness of anti-social behaviour, sectarianism and racism. The club's 'Follow With Pride' campaign was launched in 2007 to improve the club's image and build on previous anti-racist, anti-sectarian campaigns.[n 2]William Gaillard, UEFA's Director of Communications, commended the SFA and Scottish clubs, including Rangers, for their actions in fighting discrimination. In September 2007, UEFA praised Rangers for the measures the club has taken against sectarianism.
Incorporation to limited company and then to a PLC
Rangers Football Club incorporated on 27 May 1899, forming The Rangers Football Club Ltd. It continued in this form until, in 2000, David Murray decided to list the company on the stock exchange, making it a public limited company. The name of the company was therefore changed to The Rangers Football Club Plc.
Craig Whyte and administration
On 6 May 2011, Craig Whyte bought David Murray's shares for £1. On 13 February 2012. Whyte filed legal papers at the Court of Session giving notice of their intention to appoint administrators. The next day, The Rangers Football Club Plc – which was subsequently renamed RFC 2012 Plc – entered administration over non-payment of £9 million in PAYE and VAT taxes to HM Revenue and Customs. In April the administrators estimated that the club's total debts could top £134m which was largely dependent on the outcome of a First Tier Tax Tribunal concerning a disputed tax bill in relation to an EBT scheme employed by the club since 2001. However, on 20 November 2012, the Tribunal ruled in favour of Rangers. If that decision is upheld the tax bill could be significantly reduced from an estimated £74m to under £2m. On 4 February 2013, HMRC lodged an appeal of the FFT decision and a further hearing will be carried out by a Second Tier Tribunal.
Charles Green agreed a deal with the administrators of The Rangers Football Club Plc to purchase the club for £8.5 million if a proposed CVA was agreed or to purchase its business and assets for a £5.5million if the proposed CVA were to be rejected. On 14 June 2012, the formal rejection of the proposed CVA meant that the old company would enter the liquidation process. The accountancy firm BDO were appointed to reveal why the company running the club failed.
Hours after the CVA's rejection, Charles Green completed the purchase of the business and assets, including Rangers FC, of the old company through the company Sevco Scotland Ltd. The new company acquired Ibrox Stadium and Murray Park along with various other assets including intellectual property, goodwill and various contracts. Sevco Scotland Ltd subsequently changed its name to 'The Rangers Football Club Ltd' at the end of July 2012.
As a result of Rangers' "assets, business and history" being sold to a new company when The Rangers Football Club Plc (subsequently renamed as RFC 2012 Plc) entered the liquidation process, the extent to which Rangers can be regarded as a continuation of the club officially founded in 1872 has been interpreted differently. Rangers Football Club has been described by some in the mainstream media as a "new club", whilst the then Chief Executive, Charles Green, maintained "this is still Rangers". Though the SPL chairman Neil Doncaster said "it is an existing club, even though it's a new company", SFA chief executive Stewart Regan has described Rangers as having moved from being "a club in administration trying to do a company voluntary arrangement, to a club facing liquidation and becoming a newco."
The new company formally applied to acquire the SPL share of The Rangers Football Club Plc on 18 June 2012 but on 4 July, voted by 10–1 to reject the application. Kilmarnock abstained and the old Rangers company voted in favour. Thereafter, an application to the Scottish Football League was successful with Rangers securing associate membership on 13 July 2012 at an SFL meeting by a vote of 29–1. On the same day a place in the fourth tier of Scottish Football, Scottish Third Division for the 2012–13 season, rather than the Scottish First Division from the two options presented to the SFL member clubs with 25 of the 30 clubs voting that the club should be placed in Division Three.
An application was made for a transfer of SFA membership on 29 June 2012, with the new company applying for the transfer of the membership of The Rangers Football Club Plc. Agreement was reached on the transfer with the new company accepting a number of conditions relating to the old company.
At the end of 2012, Rangers International Football Club Plc became the holding company for the group, having acquired The Rangers Football Club Ltd on the basis of a one for one share exchange.
Rangers Charity Foundation
The Rangers Charity Foundation was created in 2002 and participates in a wide range of charitable work, regularly involving Rangers staff and star players. The foundation also has partnerships with UNICEF, The Prostate Cancer Charity and Erskine, and is responsible for over £2.3 million in donations. As well as fundraising, the Rangers Charity Foundation regularly bring sick, disabled and disadvantaged children to attend matches and tours at Ibrox, with the chance to meet the players.
Only 13 men have been manager of Rangers during their 142-year history. The longest serving manager is Bill Struth who served for 34 years and 26 days. Rangers have had two foreign managers during their history; Dick Advocaat (1 June 1998 to 12 December 2001) and Paul Le Guen (9 May 2006 to 4 January 2007) who is the manager with the shortest time at the club. Graeme Souness is the only player-manager during Rangers' history.
The most successful manager in terms of the number of trophies won is Bill Struth with 18 League titles, 10 Scottish Cups and 2 League Cups, but the most successful manager in terms of trophies to time served is Walter Smith with 7 League titles, 3 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 7 years 42 days. During Smiths second spell which was he managed during financial constraints he won 3 League titles, 2 Scottish Cups and 3 League Cups in 4 years 126 days. Rangers' other manager with notable success was William Waddell who won the European Cup Winner's Cup during his 2 years and 175 day stint. Ally McCoist is the present manager of Rangers F.C.
