Ram (album)

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Ram
Studio album by Paul and Linda McCartney
Released17 May 1971
RecordedNovember 1970–January 1971, February–April 1971
Columbia Recording Studio, New York; A&R Recording Studios, New York; Sound Recording Studios, Los Angeles
GenreRock
Length43:15
LabelApple
ProducerPaul McCartney, Linda McCartney
Paul McCartney chronology
McCartney
(1970)
Ram
(1971)
Thrillington
(1977)
Linda McCartney chronology
Ram
(1971)
Wide Prairie
(1998)
Singles from Ram
  1. "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"
    Released: 2 August 1971 (US)
  2. "The Back Seat of My Car"
    Released: 13 August 1971 (UK)
  3. "Eat at Home"
    Released: 2 September 1971 (Europe only; except UK)
 
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Ram
Studio album by Paul and Linda McCartney
Released17 May 1971
RecordedNovember 1970–January 1971, February–April 1971
Columbia Recording Studio, New York; A&R Recording Studios, New York; Sound Recording Studios, Los Angeles
GenreRock
Length43:15
LabelApple
ProducerPaul McCartney, Linda McCartney
Paul McCartney chronology
McCartney
(1970)
Ram
(1971)
Thrillington
(1977)
Linda McCartney chronology
Ram
(1971)
Wide Prairie
(1998)
Singles from Ram
  1. "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"
    Released: 2 August 1971 (US)
  2. "The Back Seat of My Car"
    Released: 13 August 1971 (UK)
  3. "Eat at Home"
    Released: 2 September 1971 (Europe only; except UK)

Ram is a studio album by recording artists Paul and Linda McCartney, released on 17 May 1971 by Apple Records. It is the only album credited to the pair. The album was recorded amid Paul McCartney's legal action in Britain's High Court to dissolve the Beatles' partnership, following their break-up the year before. Ram was the second of two albums that he released between quitting the Beatles and forming his own band Wings. He and his wife Linda recorded the album with guitarists David Spinozza and Hugh McCracken and future Wings drummer Denny Seiwell.

Upon its release, the album was received negatively by music critics, although critical opinion has become more favourable in subsequent decades. Three singles were released from Ram: the US number 1 hit "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey", the minor British hit "The Back Seat of My Car", and "Eat at Home", which appeared in Europe, Japan and Australia. The album was reissued in May 2012.

Recording and structure[edit]

Paul McCartney and his family flew to New York City in October 1970 to begin working on the follow-up to McCartney.[1] While McCartney had featured him on every instrument, for Ram Paul decided to hold auditions for musicians,[2] bringing some in under the guise of a session to record a commercial jingle.[3][4] Auditions were held in an attic on 45th Street for three days,[5] where David Spinozza was tapped for guitar duties,[2] after being asked by Linda, before auditions moved to a basement,[5] where Denny Seiwell was recruited on drums.[nb 1][2] McCartney later claimed to have found Seiwell "lying on a mattress one day in The Bronx".[6] Midway through the sessions, Spinozza was replaced by Hugh McCracken when Spinozza became unavailable.[2]

The basic tracks for the album were taped at Columbia's Studio B during November and December 1970[4] before the McCartneys returned to their Scottish farm for the Christmas holidays.[7] Work continued at Studio B and A&R Recording Studios, New York,[8] from the second week of January 1971 through to February.[4] Playing guitar or piano and singing at the same time, Paul chose to overdub his bass later on.[2] Although it was a collaborative project, Linda's vocal duties were mostly limited to singing harmonies[2] and backing Paul, who sang almost all of the lead parts; however, Linda sang co-lead vocals upon "Long Haired Lady".[nb 2] The New York Philharmonic was brought in by McCartney to play on "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey", "Long Haired Lady", "The Back Seat of My Car"[2][5] and "Another Day".[10] Paul and Linda's daughter, Heather, sang backing vocals on "Monkberry Moon Delight".[5]

