Ramdhari Singh Dinkar

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Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Born(1908-09-23)September 23, 1908
Simariya village, Begusarai district, Bihar
DiedApril 24, 1974(1974-04-24) (aged 65)
Begusarai district, Bihar
OccupationPoet, Freedom Fighter, Member of Parliament, Essayist, Literary critic, Journalist, Satirist,
Notable award(s)1959:Sahitya Akademi Award
1959: Padma Bhushan
1972: Bharatiya Jnanpith

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Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Rashtrakavi Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'
Born(1908-09-23)September 23, 1908
Simariya village, Begusarai district, Bihar
DiedApril 24, 1974(1974-04-24) (aged 65)
Begusarai district, Bihar
OccupationPoet, Freedom Fighter, Member of Parliament, Essayist, Literary critic, Journalist, Satirist,
Notable award(s)1959:Sahitya Akademi Award
1959: Padma Bhushan
1972: Bharatiya Jnanpith

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Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (रामधारी सिंह 'दिनकर') (September 23, 1908 – April 24, 1974) was an Indian Hindi poet, essayist and academic,[1][2] who is considered as one of the most important modern Hindi poets. He remerged as a poet of rebellion as a consequence of his nationalist poetry written in the days before Indian independence. His poetry exuded veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi ("National poet") on account of his inspiring patriotic compositions.[3] As a mark of respect for him, his portrait was unveiled in the Central Hall of Parliament of India by the Prime Minister of India, Dr. Manmohan Singh on his centenary year, 2008.[4][5]

Dinkar initially supported the revolutionary movement during the Indian independence struggle, but later became a Gandhian.He was close to prominent nationalists of the time such as Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha and Braj Kishore Prasad. However, he used to call himself a 'Bad Gandhian' because he supported the feelings of indignation and revenge among the youth.[6] In Kurukshetra, he accepted that war is destructive but argued that it is necessary for the protection of freedom.

Dinkar was three times elected to Rajya Sabha, and he was the member of this house from April 3, 1952 CE to January 26, 1964 CE,[6] and was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1959.[6]. He was also the Vice Chancellor of Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur, Bihar) in the early 1960's.

During The Emergency, Jayaprakash Narayan had attracted a gathering of one lakh people at the Ramlila Grounds and recited Dinkar's famous poem: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai (Devanagari: सिंहासन खाली करो कि जनता आती है; "Vacate the throne, for the people come").[7]

Contents

Biography

He was born to a poor Bhumihar Brahmin[8] family in Simariya village, in the Begusarai district of Bihar. As a student, his favorite subjects were history, politics and philosophy. He studied Hindi, Sanskrit, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and English literature. Dinkar was greatly influenced by Iqbal, Rabindranath Tagore, Keats and Milton. He translated works of Rabindranath Tagore from Bengali to Hindi. The poetic persona of the poet Dinkar was shaped by the pressures and counter-pressures of life during the freedom movement.[6][9] Five feet eleven, shining white complexion, long high nose, large ears, broad forehead - his apperance answered to some such description.[6][10] He was born on 23rd September 1908, in Simariya village of Monghyr district (now in Begusarai District) in Bihar.[11]

When he was a student of Mokama High School, it was not possible for him to stay on till school closed at four p.m.[12] He had to leave the class after lunch break so that he could catch the steamer back home.[13] He could not afford to be in the hostel which would have enabled him to attend all periods.[14] How could a student who had no shoes on his feet manage the hostel fees? His poetry shows the impact of poverty.[15] This was the environment in which Dinkar grew up and became a nationalist poet of radical views.[16] In 1920, Dinkar saw Mahatma Gandhi for the first time.[17] About this time, in the third decade of 20th century, he founded Manoranjan Library at Simariya.[18] He also edited a handwritten Pamphlet.[19]

Creative Struggle

When Dinkar stepped into his adolescence, the freedom movement had begun under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.[20] In 1929, when after matriculation, he entered into Patna College in the intermediate class; this movement had started becoming aggressive.[21] In 1928, Simon Commission, against which nationwide demonstrations were being held, arrived.[22] Demonstrations were held in Patna also. Dinkarji also signed the oath-paper.[23] Thousands came to the rally at Gandhi Maidan in which Dinkarji also participated.[24] During the protest against Simon Commission, the police of the British Governement mercilessly lathi charged the Lion of Punjab, Lala Lajpat Rai, who succumbed to the injuries.[25] The whole country was in turmoil.[26] The youthful mind of Dinkar became increasingly radical due to these agitations. His emotional nature was charged with poetic energy.[27]