The following team was voted the greatest ever Rangers team by supporters in 1999. When the vote was launched it was feared that younger voters would ignore the great service of many of the pre-war stars (notably the most successful captain and most successful manager the club has ever had, Davie Meiklejohn and Bill Struth respectively). When the ballot was launched Donald Findlay stated it would be limited to post Second World War players because "few can recall players of these earlier eras":
^ ab"The on-field history of Rangers Football Club 1873–2012". BBC News (BBC). 14 February 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "The club's origins date back to 1872 when Peter McNeil, his brother Moses, Peter Campbell and William McBeath formed their own team in Glasgow. The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club and the first game, against Callander FC, ended 0–0. The club's official beginning came to be recognised as 1873, when the first annual general meeting was held. By the time of the first Scottish Football League season in 1890, Rangers had arrived at their current home of Ibrox, in the south east of Glasgow, via Burnbank and Kinning Park. Rangers finished joint top of the league with Dumbarton, and after a play-off ended 2–2, a decision was taken to share the title. This was the only time the league has ever been shared, and it marked the first senior honour for Rangers. Rangers won the Scottish Cup for the first time in 1894, beating Celtic 3–1 Three years later, the club recorded their first ever Scottish Cup win, beating Celtic 3–1 in the 1894 final. Rangers won the trophy again in 1897 and 1898 with victories over Dumbarton and Kilmarnock."
^ ab"Rangers History". Evening Times. Newsquest. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013. "Rangers were born in March 1872, after a group of teenage rowing enthusiasts watched a game of football in Glasgow Green. Brothers Peter and Moses McNeil and Peter Campbell and William McBeath got their heads together to give rise to the club, who played just two matches in their first year. It’s believed that Moses McNeil suggested the name ‘Rangers’ after seeing it in a book about English rugby. The club played their first game in May 1972 at Flecher’s Haugh in Glasgow Green against Callander, a match that ended in a 0–0 draw. The year 1873 is the official founding of Rangers as that was the year the elected office bearers. The first time the club donned blue shirts was their second game, against Clyde (not the present-day club) and won it 11–0. Five years after their founding, Rangers made it to their first major cup final against Vale of Leven. The game was played at First Hampden Park and it finished 1–1 so a replay beckoned. Rangers refused to turn up for the replay and Vale were awarded the cup. The teams met the following year in the Charity Cup. Rangers won 2–1 and the Glasgow Merchants’ Charity Cup was the first major trophy to be won by the team. The 1890–91 season saw the inception of the Scottish Football League, and Rangers were one of ten original members. Rangers' first ever league match took place on 16 August 1890 and resulted in a 5–2 victory over Hearts. After finishing equal-top with Dumbarton a play-off was held at Cathkin Park to decide the champions. The match finished 2–2 and the title was shared for the only time in its history – the first of Rangers' 54 championships."
^"Summer Soccer & Football Camps train with the best teams in world football". football-soccer-camps.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "After joining, Rangers finally reached their first final of the Scottish Cup in 1877 but were not victorious. The eternal rivalry, known as the Old Firm, between the two Glaswegian city teams, Rangers and Celtic has been ongoing since the first Old Firm match in 1888, in which Rangers lost 5–2 in a friendly against the Celtic team which was largely made up of “guest players” from Hibernians."
^"The Founding of Celtic Football Club 1888". BBC. November 2005. Archived from the original on 3 January 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2013. "It would be over six months later before the newly-constituted Celtic club played its first ever match, on 28 May 1888 which resulted in a 5–2 win over Rangers, in what was called a 'friendly match'."
^"The Founding Fathers". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "All those championships and cups would never have found their way into the Ibrox Trophy Room but for that encounter between Peter McNeil, his brother Moses, Peter Campbell and William McBeath. Their first match was an unlikely affair against Callander FC at Flesher's Haugh on Glasgow Green. ... The result was 0–0, but that didn't matter. Rangers had been born. The name Rangers was adopted from an English rugby club. By their second fixture – the only other they played that first year – they had donned the light blue. It must have done the trick – Rangers beat Clyde 11–0. By 1876 Rangers had their first international, Moses McNeil one of the four founders, who made his Scotland debut in a 4–0 victory over Wales. The following year Rangers made the breakthrough reaching their first Scottish Cup Final. It took three matches to find a winner, and sadly it was their opponents Vale of Leven. After two drawn games, 0–0 and 1–1, Rangers finally succumbed 3–2 in the second replay."
^ abcdefg"Rangers". scottishfootballleague.com. Scottish Football League. August 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
^ ab"Rangers FC". UEFA.com. UEFA. 30 December 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. "Founded by brothers Moses and Peter McNeil, Peter Campbell and William McBeath, Rangers shared their first championship with Dumbarton FC in 1890/91 then beat Celtic FC 3–1 to win their first Scottish Cup in 1894, clinching their first title outright by winning every game of the 1898/99 campaign. William Struth's 34 years as manager from 1920 onwards ushered in the club's first golden era; Rangers won 18 league championships, ten Scottish Cups and two Scottish League Cups under Struth, including Scotland's first domestic treble in the 1948/49 season. In 1961, Rangers became the first British club to reach the final of a UEFA competition when they got to the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup final only to lose 4–1 on aggregate to ACF Fiorentina; they lost 1–0 to FC Bayern München in the final of the same competition six years later before finally lifting the trophy in 1972 when beating FC Dinamo Moskva 3–2 at the Camp Nou."
^"The Dominant Force". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. "Sadly, Wilton was not to enjoy this extraordinary success which saw Rangers take the title 15 times in 21 seasons. With the Championship back at Ibrox, Wilton – the club's first manager – died the day after the last game of the season in May 1920, drowning in a boating accident. Struth, who was appointed his successor, lived to become a legend. He managed the club for 34 years, winning a glittering array of trophies – 18 League Championships, 10 Scottish Cups and two League Cups."
^ abMurray, Scott (30 December 2011). "The Joy of Six: new year football fixtures". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 6 January 2013. "The humiliated Rangers boss that day was Scot Symon, so it is with a pleasing symmetry that Symon was a player in the other record victory in an Old Firm match. Because while Celtic's 7–1 win is the biggest win in official competition, Rangers went one better in an unofficial wartime Scottish Southern League ne'erday game between the two rivals in 1943. An Ibrox crowd of just over 30,000 watched a strong Rangers side including Symon, George Young and the legendary winger Willie Waddell rattle up an 8–1 victory."
