Rafting

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For other uses, see Rafting (disambiguation).
Whitewater Rafting along the Cagayan de Oro River, Philippines.
Rafting on the Arkansas River, Colorado, USA
Rafting in Ladakh, India

Rafting or white water rafting is the recreational outdoor activity of using an inflatable raft to navigate a river or other bodies of water. This is often done on white water or different degrees of rough water, in order to thrill and excite the raft passengers. The development of this activity as a leisure sport has become popular since the mid-1970s, evolving from individuals paddling 10 feet (3.0 m) rafts with double-bladed paddles to multi-person rafts propelled by single-bladed paddles and steered by a tour guide at the stern. It is considered an extreme sport, and can be fatal.

Grades of white water[edit]

Rafting on the Pacuare River, Costa Rica.

Otherwise known as the International Scale of River Difficulty, below are the six grades of difficulty in white water rafting. They range from simple to very dangerous and potential death or serious injuries.

Grade 1: Very small rough areas, might require slight maneuvering. (Skill level: very basic)
Grade 2: Some rough water, maybe some rocks, might require some maneuvering. (Skill level: basic paddling skill)
Grade 3: Whitewater, small waves, maybe a small drop, but no considerable danger. May require significant maneuvering.
Grade 4: Whitewater, medium waves, maybe rocks, maybe a considerable drop, sharp maneuvers may be needed.
Grade 5: Whitewater, large waves, large volume, possibility of large rocks and hazards, possibility of a large drop, requires precise maneuvering.
Grade 6: Class 6 rapids are considered to be so dangerous that they are effectively unnavigable on a reliably safe basis. Rafters can expect to encounter substantial whitewater, huge waves, huge rocks and hazards, and/or substantial drops that will impart severe impacts beyond the structural capacities and impact ratings of almost all rafting equipment. Traversing a Class 6 rapid has a dramatically increased likelihood of ending in serious injury or death compared to lesser classes.

Techniques[edit]

Rafts in white water are very different vehicles than canoes or kayaks and have their own specific techniques to maneuver through whitewater obstacles. The following lists give examples of these techniques.

Capsizing[edit]

Re-righting[edit]

Tricks[edit]

Safety[edit]

White water rafting can be a dangerous sport, especially if basic safety precautions are not observed. That said, fatalities are rare in both commercial and private rafting.[1] Meta-analyses have calculated fatalities fell between .55[2] -.86%[3] per 100,000 user days. Studies have shown that injury rates in rafting are relatively low,[4] however may be skewed due to a large number of unreported incidents.[5] Typical rafting injuries include trauma from striking an object, traumatic stress from the interaction of the paddler's positioning and equipment and the force of the water, overuse injuries, and submersion /environmental injuries.[1]

Depending on the area, safety regulations covering raft operators may exist in legislation. These range from certification of outfitters, rafts, and raft leaders, to more stringent regulations about equipment and procedures. It is generally advisable to discuss safety measures with a rafting operator before signing on for a trip. The equipment used and the qualifications of the company and raft guides are essential information to be considered.

Like most outdoor sports, rafting in general has become safer over the years. Expertise in the sport has increased, and equipment has become more specialized and improved in quality. As a result the difficulty rating of most river runs has changed. A classic example would be the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, which has swallowed whole expeditions in the past, leaving only fragments of boats. In contrast, it is now run safely by commercial outfitters hundreds of times each year with relatively untrained passengers.[6]

Risks in white water rafting stem from both environmental dangers and from improper behavior. Certain features on rivers are inherently unsafe and have remained consistently so despite the passage of time. These would include "keeper hydraulics", "strainers" (e.g. fallen trees), dams (especially low-head dams, which tend to produce river-wide keeper hydraulics), undercut rocks, and of course dangerously high waterfalls. Rafting with experienced guides is the safest way to avoid such features. Even in safe areas, however, moving water can always present risks—such as when a swimmer attempts to stand up on a rocky riverbed in strong current, risking foot entrapment. Irresponsible behavior related to rafting while intoxicated has also contributed to many accidents.

One of the most simple ways to avoid injury while out of a raft, is to swim to an eddy to avoid being taken downstream.

To combat the illusion that rafting is akin to an amusement park ride, and to underscore the personal responsibility each rafter faces on a trip, rafting outfitters generally require customers to sign waiver forms indicating understanding and acceptance of potential serious risks. Rafting trips often begin with safety presentations to educate customers about problems that may arise.

White water rafting is often played for the adrenaline rush and this can become a problem for participants' safety. White water rafting accidents have occurred but are not common.

Due to this the overall risk level on a rafting trip with experienced guides using proper precautions is low.[citation needed] Thousands of people safely enjoy raft trips every year.

Environmental issues[edit]

Rafting in Montenegro

Like all outdoor activities, rafting must balance its use of nature with the conservation of rivers as a natural resource and habitat. Because of these issues, some rivers now have regulations restricting the annual and daily operating times or numbers of rafters.

Conflicts have arisen when rafting operators, often in co-operation with municipalities and tourism associations, alter the riverbed by dredging and/or blasting in order to eliminate safety hazards or create more interesting whitewater features in the river. Environmentalists argue that this may have negative impacts to riparian and aquatic ecosystems, while proponents claim these measures are usually only temporary, since a riverbed is naturally subject to permanent changes during large floods and other events.

Rafting contributes to the economy of many regions which in turn may contribute to the protection of rivers from hydroelectric power generation, diversion for irrigation, and other development. Additionally, white water rafting trips can promote environmentalism. By experiencing firsthand the beauty of a river, individuals who would otherwise be indifferent to environmental issues may gain a strong desire to protect and preserve that area because of their positive outdoor experience.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fiore, David C. (2003). "Injuries associated with whitewater rafting and kayaking". Wilderness & environmental medicine 14 (4): 255–260. doi:10.1580/1080-6032(2003)14[255:IAWWRA]2.0.CO;2. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  2. ^ Mason, Maggie (1998-08-23). "Whitewater rafting Booms in West Virginia". Associated Press (Thurmond, WV). 
  3. ^ Wittmann, Laura (2006-02-05). "Whitewater Is Safer Than You Think". American Whitewater. 
  4. ^ Heggie, Travis W.; Dennis John Caine (2012). Epidemiology of Injury in Adventure and Extreme Sports. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. ISBN 9783318021646. 
  5. ^ Whisman, S A; S J Hollenhorst (1999-01). "Injuries in commercial whitewater rafting". Clinical journal of sport medicine: official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine 9 (1): 18–23. ISSN 1050-642X. PMID 10336047. 
  6. ^ California State Parks

External links[edit]