In July 1971, Northern Songs and Maclen Music sued Paul and Linda McCartney for violating an exclusive rights agreement by collaborating on the song "Another Day."[11] In June 1972, ATV announced that "all differences between them have been amicably settled" and Paul and Linda signed a new seven-year co-publishing contract between ATV and McCartney Music.[12] The sessions also produced future songs such as "Dear Friend",[13] released on Wings' debut album, Wild Life,[14] "Little Woman Love", as well as future tracks featured on Wings' 1973 album, Red Rose Speedway; "Get on the Right Thing", "Little Lamb Dragonfly"[nb 3][15] and "Big Barn Bed".[16] Also recorded was the first incarnation of "Seaside Woman".[5] The album was mixed at Sound Recorders in Los Angeles.[2] By early 1971, the project was completed along with the non-album "Another Day"[nb 4] / "Oh Woman, Oh Why" single.[16] Apart from the songs released on Ram and the first two Wings albums, McCartney also recorded the following tracks during these sessions: "Hey Diddle", "A Love for You", "Great Cock and Seagull Race", "Now Hear This Song of Mine", "Rode All Night", "Sunshine Sometime" and "When the Wind Is Blowing".[16]

Songs[edit]

The song "Ram On", from the album's first side, was reprised on the second side,[nb 5] before the album's final track "The Back Seat of My Car".[nb 6][17] "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" is in a similar vein to the Abbey Road medley, as the song consisted of several unfinished songs combined into one.[19][20] Music videos were made for "3 Legs" and "Heart of the Country", from footage that was filmed on 2 January 1971, and edited together 5 months later, by Ray Benson.[nb 7][5]

Feud[edit]

Back cover

According to Peter Brown, John Lennon believed that a number of songs on Ram contained jibes aimed at him, particularly "Too Many People" and "Dear Boy".[21][22] Lennon thought the line "Too many people preaching practices" was directly referencing him and Yoko Ono.[23] McCartney later claimed that only two lines in "Too Many People" were directed at Lennon. "In one song, I wrote, 'Too many people preaching practices,' I think is the line. I mean, that was a little dig at John and Yoko. There wasn't anything else on [Ram] that was about them. Oh, there was 'You took your lucky break and broke it in two.'"[nb 8][24] Brown also described the picture of two beetles copulating on the back cover as symbolic of how Paul McCartney felt the other Beatles were treating him.[21][22] George Harrison and Ringo Starr were said to consider the track "3 Legs" as an attack on them and Lennon.[25] Paul said that "Dear Boy" was directed at Linda's ex-husband, and not Lennon.[17] As well as conducting a war of words via Britain's music press,[25] Lennon's response was the scathing "How Do You Sleep?",[21][22][26] and it has been considered too that "Crippled Inside", also from his Imagine album, was directed at McCartney.[14][25] Early editions of Imagine included a postcard of Lennon pulling the ears of a pig in a parody of Ram's cover photograph of McCartney holding a ram by the horns.[14][22][27]

Release[edit]

"Another Day" / "Oh Woman, Oh Why" was released that February and became a worldwide Top 5 hit.[28] In May, Ram was unveiled,[2] on 17th in the US and on the 21st in the UK.[5] "The Back Seat of My Car" was excerpted as a UK single[nb 9] that August, only reaching number 39,[30] but the US release[nb 10] of the ambitious "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" proved much more successful, giving McCartney his first number 1 single since leaving The Beatles.[19][28][32] The album reached number 1 in Britain and number 2 in the US,[33][34] where it spent over five months in the Top 10 and went platinum. Despite the phasing-out of monaural albums by the late 1960s, Ram was pressed in mono (MAS 3375) with unique mixes that differ from the common stereo version (SMAS 3375). These were only made available to radio stations and are among the most valuable and sought-after of Paul McCartney's solo records.[4][35] The album has sold over 2 million copies.[8]