^"About Scot Symon". in.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "He returned to Rangers just one year later where he would steer them to six league championships. He also took Rangers into European football for the first time reaching two Cup Winners Cup finals which was a fine achievement by losing in both finals"
^Stone, Colin (5 January 2012). "Top 10 Glasgow Rangers Players of All Time". Bleacher Report. pp. 2–11. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. "Regarded as one of Scotland's greatest ever players, Jim Baxter can also be counted amongst the Rangers' greats for his terrific achievements in the '60s. "Slim Jim" joined the club in 1960 for £17,500, a record at the time, and went on to win 10 trophies in the five years he spent in Scotland."
^Womersley, Tara (19 June 2001). "Thousands pay tribute to victims of Ibrox disaster". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. "David Murray, the chairman of Rangers, yesterday unveiled a bronze statue of John Greig, the captain who led his team against Celtic on the day of the accident. The statue lists the names of those who died in 1971 and 25 fans killed when wooden terraces collapsed during a match between Scotland and England in 1902. Mr Greig then laid a wreath at the plinth of the statue. ... An inquiry, however, later discounted the theory and said that the crush was likely to have happened 10 minutes after the final whistle and to have been triggered by someone falling on the stairs."
^"Destiny awaits Ibrox heroes". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 10 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2009. "It is hard to take that after Celtic were able to celebrate as much as they liked in Lisbon, our club and supporters were denied a post-match presentation because the Spanish police completely misunderstood the fans' on-field invasion at the end. I played with a stress fracture in my foot. A guy jumped on it late in the final and I ended up with another fracture on the other side, but the euphoria kept the pain away until I was called down to this little room to receive the trophy. It all passed in a blur, but I hobbled down there in agony with our manager Willie Waddell and a UEFA delegate and, in this cramped corner covered in Barcelona memorabilia, the delegate handed me the trophy and basically said: "Here, take the cup Glasgow Rangers, now go away". When I got back to the dressing room all my team-mates were either in the bath or out of it. I felt sorry they didn't get to parade the trophy – ultimately what we were playing for – and even sorrier for all those people who had a paid a lot of money to travel to the Nou Camp and see that."
^"Rangers triumph in Europe 1972". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). December 2005. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Rangers were handed a two-year ban by UEFA for their fans' poor behaviour. Waddell succeeded in getting this reduced to one year, meaning Rangers could not defend their trophy. Waddell argued that the police had over-reacted, that the fans were drunk but not intent on violence, and that recent European finals had witnessed rejoicing Celtic, Bayern Munich and Ajax fans running on to the park and those occasions had been deemed acceptable."
^McKinney, David (26 July 1996). "Obituary: Jock Wallace". The Independent (Independent Print Ltd). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Jock Wallace was a giant of Scottish football. No other description can do justice to the man who ended Celtic's domination of the game in the 1970s and who, as manager, led Rangers to two domestic trebles within three years, the Glasgow club winning the League title, the League Cup and the Scottish Cup."
^"EXCLUSIVE: Graeme Souness – Smith is simply the best boss in the modern Ibrox era". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and General Trust). 9 May 2011. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012. "There will be no more fitting way to mark his departure than to beat Celtic to another championship but Walter has already established himself as one of the finest managers Scotland has ever produced. He's the best Rangers manager in the modern game. After Sir Alex Ferguson and Jock Stein, his record is fantastic; his success is there for all to see."
^ ab"Rangers paying for overspending ways". The footy pie. thefootypie.com. February 2012. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved December 2012. "Graham Souness lead the side to their first two championships as player-manager before his assistant, Walter Smith, took the reign, claiming another seven titles to equal a record set by Jock Stein at Celtic in the 1960s and 70s."
^ abcCampbell, Andy (13 May 2008). "Advocaat's Rangers legacy". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "When Dick Advocaat became the Rangers manager in 1998, it was a brave new dawn for the Ibrox club as chairman David Murray attempted to begin a new chapter in the club's history following Walter Smith's departure."
^"Rangers make history out of chaos". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 3 May 1999. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Celtic 0–3 Rangers Rangers created history by winning the title at Celtic Park in a stormy Old Firm game which saw referee Hugh Dallas injured by a missile thrown from the pitch."
^"When Rangers can win the league". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 28 March 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "The biggest winning points margin in the history of the SPL was enjoyed by Rangers in 1999/00, when they finished 21 points clear of Celtic."
^"Rangers put Parma in the shade". BBC Sport (BBC). 12 August 1999. Archived from the original on 20 December 2012. Retrieved 20 December 2012. "Rangers 2–0 Parma Rangers secured one of their most impressive European results in years, as Italian giants Parma crashed to defeat in the first leg of their Champions League qualifier"
^Forsyth, Roddy (12 November 2000). "Rangers' £12m Flo gamble". Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "DAVID MURRAY, the Rangers chairman, moved dramatically last night to end the crisis at Ibrox by setting a new Scottish transfer record of £12 million for Chelsea's out-of-favour Norwegian international forward, Tore Andre Flo."
^"Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers". BBC Sport (BBC). 7 December 2000. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2010. "Full time: Kaiserslautern 3–0 Rangers 92 mins The Fritz Walter Stadium erupts on the referee's final whistle which brings down the curtain on Rangers' European campaign."
^ ab"Rangers unveil McLeish". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 December 2001. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Alex McLeish has been unveiled as Rangers' 11th manager after a dramatic day at Ibrox."