When a paper called Chhatra Sahodar (Brother of Students) came out again under the editorship of Shri Narsingh Das, Dinkar's first poem was published in 1924 or 1925.[28] In 1928, the peasant's satyagraha under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel proved successful in Bardoli of Gujarat.[29] He wrote ten poems based on this Satyagraha which was published in a book form under the title Vijay-Sandesh (Message of Victory).[30] This composition is now available.[31] Right in front of Patna College, the office of "Yuvak" functioned.[32] In order to escape the wrath of the government, Dinkar got his poems published under the pseudonym "Amitabh".[33] On 14th September 1928, a poem of his, on the martyrdom of Jatin Das, was published.[34] Around this time he wrote two small works of poetry called Birbala and Meghnad-Vadh, but neither of them is traceable now.[35] In 1930, he composed a poem called Pran-Bhang (The Breach of Vow), which was mentioned by Ramchandra Shukla in his history.[36] So the journey of his poetic career should be deemed to have begun with Vijay-Sandesh.[37] Before this his poems had become a frequent feature of the magazine Desh, published from Patna and of Pratibha, which was published from Kannauj.[38]

Work

His works are mostly of 'Veer Rasa', or the 'brave mode', although Urvashi is an exception to this. Some of his greatest works are Rashmirathi and Parashuram ki Prateeksha. He is hailed as the greatest Hindi poet of 'Veer Rasa' since Bhushan.[6]

Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi wrote that he was very popular among people whose mother-tongue was not Hindi and he was a symbol of love for one's own mother-tongue.[39] Harivansh Rai Bachchan wrote that for his proper respect he should get four Gyanpith Awards - for poetry, prose, languages and for his service to Hindi.[39] Rambriksh Benipuri wrote that Dinkar is giving voice to the revolutionary movement in the country.[39] Namvar Singh wrote that he was really the sun of his age.[39]

Hindi writer Rajendra Yadav, whose novel 'Sara Akash' also carried a few lines of Dinkar's poetry, has said of him He was always very inspiring to read. His poetry was about reawakening. He often delved into Hindu mythology and referred to heroes of epics such as Karna.[40] He was a poet of anti-imperialism and nationalism, says well-known Hindi writer Kashinath Singh.[40]

He also wrote social and political satires[41] aimed at socio-economic inequalities and exploitation of the underprivileged.[41]

A progressive and humanist poet, he chose to approach history and reality directly and his verse combined oratorical vigour with a declamatory diction The theme of Urvashi revolves round love, passion, and relationship of man and woman on a spiritual plane, distinct from their earthly relationship.

His Kurukshetra is a narrative poem based on the Santi Parva of the Mahabharata.[42] It was written at a time when the memories of the Second World War were fresh in the mind of the poet.[42] Krishna Ki Chaetavani is another poem composed on events that led to the Kurukshetra war in the Mahabharata. His Samdheni is a collection of poems reflecting the poet's social concern transcending the boundaries of the nation.[42]

In his Sanskiti ke Chaar Adhyay he said that despite various cultures, languages and topography, India stands united, because "however different we may be, our thoughts are one and the same".[43]

Awards and honours

He received awards from Kashi Nagri Pracharini Sabha, Uttar Pradesh Government and also an award by the Government of India for his epic-poem Kurukshetra.[6] He got the Sahitya Akademi Award in 1959 for his work Sanskriti ke Char Adhyay.[44] He was also a recipient of Padma Bhushan in 1959 by the Government of India. He was awarded the LLD degree by Bhagalpur University. He was felicitated as Vidyavachaspati by Gurukul Mahavidyalaya.[6] He was felicitated as Sahitya-Chudamaniby Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur on 8 November 1968.[6] Dinkar was awarded the Jnanpith Award in 1972 for Urvashi.[45] He also became a nominated member of the Rajya Sabha, in 1952.[2] Dinkar's fans widely believe that he truly deserved the honour of "RashtraKavi" (poet of the nation).