Reception[edit]

Upon its release, Ram was poorly received by music critics. McCartney was particularly hurt by the harsh reviews − especially as he had attempted to address the points raised in criticism of his earlier album, McCartney, by adopting a more professional approach this time around.[36] In his review for Rolling Stone, Jon Landau called Ram "incredibly inconsequential" and "monumentally irrelevant", and criticised its lack of intensity and energy. He added that it exposes McCartney as having "benefited immensely from collaboration" with the Beatles, particularly John Lennon, who "held the reins in on McCartney's cutsie-pie, florid attempts at pure rock muzak" and kept him from "going off the deep end that leads to an album as emotionally vacuous as Ram".[37] Playboy accused McCartney of "substituting facility for any real substance", and compared it to "watching someone juggle five guitars: It's fairly impressive, but you keep wondering why he bothers."[38] Robert Christgau, writing in The Village Voice, called it "a bad record, a classic form/content mismatch", and felt that McCartney succumbed to "conspicuous consumption" by overworking himself and obscenely producing a style of music meant to be soft and whimsical.[39] Writing some four years later, Roy Carr and Tony Tyler from NME suggested that "it would be naive to have expected the McCartneys to produce anything other than a mediocre record ... Grisly though this was, McCartney was to sink lower before rescuing his credibility late in 1973."[40]

His fellow ex-Beatles, all of whom were riding high in the critics' favour with their recent releases,[41] were likewise vocal in their negativity. Lennon famously hated the album, dismissing his former songwriting partner's efforts as "muzak to my ears" in his song "How Do You Sleep?". Even the affable Starr told Britain's Melody Maker: "I feel sad about Paul's albums ... I don't think there's one [good] tune on the last one, Ram ... he seems to be going strange."[42]

Retrospect[edit]

Professional ratings
Retrospective reviews
Aggregate scores
SourceRating
Metacritic86/100[43]
Review scores
SourceRating
Allmusic5/5 stars[44]
American Songwriter3/5 stars[45]
The A.V. ClubA[46]
Robert ChristgauC+[47]
Mojo4/5 stars[48]
The New Zealand Herald4/5[49]
Pitchfork Media9.2/10[50]
Q2/5 stars[51]
Rolling Stone4.5/5 stars[52]
Uncut4/5 stars[53]

Decades after the initial release of Ram, critics have reviewed the album more favourably. Some prominent critics have even called it one of McCartney's finest solo works. Mojo said that "today it sounds quintessentially McCartney."[48] Allmusic editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine wrote: "in retrospect it looks like nothing so much as the first indie pop album, a record that celebrates small pleasures with big melodies".[54] In a review of its 2012 reissue, Pitchfork Media's Jayson Greene called Ram "a domestic-bliss album, one of the weirdest, earthiest, and most honest ever made."[50] Simon Vozick-Levinson of Rolling Stone dubbed it a "daffy masterpiece" and "a grand psychedelic ramble full of divine melodies and orchestral frippery."[52] David Quantick of Uncut felt that, although it is not as "legendary" as publicized, the album is "occasionally brilliant and historically fascinating" as "post-Beatles mish-mash".[53] Steven Hyden, writing for The A.V. Club, said that the "lightweight" style that was originally panned by critics is "actually (when heard with sympathetic ears) a big part of what makes it so appealing."[46] However, Q magazine still found Ram to be "frustratingly uneven."[51] In a retrospective review, Robert Christgau panned McCartney's songs as pretentious "crotchets ... so lightweight they float away even as Paulie layers them down with caprices."[47]

Re-release and tributes[edit]