^"Rangers complete Treble". BBC Sports Scotland (BBC Sport). 31 May 2003. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers capped a fabulous season with a hard-earned Scottish Cup win over Dundee at Hampden Park to seal the seventh domestic Treble in the club's history."
^"Rangers win to clinch title". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC Sport). 25 May 2003. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012. "Rangers 6–1 Dunfermline Athletic An injury-time penalty by Mikel Arteta clinched the SPL title for Rangers in an amazing afternoon at Ibrox. Rangers were 5–1 up as the match entered the last few minutes, but with Celtic 4–0 up at Rugby Park and still playing, they knew the championship was not yet theirs."
^Salty (29 July 2011). "Aston Villa’s Alex McLeish, a look at his managerial career". Football blog. footballblog.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "At this point McLeish was viewed as one of the hottest managers in the game. Success doesn’t last forever and Rangers financial state cost McLeish dear in 2003. Many of his prize assets were sold and subsequently Celtic won the league comfortably. Also, Rangers failed to pick up a single trophy that season."
^"Magpies complete Boumsong signing". BBC Sport (BBC). 2 January 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Boumsong joined Rangers from Auxerre on a free transfer last summer and made just 28 appearances for them before moving to England."
^"Rangers get Prso". BBC Sport (BBC). 9 May 2004. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Rangers have confirmed the signing of Monaco's Croatian striker Dado Prso."
^"Rangers sign Novo". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 6 July 2004. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Rangers have completed the signing of Nacho Novo from Dundee but manager Alex McLeish insists his summer spending spree is not yet over."
^"Transfer window dealings". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and general trust). 1 February 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2012. "Barry Ferguson – Blackburn to Rangers, £4.5million rising to £5million depending on appearances."
^"Rangers in dramatic title triumph". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 22 May 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers pipped rivals Celtic to the Scottish Premier League title after a dramatic final day of the season. The Gers went into the final game two points behind their Glasgow rivals but a sensational late fightback by Motherwell gave them the title."
^"Rangers 1–1 Inter Milan". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 December 2005. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Peter Lovenkrands was the goalscoring hero as Rangers became the first Scottish club to qualify from the group stages of the Champions League. ... Criticised by some for his tactics during a run without a win now stretching to 10 games, McLeish got it right on the European stage with the surprise inclusion of Lovenkrands as a lone striker."
^"Villarreal 1–1 Rangers (agg 3–3)". BBC Sport (BBC). 7 March 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Rangers' dream of becoming the first Scottish side in the quarter-finals of the Champions League ended as they lost on the away-goals rule to Villarreal."
^"McLeish to leave Rangers in May". BBC Sport (BBC). 9 February 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 October 2007. "Alex McLeish will leave his position as Rangers manager at the end of the season, the club has confirmed"
^ ab"Rangers name Le Guen as manager". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 March 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers have announced that Paul Le Guen will replace Alex McLeish as manager at the end of the season."
^"Rangers 0–2 St Johnstone". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 8 November 2006. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "St Johnstone recorded one of their finest results to stun Rangers at Ibrox and reach the CIS Cup semi-finals."
^Glenn, Patrick (24 September 2006). "Gravesen piles pressure on Le Guen". The Observer (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Until Gravesen gave the home side the lead there was a wariness about both sides, which betrayed the number of players on each side who were making their first appearance in the conflict. If Celtic were expected to be dominant – with Rangers reliant on the absorption of pressure and the counter-thrust – Gordon Strachan and his players would also be mindful of the four-point advantage they held over their great rivals and the need not to risk having it damaged."
^Murray, Ewan (15 December 2006). "Hutton sends Rangers clean through to Old Firm match". Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 22 April 2011. "Paul Le Guen is satisfied his Rangers players will enter Sunday's Old Firm match in as positive a frame of mind as possible after they sealed the top qualifying position from Group A and secured a second consecutive clean sheet."
^Austin, Simon (5 January 2007). "Clash of cultures". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Paul Le Guen's relationship with Barry Ferguson was never likely to be a marriage made in heaven. On one side was an authoritarian French manager used to having the final word and working with clean-living, tee-total players. On the other was a passionate Scottish captain who enjoyed talismanic status with the fans and liked to work hard and play hard. There were reported to be differences between the duo soon after Le Guen took over at Ibrox seven months ago. And they came to the surface at a news conference before the last Old Firm derby on 17 December."
^ ab"Smith installed as Rangers boss". BBC Sport (BBC). 10 January 2007. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Walter Smith has quit as Scotland coach to become boss of Rangers for a second time after agreeing a three-year deal."
^Moffat, Colin (12 December 2007). "Rangers 0–3 Lyon". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers crashed out of the Champions League and into the Uefa Cup with a disappointing home defeat to Lyon."
^"Rangers & Zenit chase Uefa glory". BBC Sport (BBC). 14 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Panathinaikos, Werder Bremen and Fiorentina have been dispatched, along with Sporting since Rangers qualified via their position in the Champions League group stage."
^Forsyth, Roddy (24 May 2009). "Rejuvenated Rangers take SPL title in style with victory at Dundee United". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "With the boundless relief and joie de vivre of a man who has been reprieved on the steps of the gallows and installed in a palace, Rangers produced a climactic performance to snatch their first championship since 2005 at sun-drenched Tannadice."
^Forsyth, Roddy (30 May 2009). "Rangers 1 Falkirk 0: Match report". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "Rangers completed the second stage of their Scottish league and cup double in the baking heat of Hampden Park on Saturday thanks to a glorious goal from Nacho Novo, with his first touch of the ball only seconds after arriving as a half-time substitute for Kris Boyd. But the favourites were made to sweat throughout – and not simply because of the sweltering conditions."