Posthumous Recognitions

On September 30, 1987, to mark his 79th birth anniversary tributes were paid to him by the then President of India, Shankar Dayal Sharma.[46]

In 1999, Dinkar was one of the Hindi writers featured on a set of commemorative postal stamps released by Government of India to celebrate the "Linguistic Harmony of India." marking the 50th anniversary since the Indian Union adopted Hindi as its official language.[47]

The government released a book on Dinkar's birth centenary authored by Khagendra Thakur.[48]

At the same time a statue of him was unveiled in Patna at the Dinkar Chowk,[49] and a two-day national seminar was organised in Calicut University.[50]

The Bihar government has declared that a Hindi University to come up at Begusarai named after him. The New University will be named as Rashtra Kavi Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Hindi University.

Major poetic works

Dinkar's first published poetical work was Vijay Sandesh (1928). His other works are

Anthologies

Major prose works

Dinkar’s major analytical and other prose works are:

Literary criticism

Biographies

Translations

Translations into English and other languages

Biographies and works on Dinkar

References

  1. ^ Biography and Works www.anubhuti-hindi.org.
  2. ^ a b Sahitya Akademi Award Citation
  3. ^ "Special Postage Stamps on Linguistic Harmony of India". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 1999. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/l0999/r140999.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  4. ^ "PM to unveil portraits of Dinkar, Kunwar Singh". The Hindu. 2008-12-22. http://www.hindu.com/2008/12/22/stories/2008122253850400.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  5. ^ Aditi Tandon (2008-12-22). "Probe sought into Guru Ram Singh’s death". The Tribune. http://www.tribuneindia.com/2008/20081223/nation.htm. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Vijendra Narayan, Singh (2005). Bharatiya Sahitya ke Nirmata: Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 81-260-2142-X.. 
  7. ^ Harish Khare (2001-05-16). "Obligations of a lameduck". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2001/05/16/stories/05162523.htm. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  8. ^ "Indra R Sharma: Bihar Hardly Cares Its Great Sons". http://www.bihartimes.com/articles/indra/greatsons.html. 
  9. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  10. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  11. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  12. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  13. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  14. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  15. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  16. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  17. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  18. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  19. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  20. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  21. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  22. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  23. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  24. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  25. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  26. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  27. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  28. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  29. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  30. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  31. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  32. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  33. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  34. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  35. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  36. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  37. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  38. ^ Kumar Vikram, Arun Kumar Sinha, (2010). Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Makers of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 151. ISBN 978-81-260-2664-7. 
  39. ^ a b c d 'Dinkar', Ramdhari Singh (2008). Chintan ke Aayam. Lokbharti Prakashan. 
  40. ^ a b Avijit Ghosh (2008-09-24). "100 years on, poet Dinkar remains popular as ever". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/India/100_years_on_poet_Dinkar_remains_popular_as_ever/articleshow/3519918.cms. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  41. ^ a b Lal, Mohan (1992). Encyclpopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 820. ISBN 978-81-260-1221-3. 
  42. ^ a b c Das, Sisir Kumar (1995). A History of Indian literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 908. ISBN 978-81-7201-798-9. 
  43. ^ Misha Sharma (2007-09-09). "A mine of resources waiting to be tapped". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2007090950011400.htm&date=2007/09/09/&prd=op&. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 
  44. ^ Sahitya Akademi Awards 1955-2007 Sahitya Akademi Award Official website.
  45. ^ "Jnanpith Laureates Official listings". Jnanpith Website. http://jnanpith.net/laureates/index.html. 
  46. ^ Chand, Attar (1992). President Shankar Dayal Sharma, the scholar and the statesman. Anmol Publications. pp. 371. ISBN 978-81-7041-678-4. 
  47. ^ "Special Postage Stamps on Linguistic Harmony of India". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 1999. http://pib.nic.in/archieve/lreleng/l0999/r140999.html. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  48. ^ "Shri Dasmunsi releases book on birth centenary of poet ‘Dinkar’". Latest PIB Releases. Press Information Bureau of the Government of India. September 2008. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=43076. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  49. ^ "Poet Dinkar remembered". The Times of India. 2008-09-24. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/Patna/Poet_Dinkar_remembered/articleshow/3519896.cms. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  50. ^ "Seminar inaugurated". The Hindu. 2009-02-03. http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/thscrip/print.pl?file=2009020351880300.htm&date=2009/02/03/&prd=th&. Retrieved 2009-04-02. 

External links