In 1977, McCartney supervised the release of an instrumental interpretation of Ram (recorded in June 1971 and arranged by Richard Hewson) with the release of Thrillington under the pseudonym of Percy "Thrills" Thrillington.[55] Thrillington was later released as part of the 2012 remaster of Ram.[56] The album, along with McCartney's Wings over America and Tug of War albums, was issued in the US on compact disc on 18 January 1988.[nb 11][5] In 1993, the album was remastered and reissued on CD as part of The Paul McCartney Collection series with "Another Day" and "Oh Woman, Oh Why" as bonus tracks.[nb 12][10] That same year Digital Compact Classics released an audiophile edition prepared by Steve Hoffman.[nb 13][59] On 21 May 2012 (in the UK) and 22 May (in the US), the album was reissued by McCartney's current label, Hear Music.[56][60] The mono mix had never been issued previously on compact disc, except by bootleggers.[4] The mono version was released commercially in 2012, albeit as a limited edition LP.[nb 14][56]

In 2009, two tribute albums featuring all of the songs from the album were made available for digital download:

In 2012, Danish rock singer/songwriter Tim Christensen, American singer/songwriters Mike Viola and Tracy Bonham, and Christensen's solo band The Damn Crystals did a one-off tribute show, performing Ram in full length along with other post-Beatles songs,[64] at Vega in Copenhagen, in celebration of McCartney's 70th birthday.[65] Vega's large concert hall, with a capacity of 1500, was sold out.[66] The concert was met with very positive reviews. In 2013 the concert was released as the DVD/CD and DVD/2-LP album Pure McCartney. In 2013, the collective held further performances playing McCartney songs.

Track listing[edit]

All songs written and composed by Paul & Linda McCartney, except where noted. 

Side one
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
1."Too Many People"  Paul McCartney4:10
2."3 Legs"  Paul McCartney2:44
3."Ram On"  Paul McCartney2:26
4."Dear Boy"   2:12
5."Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"   4:49
6."Smile Away"  Paul McCartney3:51
Side two
No.TitleWriter(s)Length
7."Heart of the Country"   2:21
8."Monkberry Moon Delight"   5:21
9."Eat at Home"   3:18
10."Long Haired Lady"   5:54
11."Ram On"  Paul McCartney0:52
12."The Back Seat of My Car"  Paul McCartney4:26
Bonus tracks

2012 remaster[edit]

Ram was reissued in several packages:[56]

Disc 1 – The original album

The original 12-track album.

Disc 2 – Bonus tracks
  1. "Another Day" (P./L. McCartney) – 3:42
    single released in 1971
  2. "Oh Woman, Oh Why" (P. McCartney) – 4:35
    B-side of the "Another Day" single
  3. "Little Woman Love" (P./L. McCartney) – 2:08
    B-side of Wings' "Mary Had a Little Lamb" single
  4. "A Love for You" (Jon Kelly Mix) (P. McCartney) – 4:08
  5. "Hey Diddle" (Dixon Van Winkle Mix) (P./L. McCartney) – 3:49
  6. "Great Cock and Seagull Race" (Dixon Van Winkle Mix) (P. McCartney) – 2:35
  7. "Rode All Night" (P. McCartney) – 8:44
  8. "Sunshine Sometime" (Earliest Mix) (P. McCartney) – 3:20
    Tracks 4–8 are previously unreleased
Disc 3 – Ram mono

The mono version of the original 12-song album.

  1. "Too Many People"
  2. "3 Legs"
  3. "Ram On"
  4. "Dear Boy"
  5. "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey"
  6. "Smile Away"
  7. "Heart of the Country"
  8. "Monkberry Moon Delight"
  9. "Eat at Home"
  10. "Long Haired Lady"
  11. "Ram On"
  12. "The Back Seat of My Car"
Disc 4 – Thrillington

The Thrillington album.