^Murray, Ewan (21 March 2010). "Kenny Miller sees nine-man Rangers through to victory". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 20 August 2010. "It would, of course, be churlish not to recognise the winning mentality of a team who have lost just a single domestic fixture since Celtic lifted this trophy at their expense a year ago. Yet this win arrived in the most unlikely of circumstances, sealing the League Cup despite being down to nine men."
^"Rangers happy to prove doubters wrong after Cup win". BBC Sport (BBC). 20 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers manager Walter Smith described the Co-operative Insurance Cup final win over Celtic as one of his "best ever" victories. Smith, coming to the end of his second spell in charge at Ibrox, clinched a 20th trophy as Rangers boss after the 2–1 extra-time win at Hampden."
^Moffat, Colin (16 May 2011). "Kilmarnock 1 – 5 Rangers". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2011. "Rangers gave departing manager Walter Smith the perfect send-off as they wrapped up a third-consecutive Scottish Premier League title in style. A blistering opening saw Kyle Lafferty net twice inside seven minutes, either side of a Steven Naismith strike. Early in the second half, Nikica Jelavic smashed in a free kick and Lafferty completed his hat-trick with a composed finish."
^"Rangers crash out of Champions League after seeing red twice at Malmo". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). 3 August 2011. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers' Champions League hopes were shattered as they crashed out of the competition at the hands of Malmo after being reduced to nine men in the qualifier in Sweden. Steven Whittaker and Madjid Bougherra were both shown straight red cards, before Malmo's Ricardinho was also dismissed by the referee Vladislav Bezborodov at the Swedbank stadium"
^Campbell, Andy (25 August 2011). "Rangers 1 – 1 NK Maribor (agg 2 – 3)". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Rangers exited the Europa League as Maribor claimed an aggregate victory to progress to the group stages."
^Campbell, Andy (5 February 2012). "Rangers 0–2 Dundee Utd". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2012. "Dundee United knocked Rangers out of the Scottish Cup with a deserved fifth-round victory at Ibrox."
^"Rangers 0 Kilmarnock 1: Shiels strikes early to compound misery for crisis club at Ibrox". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and General trust). 18 February 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "A turbulent week for Rangers ended in further disappointment as they crashed to defeat to Kilmarnock in the Clydesdale Bank Premier League in their first match since being forced into administration. The official attendance confirmed that 50,268 fans packed into Ibrox to show their backing for manager Ally McCoist and his players during the club's darkest hour."
^"Rangers 1–2 Hearts". BBC Sport (BBC). 1 March 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Hearts came from behind to beat Rangers at Ibrox as the home side's players awaited news of their futures from the club's administrators."
^Gibson, Fraser (17 March 2012). "Dundee United 2–1 Rangers". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Dundee United saw off the challenge of a spirited Rangers side to set up a scenario whereby Celtic could win the Scottish Premier League title at Ibrox."
^Lindsay, Clive (25 March 2012). "Rangers 3–2 Celtic". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. "Reigning champions Rangers prevented the Scottish title being won on their own patch despite a dramatic late rally from nine-man runaway leaders Celtic."
^"Interim Report to Creditors" (pdf). Duff and Phelps. Rangers FC. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original on 21 December 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2012. "The continuation of trading operations enabled the Joint Administrators to put the CVA Proposal to the creditors of the Company and after the CVA Proposal was rejected by creditors, the Joint Administrators were able to secure a going concern sale of the business, history and assets of the Company to Sevco"
^ ab"Agreement on Transfer of Membership". scottishfa.co.uk. Scottish Football Association. 27 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. "We are pleased to confirm that agreement has been reached on all outstanding points relating to the transfer of the Scottish FA membership between Rangers FC (In Administration), and Sevco Scotland Ltd, who will be the new owners of The Rangers Football Club."
^"Stirling Albion 1–0 Rangers". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 October 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. "Rangers suffered a shock first loss in the Third Division after crashing to defeat against bottom side Stirling Albion."
^Lamont, Alasdair (31 October 2012). "Rangers 0–3 Inverness Caley Thistle". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012. "Inverness Caledonian Thistle advanced to the semi-finals of the Scottish Communities League Cup for the first time with an ultimately comfortable defeat of Rangers."
^"The Badges of Rangers Football Club". Danbury Mint. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2013. "The earliest badge featured the celebrated RFC scroll crest believed to have been used since 1872. Then there’s the lion rampant and the club motto ‘READY’, which have appeared on Rangers’ badges since 1959. Finally, see the evolution into the current badge, with the famous blue, white and red colours."
^"The Rangers Crest". Rangers FC. Retrieved 21 January 2013. "Although the 'RFC' Scroll Crest was omitted in 1959 it made a welcome return in 1968 when it was placed on the club's home jersey for the very first time. It was later added to the shorts a decade later for the start of the 1978–79 season."
^"The Rangers Crest". Gersnet Online. Retrieved 21 January 2013. "From 1990 to 1994 'Rangers Football Club' and the 'Ready' motto were placed above and below the Crest respectively. In 1997–98 the Crest was placed in a shield but perhaps the most significant change was before the start of the 2003/04 campaign. Having clinched their 50th League Championship, a year in which Rangers secured a domestic Treble, the Club decided to add five stars above the Scoll Crest, one for every ten titles won."
^ abcdef"Rangers". Historical Football Kits. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
^Devlin, John (3 July 2009). "An alternative to alcohol". True Colours. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers have actually sported the Center Parcs logo during the course of two seasons. It was first worn in the 1996–97 Champions League match at Auxerre that the French side won 2–1. Then in 1997–98 a new style Center Parcs logo was worn in the UEFA Cup first round first leg game in Strasbourg where again the 'Gers lost 2–1 (also wearing their change blue shorts)"
^"Scottish football". Global Friends of Scotland. Scottish Government. June 2006. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Scotland’s contributions to the development of the game were equally impressive in other areas. Glaswegian born architect Archibald Leitch was the pioneering football stadium designer of his day – by the 1920’s 16 out of 22 of England’s First Division stadiums were Leitch designs. The most famous example of his work still in existence is probably Ibrox. (This would undoubtedly please Leitch, who was a devout Rangers fan.)"