  1. "Too Many People" – 4:31
  2. "3 Legs" – 3:41
  3. "Ram On" – 2:49
  4. "Dear Boy" – 2:50
  5. "Uncle Albert/Admiral Halsey" – 4:56
  6. "Smile Away" – 4:39
  7. "Heart of the Country" – 2:27
  8. "Monkberry Moon Delight" – 4:36
  9. "Eat at Home" – 3:28
  10. "Long Haired Lady" – 5:44
  11. "The Back Seat of My Car" – 4:51
Disc 5 – DVD
  1. Ramming – 11:15
    Making of the album
  2. "Heart of the Country" – 2:41
    Promo video
  3. "3 Legs" – 3:03
    Promo video
  4. "Hey Diddle" – 2:48
    Previously unreleased
  5. "Eat at Home" on Tour – 4:31
Digital-only bonus tracks

Available only on Paulmccartney.com and iTunes.[75]

  1. "Eat at Home" / "Smile Away (Live in Groningen, 1972)" – 8:24
  2. "Uncle Albert Jam" – 2:17

Personnel[edit]

Charts[edit]

Original album[edit]

Chart (1971)Position
Australian Kent Music Report Chart[76]3
Canadian RPM Albums Chart[77]1
Dutch Mega Albums Chart[78]1
French SNEP Albums Chart[79]8
Italian Albums Chart[80]2
Japanese Oricon LP Chart[81]8
Norwegian VG-lista Albums Chart[82]1
Swedish Albums Chart[83]1
UK Albums Chart[33]1
US Billboard 200[34]2
US Cashbox albums chart[84]2
US Record World albums chart[84]2
West German Media Control Albums Chart[85]22

Reissue[edit]

Chart (2012)Position
Austrian Albums Chart[86]52
Belgian Albums Chart (Flanders)[87]75
Belgian Albums Chart (Wallonia)[88]61
Dutch Mega Albums Chart[78]31
French SNEP Albums Chart[89]43
Japanese Oricon Weekly Chart[90]14
Norwegian VG-lista Albums Chart[82]19
Spanish Albums Chart[91]39
Swedish Albums Chart[92]35
UK Albums Chart[33]41
US Billboard 200[93]24

Year-end charts[edit]

Chart (1971)Position
Australian Albums Chart[76]6
French Albums Chart[94]10
Italian Albums Chart[80]17
UK Albums Chart[95]6
US Billboard Year-End[96]38

Certifications[edit]

RegionCertificationSales/shipments
Canada (Music Canada)[97]Platinum100,000^
United States (RIAA)[98]Platinum1,000,000^

*sales figures based on certification alone
^shipments figures based on certification alone
xunspecified figures based on certification alone