^"Rangers consider Ibrox expansion". BBC Sport (BBC). 6 January 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The plans, one of three options being considered by the club, could see the stadium in Glasgow completely rebuilt with a new capacity of 70,000. Rangers would retain the Bill Struth main stand, which is designated as a Category B listed building. Ibrox currently holds 51,082 fans, behind Hampden Park and Celtic Park."
^MacDonald, Hugh (26 March 2012). "Working with kids is its own reward for the man in charge at Murray Park". Herald Scotland (Newsquest). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2013. "Ally McCoist, the manager, normally leaves Sinclair and his staff to choose the youngsters but sometimes will stipulate who he and the first-team staff want. "That daily exposure is priceless," says Sinclair. "The boys become comfortable with the staff and first-team players. If they were round there [first-team pitches] once every six months, it would be a trial but it is a regular process. [Danny] Wilson, [John] Fleck and Little were all steeped in that.""
^"UK Supporters Clubs". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "There are more than 600 registered supporters clubs with over 30,000 registered members and these continue to grow, in keeping with the vision the club initially had."
^"Global Supporters Clubs". Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "It includes representatives from all over the globe – including North America, Australasia and the Middle East – as well as closer to home in the United Kingdom. There are also clubs registered in far-flung locations such as Azerbaijan, Nigeria, Hong Kong and Peru."
^Scott, Les (2008). End to End Stuff. Random House. p. 17. ISBN9780593060681. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The Record attendance for a friendly match in the United Kingdom is 104,493, who saw Rangers lose 3–2 to Eintracht Frankfurt at Hampden Park on 17 October 1961."
^"Rangers invasion: your views". BBC Manchester (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008. "It was always going to put a massive strain on the city. An invasion of up to 200,000 Rangers supporters for the UEFA Cup Final in Manchester swamped the city’s pubs and bars and the dedicated fan zones."
^Nisbet, John (27 August 2010). "150,000 Rangers fans descended on the city for the Uefa Cup final in 2008". The Independent (The Independent Group). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "But the chief executive at Rangers, Martin Bain, insists there will be no repeat of the scenes of crowd misbehaviour which marred the club's last visit to Manchester. Some 200,000 Rangers fans descended on the city for the Uefa Cup final in 2008 and trouble started when a giant screen failed to work."
^Carter, Helen; Orr, James (15 May 2008). "Rangers fans clashed with riot police". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "A full inquiry was under way today after Rangers fans clashed with riot police in Manchester last night after their team's defeat by Zenit St Petersburg in the Uefa Cup final."
^"Rangers fans take long road home". BBC News (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "A number of supporters clashed with riot police after a big screen in Manchester broke down. Officers later confirmed 42 people had been arrested."
^"CCTV shows fans chasing police". BBC News (BBC). 15 May 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Police in Manchester have released CCTV images showing up to 200 football fans chasing officers and attacking one of them after the Uefa Cup final."
^Lawford, Mark (13 March 2009). "Sportsmail's guide to illogical footballing rivalries". Daily Mail (Daily Mail and General Trust). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. "Dons supporters chant 'We hate Rangers more than you' when they play Celtic and a lot of this can be traced back to a challenge made by Neil Simpson on Ian Durrant in 1988 that kept the Rangers midfielder out of the game for nearly three years."
^"Rangers apologise to Aberdeen". The Independent (The Independent Group). 18 November 1998. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2010. "RANGERS ISSUED a full public apology to Aberdeen last night for labelling a section of the Pittodrie club's support "scum" in last Saturday's Ibrox matchday programme. Stewart Milne, the Aberdeen chairman, protested to Bob Brannan, the Rangers chief executive, yesterday about the anonymous article which also branded the Dons' team as "under-achievers and money-grabbers""
^"A history of bad blood". BBC Sport (BBC). 19 January 2002. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2010. "The catalyst for the recent venom between the two sets of supporters was the 1988 incident involving Neil Simpson and Iain Durrant."
^Smith, Andrew (14 October 2012). "Rangers v Queen's Park: Renewing an age-old rivalry". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012. "IT HAS been billed by the Ibrox club as the “original Glasgow derby”. It might equally be argued that their hosting of Queen’s Park in the Third Division on Saturday is the newest Glasgow derby. ... Although the teams last met in a League Cup tie 21 years ago and regularly jousted in the Glasgow Cup in the two decades before that, there has not been a league meeting since 1958, the year Queen’s Park last played top-flight football. The fact the confrontation has returned to the calendar in a wholly different form was best encapsulated by Rangers ambassador Sandy Jardine."
^Fisher, Stewart (14 October 2012). "Old rivalry renewed". Herald Scotland (Newsquest). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 14 October 2012. "Queen's Park and Rangers, two teams that first met competitively in a Scottish Cup tie in March 1879, some nine years before Celtic were formed, meet in an Irn-Bru Third division encounter at Ibrox."
^Forsyth, Roddy (19 October 2012). "Rangers and Queen's Park ready to resurrect world's oldest derby". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2013. "The Old Firm collision it most certainly is not – to the relief of Glasgow’s constabulary and A&E departments – but Saturday afternoon’s visit of Queen’s Park to Ibrox will draw the UK’s second biggest crowd and resurrect a fixture that first appeared in the records in 1875 when the pair played a charity match in aid of fire victims."
^"Findlay songs inquiry launched". BBC News (BBC). 9 June 1999. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "The Faculty of Advocates is to investigate complaints against the leading Scottish lawyer Donald Findlay QC after he was captured on camera singing sectarian songs."
^O'Sullivan, Jack (4 June 1999). "I'm Catholic in a football sense". The Independent (Independent Print limited). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Findlay, Scotland's leading criminal lawyer, is a Protestant and proud of it. But he was embarrassed to be caught on video singing sectarian songs. They included "The Billy Boys", a verse of which goes: "We're up to our knees in Fenian blood, Surrender or you die, We are the Billy Boys.""
^Humphrys, John (2 July 2002). "On the Ropes – Donald Findlay QC" (Press release). BBC Press Office. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Donald Findlay QC tells John Humphrys about the effect singing sectarian, anti-Catholic songs at a party for Glasgow Rangers had on his life, and how he, at one stage, even contemplated suicide."
^"Rangers appeal upheld". UEFA.com. UEFA. 25 May 2006. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "UEFA appealed against the decision on 12 April by the Control and Disciplinary Body to find Rangers not guilty of alleged discriminatory chants by the club's supporters at both legs of the tie, on 22 February at Ibrox and 7 March at El Madrigal. Rangers have been fined €19,500 and severely warned about their responsibility for any future misconduct by their fans in relation to sectarian and discriminatory behaviour."
^"Uefa fine for Rangers and Osasuna". BBC Sport (BBC). 3 May 2007. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers have been fined £8,280 by Uefa for the behaviour of their fans during their match against Osasuna – but the Spanish club must pay £31,000."
^"Rangers to contest Uefa sectarian singing charge". BBC Sport (BBC). 7 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers are to face a Uefa disciplinary hearing over allegations of sectarian singing during last month's Europa Lague match away to PSV Eindhoven. The club's chief executive Martin Bain says they are "utterly dismayed" by the decision and that they will defend the club's position "vigorously"."
^"Uefa fines Rangers and bans fans for one away game". BBC Sport (BBC). 28 April 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2011. "Uefa has fined Rangers 40,000 euros (£35,652) and banned its fans from the next away European game for sectarian singing in a match at PSV Eindhoven."
^ abMurray, William J. (2000). The Old Firm: Sectarianism, Sport and Society in Scotland. John Donald Publishers. pp. 60,64,65,189. ISBN9780859765428.
^Giulianotti, Richard (1999). Football: A Sociology of the Global Game. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN9780745617695. "Historically Rangers have maintained a staunch Protestant and anti-Catholic tradition which includes a ban on signing Catholic players."
^Souness, Graeme; Gallacher, Ken (1989). Graeme Souness: A Manager's Diary. Mainstream Publishing. p. 17. ISBN9781851582242. "For years Rangers have been pilloried for what the majority of people saw as discrimination against one section of the population. Now we have shown that this unwritten policy at Ibrox is over. It's finished. Done with."
^Laing, Allan (11 July 1989). "Ibrox lands double coup with Johnston". Herald Scotland. p. 1. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers yesterday paraded their latest, and most controversial signing, Maurice Johnston, in the process demolishing any remaining they were sectarian, and upstaging their arch-rivals Celtic."
^Kuper, Simon (18 March 2012). "Decline and fall of the Old Firm". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "In the past 15 years, both clubs have tried to stamp out bigotry, largely for pragmatic reasons. The IRA guff puts off sponsors and when the market in foreign footballers opened up in the 1990s, the old prohibition on signing Catholics became irksome for Rangers. Many of the foreign players who have since come to Glasgow must have struggled to remember whether they were playing for the Protestant team or the Catholic one."
^"Rangers to root out racists". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). 10 March 2003. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 19 August 2012. "Rangers chairman John McClelland has vowed to root out the racist fans who booed whenever Celtic's Bobo Balde and Momo Sylla had possession during his club's Old Firm derby defeat on Saturday."
^Wright, Angus (13 November 2006). "SFA praised for stance on bigotry". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Education and prevention is what we are really looking at and Scotland is a great example of somewhere where that has done a tremendous amount in practically eradicating the worst features of discrimination."
^Sekar, Satish (20 February 2009). "No Surrender to Bigotry". Empower-Sport British Supplement. Empower-Sport. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Both UEFA and FIFA hold Rangers up as a positive example of a club determined to tackle the problem that threatens its future. And the SFA joins in that praise. “On the sectarianism front Rangers have tried to develop a policy across the Protestant/Catholic divide,” says Mr Mitchell. “They have imposed a large number of life bans on supporters who have been identified and found guilty of sectarian behaviour.” And Rangers is not alone in taking such action. “Generally speaking it is by the clubs,” he says. “If there is a criminal prosecution that has an effect as well, but the clubs themselves have taken that action off their own back, because they have the right to decide who can come into the stadium or not.”"
^Teather, David (31 March 2000). "Rangers to float as it chases global glory". The Guardian (Guardian Media Group). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2012. "Rangers football club, on track for its 49th Scottish premier league title, announced plans yesterday to float the business on the stock market and disclosed that talks are under way with a number of potential media investors."
^Farrell, Mike (12 June 2012). "Rangers liquidation now inevitable after CVA bid rejected by HMRC". STV Glasgow (STV). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. "Mr Green has previously stated that should the CVA fail his offer goes into an "automatic mode" to carry out a 'newco' switch at the Ibrox club, where all assets are sold to a new business entity for £5.5m and Rangers FC Plc, incorporated in 1899, is liquidated."
^"Rangers tax case leaks: Sir David Murray makes 'criminal complaint'". STV Glasgow (STV). 27 November 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. "In June administrators Duff and Phelps confirmed it had failed to secure a route out of the insolvency event and the club's assets were sold to a newco owned by a Charles Green-led consortium in a £5.5m deal. The oldco, now RFC 2012 Plc, formerly The Rangers Football Club Plc, has been placed into liquidation."