References[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Seiwell would later become the drummer of the McCartneys' new band, Wings.[2]
  2. ^ The song is made up of two songs: "Long Haired Lady", and "Love Is Long", making it the longest track on the album.[9]
  3. ^ Spinozza played lead guitar on "Get on the Right Thing", while McCracken played it on "Little Lamb Dragonfly".[15]
  4. ^ "Another Day" was also premiered during the Get Back/Let It Be sessions.[10]
  5. ^ Near the end of the reprise version of "Ram On" Paul sings lyrics from Wings' "Big Barn Bed".[17]
  6. ^ "The Back Seat of My Car" was premiered during the Beatles' Get Back/Let It Be sessions in January 1969.[18]
  7. ^ Both videos had an airing on the 24 June 1971 edition of the BBC TV show Top of the Pops, while the "3 Legs" video had an extra airing, albeit a 20-second clip on VH-1's One to One on 3 May 1993.[5]
  8. ^ In the original version of the line "You took your lucky break and broke it in two", "You" was "Yoko".[22]
  9. ^ UK Apple R 5914[29]
  10. ^ US Apple 1837[31]
  11. ^ US Capitol CDP 7 46612 2[57]
  12. ^ Europe Parlophone CDPMCOL 2/0777 7 89139 2 4[58]
  13. ^ US DCC Compact Classics GZS-1037[59]
  14. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33452-01[61]
  15. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33448-02/0888072334489[67]
  16. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33449-02/0888072334496[68]
  17. ^ US Hear Music HRM-33449-02[69]
  18. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33450-00[70]
  19. ^ US Hear Music HRM-33450-00[71]
  20. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33451-01[72]
  21. ^ Europe Hear Music HRM-33452-01[73]
Citations
  1. ^ Sounes, p. 273.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Perone, p. 147.
  3. ^ "Album – Paul McCartney". paulmccartney.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Madinger & Easter, p. 157.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Miles, Barry; Badman, Keith, ed. (2001). The Beatles Diary After the Break-Up: 1970–2001 (reprint ed.). London: Music Sales Group. ISBN 9780711983076. 
  6. ^ Badman, p. 22.
  7. ^ Sounes, p. 275.
  8. ^ a b Spizer, p. 128.
  9. ^ Perone, p. 152.
  10. ^ a b c Perone, p. 154.
  11. ^ "McCartney and Wife Sued on 'Another Day' Recording", New York Times, 23 July 1971, p. 15.
  12. ^ Perry, Rupert. Northern Songs: The True Story of the Beatles Song Publishing Empire (2006)
  13. ^ Benitez, p. 41.
  14. ^ a b c Sounes, p. 290.
  15. ^ a b Benitez, p. 45.
  16. ^ a b c Calkin, Graham (2001). "Ram". jpgr.com. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  17. ^ a b c Perone, p. 149.
  18. ^ Perone, p. 153.
  19. ^ a b Perone, p. 150.
  20. ^ Raymer & Colebrook, pp 48–49.
  21. ^ a b c Brown, p. 351.
  22. ^ a b c d e Perone, p. 148.
  23. ^ Perone, p. 142.
  24. ^ Goodman, Joan (December 1984). "Playboy Interview: Paul and Linda McCartney". Playboy (Playboy Press).  Posted at "Playboy Interview With Paul and Linda McCartney". beatlesinterviews.org. Retrieved 23 August 2008. 
  25. ^ a b c Badman, p. 22.
  26. ^ Perone, p. 143.
  27. ^ Norman, p. 672.
  28. ^ a b "Paul McCartney singles". allmusic. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  29. ^ "Paul & Linda McCartney – The Back Seat Of My Car / Heart Of The Country (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  30. ^ Ingham, p. 139.
  31. ^ "Paul & Linda McCartney – Uncle Albert / Admiral Halsey (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. Retrieved 19 February 2013. 
  32. ^ Billboard. 28 February 1970. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  33. ^ a b c "Chart Stats – Paul And Linda McCartney – Ram". UK Albums Chart. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2012. 
  34. ^ a b "allmusic ((( Ram > Charts & Awards > Billboard Albums )))". allmusic.com. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
  35. ^ Spizer, p. 132.
  36. ^ Schaffner, p. 144.
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  38. ^ "Review: Ram". Playboy. September 1971. 
  39. ^ Christgau, Robert (September 1971). "Living Without the Beatles". The Village Voice (New York). Retrieved 10 July 2013. 
  40. ^ Carr & Tyler, p. 95.
  41. ^ Woffinden, p. 52.
  42. ^ Badman, p. 39.
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  47. ^ a b Christgau, Robert (1990). Rock Albums of the '70s: A Critical Guide. Da Capo Press. p. 248. ISBN 0306804093. 
  48. ^ a b "Review: Ram [Deluxe Edition]". Mojo (London): 100. June 2012. 
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  50. ^ a b Greene, Jayson (24 May 2012). "Paul McCartney / Linda McCartney: Ram | Album Reviews". Pitchfork. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
  51. ^ a b "Review: Ram [Deluxe Edition]". Q (London): 118. June 2012. 
  52. ^ a b Vozick-Levinson, Simon (22 May 2012). "Ram: Deluxe Edition". Rolling Stone (New York). Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  53. ^ a b Quantick, David (June 2012). "Paul McCartney – Ram [reissue]". Uncut (London): 96. Retrieved 25 March 2013. 
  54. ^ "All Music Guide". Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  55. ^ Sounes, p. 284.
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  62. ^ "RAM On L.A. :: A Los Angeles Music Sampler". Aquarium Drunkard. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
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  64. ^ Christensen, Tim (22 January 2013). "DVD-release: The Pure McCartney-tribute show". The Official Tim Christensen Blog.
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  74. ^ "Paul McCartney – Another Day / Oh Woman, Oh Why (Vinyl)". Discogs.com. 22 April 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  75. ^ "Sir Paul McCartney 'RAM' tracklisting, reissue details revealed". paulmccartney.com. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  76. ^ a b Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992. St Ives, NSW: Australian Chart Book. ISBN 0-646-11917-6. 
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  78. ^ a b "dutchcharts.nl Paul & Linda McCartney – Ram". Hung Medien, dutchcharts.nl (in Dutch). MegaCharts. Retrieved 13 June 2012. 
  79. ^ "InfoDisc : Tous les Albums classés par Artiste > Choisir Un Artiste Dans la Liste" (in French). infodisc.fr. Retrieved 12 September 2011. 
  80. ^ a b "Hit Parade Italia – Gli album più venduti del 1971" (in Italian). hitparadeitalia.it. Retrieved 3 October 2011. 
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Sources[edit]