^"Rangers chief Charles Green criticises Tannadice ticket plan". BBC Sport Scotland (BBC). 23 December 2012. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. "And Green, who bought Rangers' assets after the company that formerly ran the club could not be saved from liquidation, believes the decision to sell tickets directly to visiting fans could spark trouble at the match."
^McLaughlin, Chris (29 January 2013). "SPL independent commission into Rangers player payments begins". BBC Scotland (BBC). Retrieved 29 January 2013. "The three-man commission will decide if the company that formerly ran Rangers broke Scottish Premier League rules. ... The commission will study the financial arrangements made by the Employee Benefit Trust scheme run by former Rangers owner Sir David Murray's company, Murray International Holdings. ... The probe was launched before the company that ran Rangers – The Rangers Football Club Plc – was consigned to liquidation. The consortium now running the club, led by chief executive Charles Green, has refused to recognise or co-operate with the investigation."
^Farrell, Mike (12 June 2012). "Rangers in Crisis". STV News (STV). Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "The Ibrox club confirmed its planned company voluntary arrangement (CVA) escape from administration would now fail as the tax authorities revealed they felt it was in the "public interest" to liquidate Rangers FC plc, incorporated in 1899."
^"Rangers liquidated as CVA formally rejected". The Scotsman (Johnston Press). 14 June 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. "GLASGOW RANGERS were today forced into liquidation after major creditor Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC) formally rejected an offer of a Company Voluntary Arrangement (CVA) from the club’s administrators."
^"Rangers players must join newco – Charles Green". BBC Sport (BBC). 12 June 2012. Archived from the original on 23 December 2012. Retrieved 23 December 2012. "The position of Duff & Phelps is that we will remain as administrators probably for some more weeks. We will then get release from that position and the company will be passed into liquidation. But just to stress the club will have been sold and moved out of the company by then. "The history of the club remains with the club, so the club moves from Rangers Plc into the new company and all of the titles and 140-year history will remain with the club. That was part of the two-stage process we set up with Charles Green all those weeks ago."
^"THE RANGERS FOOTBALL CLUB LIMITED". Companies House. UK Government. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. "Registration Date: 29/05/2012 PreviousNames CONDate 31/07/2012 CompanyName SEVCO SCOTLAND LIMITED"
^Muirhead, Andy (27 July 2012). "In full: Rangers newco statement on SFA membership". Scotzine.com. Scotzine. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. "This is still Rangers and the next chapter of our history has the potential to be one of the greatest stories in the history of sport. The Rangers revival begins now and I, for one, am looking forward to the journey"
^"Rangers' SFA membership rubber-stamped". BBC Sport (BBC). 3 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012. "Rangers have received full membership of the Scottish Football Association, the governing body has confirmed."
^"Rangers FC". uefa.com. UEFA. 8 December 2012. Archived from the original on 31 December 2012. Retrieved 31 December 2012. "Click on scottish cup squad and it displays the squad from 2012/2013 and the league squad of SPL the season before"
^"Early day motion 374". UK Government. 11 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "That this House acknowledges the strenuous efforts being made by the current management, playing and backroom staff at Rangers Football Club to set the Club on a sound financial footing; commends the sacrificial financial moves made by many at Rangers in recent months to help alleviate the problems caused by previous owners; and calls on the Scottish football authorities, if they believe in integrity, to move quickly so that both Rangers with their worldwide fan base and all other clubs can prepare for the new season, allowing genuine football fans to enjoy the game and the clubs they love."
^"Rangers: Newcastle's Mike Ashley ready to buy Ibrox share". BBC Sport (BBC). 11 August 2012. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012. "Businessman Charles Green led a consortium to buy Rangers' assets for £5.5m and reformed the club as a new company. But the 'newco' did not get the required votes for re-admittance to the SPL and instead, Rangers were relaunched in Division Three, drawing 2–2 with Peterhead in their opening game."
^"Introducing The Foundation". Rangerscharity.org.uk. Rangers Charity Foundation. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012. "Being a champion of charitable giving is our goal, and since our creation in 2002 we have donated over £1 million in cash awards and over £1,550,000 of in-kind support to hundreds of groups and individuals, making a combined total of over £2,500,000"
^Farrell, Mike (6 March 2012). "Inquiry into Rangers charity match against AC Milan". STV Glasgow (STV). Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. "The charity, which has donated more than £2.3m to various causes since it was set up in 2002, has reduced the amount it will take from the game to 10%, meaning the majority of the money raised will go to the club, which is currently in administration."
^"Jim Sinclair". Rangers.co.uk. Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "RANGERS appointed Jim Sinclair as Youth Academy Director at Murray Park in August 2006."
^"SFA man to head Gers youth set-up". BBC Sport (BBC). 16 June 2006. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "Rangers have announced the appointment of Jim Sinclair from the Scottish Football Association as director of their youth academy."
^"Andrew Dickson". Rangers.co.uk. Rangers FC. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "AS Rangers' head of football administration, Andrew Dickson is a key member of the executive team on the business side of the club."
^"Rangers reshuffle top executives". BBC Sport (BBC). 19 September 2005. Archived from the original on 17 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013. "Andrew Dickson, who had been working with Ogilvie, takes responsibility for football administration and Craig Mulholland for youth administration."
^"McCoist confirmed as Smith's successor". BBC Sport (BBC). 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "Rangers have confirmed for the first time that Ally McCoist will take over as manager when Walter Smith steps down at the end of the season."
^Taylor, Julian (4 January 2007). "Rangers reel as Le Guen departs". BBC Sport (BBC). Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012. "The club's reserve-team coach, Ian Durrant, will take charge of training on Friday ahead of the club's next match, a Tennent's Scottish Cup tie, against Dunfermline Athletic on Sunday."