  • Badman, Keith (2001). The Beatles Diary Volume 2: After the Break-Up 1970–2001. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0-711-983076. 
  • Benitez, Vincent P. (2010). The Words and Music of Paul McCartney: The Solo Years. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger. ISBN 9780313349690. 
  • Brown, Peter; Gaines, Steven (2002). The Love You Make: An Insider's Story of The Beatles. New York: New American Library. ISBN 0-451-20735-1. 
  • Carr, Roy; Tyler, Tony (1978). The Beatles: An Illustrated Record. London: Trewin Copplestone Publishing. ISBN 0-450-04170-0. 
  • Castleman, Harry; Podrazik, Walter J. (1976). All Together Now: The First Complete Beatles Discography 1961–1975. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25680-8. 
  • Doggett, Peter (2011). You Never Give Me Your Money: The Beatles After the Breakup. New York, NY: It Books. ISBN 978-0-06-177418-8. 
  • Ingham, Chris (2003). The Rough Guide to The Beatles. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 9781843531401. 
  • Madinger, Chip; Easter, Mark (2000). Eight Arms to Hold You: The Solo Beatles Compendium. Chesterfield, MO: 44.1 Productions. ISBN 0-615-11724-4. 
  • Norman, Philip (2008). John Lennon: The Life. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-075401-3. 
  • Perone, James E. (2012). The Album: A Guide to Pop Music's Most Provocative, Influential, and Important Creations. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313379079. 
  • Raymer, Miles; Colebrook, Claire (2010). How to Analyze the Music of Paul McCartney. ABDO. ISBN 1617587842. 
  • Rodriguez, Robert (2010). Fab Four FAQ 2.0: The Beatles' Solo Years, 1970–1980. Milwaukee, WI: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-9093-4. 
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  • Sounes, Howard (2010). Fab: An Intimate Life of Paul McCartney. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-00-723705-0. 
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  • Woffinden, Bob (1981). The Beatles Apart. London: Proteus. ISBN 0-906071-89-5. 
Further reading

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
Norwegian VG-lista number-one album
25-27/1971
29-35/1971
Succeeded by
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
Pearl by Janis Joplin
Preceded by
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
UK number-one album
5 – 18 June 1971
Succeeded by
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
Preceded by
Greatest Hits Volume II by The Byrds
Dutch Mega Chart number-one album
19 – 26 June 1971
Succeeded by
Sticky Fingers by The Rolling Stones
Preceded by
Tapestry by Carole King
Canadian RPM Chart number-one album
11–18 September 1971
Succeeded by
Every Picture Tells a Story by Rod Stewart